International Zoo News Vol. 51/2 (No. 331) March 2004
Reptiles in Japanese Collections. Part 2: Ken Kawata
Squamates and Crocodilians, 1999
Breeding Titi Monkeys Jan Vermeer
at La Vallée des Singes
– a Model of Cooperation Between
a Zoological Society and a National Park
Letter to the Editor
International Zoo News
* * *
Tangled webs and what we weave
Nicholas Gould asked me to enter the debate on wide-ranging carnivores and their welfare in zoos. Or, as the reputable scientific journal Nature put it, `animals that roam over large distances in the wild do not take kindly to being confined.' This sub-title, added by the journal and not the authors, pin-points a real problem. This is that in this media-driven age, where stories have the potential to break not only locally but globally, information is `sexed-up' to gain greater coverage. Nature is in competition to get the best science, but it also wants papers that make the newspapers. The more dramatic the conclusions appear, the more likely that the information will hit the global news network. Scientists get much kudos from having work published in Nature, therefore it is possible that they may focus on findings that make their work more newsworthy – conclusions like `zoos could stop housing wide-ranging carnivores and concentrate instead on species that respond better to being kept in captivity' may just give that paper the edge in today's competitive world of science.
For some reason the media still find the zoo debate good value. In the past year I and my colleagues have taken part in many debates – the latest in the February Ecologist between myself and Daniel Turner of the Born Free Foundation (Zoo Check). Although these are good fun and give us all ample opportunity to put forward our cases, they are also doing much damage, and the harm is being done to the one thing that we all claim to be working for – the future of the planet and the species that make it a living planet. The media forces us to a level of defensiveness and dividedness, so instead of putting forward the many areas in which we all agree and in which action is required, we end up appearing more and more polarised. The public become confused, and the real message, that of the urgency for us all to unite to try and save the planet, is lost.
Of course Ros Clubb and Georgia Mason's data are useful to the zoo world (after all, zoos were the major funders of the work, they wanted it carried out), but the results require discussion, much of that on what additional work is required to further investigate this area. We need to be clear about what the paper actually shows. It demonstrates that for the species considered there is a relationship between home-range size in nature and infant mortality rates in captivity. There is also a relationship between home-range size and body weight and frequency of pacing. It is important to note that this does not mean that large-ranging carnivores are more likely to pace in captivity, but that when they do pace they do so more frequently. As in all research, the results are only as good as the data used and leave many questions unanswered. The data on stereotypy came only from animals that paced, therefore we do not have information on the proportion of individuals of each species that show stereotypic pacing. It would have been interesting to look at sex differences, as male carnivores tend to pace more than females, but it is the females who rear young and are therefore usually responsible for poor parental care and resulting infant mortality. Are females that pace more poorer mothers? The research cannot answer this question because of the nature of the data used. Polar bears have emerged as the flagship species from this work – much was made in the press of the paper's emotive statement `a polar bear's typical enclosure size, for example, is about one-millionth of its minimum home-range size'. The EAZA Bear TAG has been collecting and collating information on captive polar bears for some years, and much research has been done which has resulted in designs for enclosures which better reflect the needs of the animals (which is not a sterile ice flow – the chosen back-drop for so many old enclosures). The TAG's work shows that group size may have greatest effect on breeding success, i.e. bears housed in pairs were most likely to rear young; yet another aspect which requires further investigation. In the Nature paper infant mortality was taken from the International Zoo Yearbook data, which does not differentiated between animals in managed programmes and others. We know that species in managed programmes, where breeding is planned, do better and have higher survival rates than species not in managed programmes; it would be interesting to examine studbook data from large carnivores and relate this back to enclosure design and other variables. We also know, from studies on the same animals in different conditions, that changes in feeding regimes and increasing the complexity and size of enclosures do reduce stereotypic behaviour (and it is important to remember that complexity may be more important than size). Research like this helps zoo biologists design good carnivore environments.
Basically the Nature paper raises interesting hypotheses which require further testing, using direct observations on known animals and analyses of the many large carnivore studbooks that are available. The data presented in the paper cannot, and do not, justify the suggestion that zoos should stop housing wide-ranging large carnivores.
We are having this debate at a time
when African lion numbers have fallen by 90% in the past 20 years, and there
are fewer than 8,000 tigers left in the wild. There are about 15,000 cheetah
left (most of these in
So let's untangle the web, and stop weaving confusion. In their editorial Ros and Georgia agree that the best zoos care about welfare, that there are some good and successful enclosures and that, in fact, measures like infant mortality are improving. We don't want researchers to go away – we want more of them carrying out zoo work. At the Catalysts for Conservation meeting in ZSL in February some things came across very clearly. Zoos have tremendous potential as conservation organisations, but they need to collect, present, analyse and publish more data on their work, and they need to work more closely with universities and other partners in order to do this to maximum effectiveness. So my call to arms is for more cooperation and more sensible research on the welfare of zoo animals, and less sensationalisation of results that only serve to feed a press greedy for conflict.
Miranda F. Stevenson
Federation of Zoological Gardens of
* * *
REPTILES IN JAPANESE COLLECTIONS. PART 2: SQUAMATES AND CROCODILIANS, 1999
BY KEN KAWATA
This article is dedicated to the
memory of Dr. Roger Conant,
There are 98 member zoos and 65
member aquariums listed in the 1999 Annual Report of the Japanese
Association of Zoological Gardens and Aquariums (JAZGA). Obviously, some
Table 1. Sauria, Serpentes and Crocodilia in Japanese collections.
Families Species Specimens
Sauria 11 72 836
Serpentes 6 65 880
Crocodilia 2 19 545
Total 19 156 2261
Table 1 represents the number of
squamates and crocodilians held by JAZGA member institutions, while Table 2
depicts the entire inventory. Taxonomic arrangement and scientific names have
been adopted from the inventory. In general, common English names for Japanese
taxa have been taken from Goris (2003), native North American taxa from Collins
et al. (2002), and other commonly used names from
Thirteen institutions had more than
30 species of reptiles. The largest holders of species, with 97 each, are Izu
Andyland (702 specimens) in
Table 2. Squamates and crocodilians in Japanese collections.
Species No. of No. of
Blue ameiva (Ameiva ameiva) 3 1
Green anole (Anolis carolinensis) 13 3
Knight anole (A. equestris) 17 4
Cuban green anole (A. porcatus) 2 1
Brown anole (A. sagrei) 5 1
Brown basilisk (Basiliscus basiliscus) 2 1
Green crested basilisk (B. plumifrons) 9 3
Brown basilisk (B. vittatus) 2 1
Casque-headed iguana (Corytophanes cristatus) 2 1
Eastern collared lizard (Crotaphytus collaris) 1 1
Black iguana (Ctenosaura similis) 3 1
Rhinoceros iguana (Cyclura cornuta) 3 1
Green iguana (Iguana iguana) 157 44
Northern curly-tailed lizard (Leiocephalus carinatus) 6 1
Cuban curly-tailed lizard (L. cubensis) 6 1
Baja blue rock lizard (Petrosaurus thalassinus) 2 1
Blue spiny lizard (Sceloporus cyanogenys) 38 2
Common agama (Agama agama) 2 1
Frilled lizard (Chlamydosaurus kingii) 6 2
Malayan sail-finned lizard (Hydrosaurus amboinensis) 2 1
Weber’s sail-finned lizard (H. weberi) 1 1
Philippine sail-finned lizard (H. pustulatus) 1 1
Okinawan tree lizard (Japalura polygonata) 125 5
Asian water dragon (Physignathus cocincinus) 31 5
Inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) 7 2
Spiny-tailed agama (Uromastyx acanthinurus) 2 1
Egyptian spiny-tailed lizard (U. aegyptius) 2 1
Panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) 4 1
Veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) 3 2
Leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) 104 12
Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) 37 7
Japanese gecko (G. japonicus) 6 2
Emerald gecko (G. smaragdinus) 2 1
White-striped gecko (G. vittatus) 4 1
Lichtenfelder’s gecko (Goniurosaurus lichtenfelderi) 1 1
House gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus) 2 1
African fat-tailed gecko (Hemitheconyx caudicinctus) 7 3
Flat-tailed day gecko (P. laticauda) 1 1
Moorish gecko (Tarentola mauritanica) 1 1
Black tegu (Tupinambis teguixin) 5 3
Sakishima grass lizard (Apeltonotus dorsalis) 1 1
Japanese grass lizard (Takydromus tachydromoides) 21 3
Ryukyu short-legged skink (Ateuchosaurus pellopleurus) 3 1
Prehensile-tailed skink (Corucia zebrata) 22 7
Okada’s five-lined skink (Eumeces latiscutatus) 8 2
Ryukyu five-lined skink (E. marginatus) 6 1
Miyake-jima skink (E. okadae) 5 1
Yaeyama seven-lined skink (E. stimpsonii) 2 1
Sand skink (Scincus scincus) 2 1
Indonesian blue-tongued skink (Tiliqua gigas) 5 3
Shingleback skink (T. rugosus) 9 2
Blue-tongued skink (T. scincoides) 14 5
Sungazer (Cordylus giganteus) 2 1
Shingleback skink (C. warreni) 23 1
Tawny plated lizard (Gerrhosaurus major) 5 1
Giant plated lizard (G. validus) 1 1
Scheltopusik (Ophisaurus apodus) 5 3
Eastern glass lizard (O. ventralis) 1 1
Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum) 2 1
Gila monster (H. suspectum) 6 3
Dumeril’s monitor (V. dumerili) 1 1
Savanna monitor (V. exanthematicus) 7 5
Mangrove monitor (V. indicus) 4 3
Komodo dragon (V. komodoensis) 1 1
Rough-necked monitor (V. rudicollis) 2 1
Malayan water monitor (V. salvator) 19 9
Desert monitor (V. griseus) 1 1
Brahminy blind snake (Ramphotyphlops braminus) 3 1
Sunbeam snake (Xenopeltis unicolor) 1 1
Papuan olive python (Apodura papuana) 1 1
Boa constrictor (Boa constrictor) 43 15
Pacific tree boa (C. carinata) 12 1
Emerald tree boa (Corallus caninus) 3 3
Rainbow boa (Epicrates cenchria) 84 9
Hispaniolan boa (E. striatus) 2 1
Smooth sand boa (Eryx johnii) 1 1
East African sand boa (E. colubrinus) 86 6
Green anaconda (Eunectus murinus) 5 3
Yellow anaconda (E. notaeus) 12 4
Water python (Liasis fuscus) 2 1
Macklot’s python (L. mackloti) 1 1
Olive python (L. olivaceus) 1 1
Scrub python (
Green tree python (M. viridis) 19 8
Carpet python (M. spilota) 8 4
Blood python (Python curtus) 17 8
Indian python (P. molurus) 60 23
Ball python (P. regius) 71 18
Reticulated python (P. reticulatus) 20 14
African rock python (P. sebae) 19 8
Ryukyu keelback (Amphiesma pryeri) 1 1
Mangrove snake (Boiga dendrophila) 2 1
Ryukyu green snake (Cyclophiops semicarinatus) 1 1
Oriental big-tooth snake (Dinodon orientalis) 5 2
Chinese red banded snake (D. rufozonatus) 2 2
Ryukyu banded snake (D. semicarinatus) 13 3
Japanese green ratsnake (Elaphe climacophora) 63 20
Japanese forest ratsnake (E. conspicillata) 9 4
Japanese four-lined ratsnake (E. quadrivirgata) 31 13
King ratsnake (E. carinata) 3 1
Cornsnake (E. guttata) 47 8
Mandarin ratsnake (E. mandarina) 1 1
Black ratsnake (E. obsoleta) 17 5
Eastern kingsnake (Lampropeltis getulus) 35 11
Prairie kingsnake (L. calligaster) 4 1
Milksnake (L. triangulum) 6 4
Pine snake (Pituophis melanoleucus) 1 1
Yamakagashi (Asian tiger snake) (Rhabdophis tigrinus) 4 3
Western ribbon snake (Thamnophis proximus) 14 1
Hyan coral snake (Calliophis japonicus) 1 1
Black-headed sea snake (Hydrophis melanocephalus) 4 1
Erabu sea snake (Laticauda semifasciata) 30 9
Monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia) 3 1
Asian cobra (N. naja) 3 1
Yellow-bellied sea snake (Pelamis platurus) 1 1
Japanese mamushi (Agkistrodon [Gloydius] blomhoffii) 14 6
Cottonmouth (A. piscivorus) 1 1
Copperhead (A. contortrix) 1 1
Eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) 1 1
Uracoan rattlesnake (C. vegrandis) 8 2
Chinese pit viper (Deinagkistrodon acutus) 5 1
Hime habu (Ovophis okinavensis) 15 4
Red-tailed bamboo viper (T. erythrurus) 5 1
Habu (T. flavoviridis) 14 2
Mangrove viper (T. purpureomaculatus) 1 1
Bamboo viper (T. stejnegeri) 3 2
Tokara habu (T. tokarensis) 7 2
Philippine crocodile (C. mindorensis) 1 1
Morelet’s crocodile (C. moreletii) 3 1
Nile crocodile (C. niloticus) 29 3
Marsh crocodile (C. palustris) 8 1
Salt-water crocodile (C. porosus) 15 6
Cuban crocodile (C. rhombifer) 7 2
Siamese crocodile (C. siamensis) 70 3
African slender-snouted crocodile (C. cataphractus) 2 1
Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) 10 3
Dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis) 33 8
False gavial (Tomistoma schlegelii) 20 7
American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) 60 11
Chinese alligator (A. sinensis) 22 5
Spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) 97 28
Broad-nosed caiman (C. latirostris) 134 3
Dwarf caiman (Paleosuchus palpebrosus) 17 2
Smooth-fronted caiman (P. trigonatus) 7 1
Curiously the mainstream Japanese
zoos, which are municipally owned and operated old establishments located near
the center of cities, are not necessarily the champions in terms of the size of
reptile collections (obvious exceptions, as noted above, are Ueno and
Higashiyama). They seem to focus more on the `basic stock' of crowd-pleasing
mammals. By comparison, privately owned smaller institutions, as shown above by
three examples, and medium-sized municipal zoos are often the holders of a
diversity of reptile species. It is also interesting to note that 37 of the 163
member institutions, or more than 20 per cent, reported no reptiles in their
collections. This should not come as a surprise, since reptiles have yet to be
given a full-fledged membership status in many Japanese zoos. Probably this has
little to do with the cultural aspect of Japanese people. They do possess
irrational fear of reptiles, particularly snakes, but their level of fear does
not seem more intense than that of other ethnic groups. More likely, it is
rooted in the history of zoo development in
Because of geographical proximity
large reptiles, such as pythons and crocodiles, were brought into the country
A parallel history is found half-way
across the world in Kyoto Zoo, opened in 1903 as
In October of that year Ueno Zoo opened a large, four-storied aquarium, designed to exhibit a wide range of animal life including marine invertebrates, fish, amphibians and reptiles. In fact, during the planning stage, the new complex was tentatively named `the aquatic and reptile building', patterned after a European model as seen in such institutions as Berlin Zoo (in former West Berlin) and Frankfurt Zoo (Ueno Zoo, 1982). Aquatic amphibians were located on the third floor of this complex, and the entire fourth floor was devoted to the rest of the amphibians and reptiles. (However, this floor was only partially open; due to construction delays, the reptile and amphibian section was not completed until June 1973.)
In many aspects, Ueno sets the
standard for the rest of the zoos in the country. Gradually, other zoos began
to follow suit. In 1971 a reptile house made a debut in Nogeyama Zoo in
In terms of more modern exhibit
concepts, in March 1995
A view of the Vivarium, Ueno Zoo's facility for reptiles and amphibians. (Photo: Akiyoshi Nawa)
The above episodes depict the
evolution of reptile exhibits in more traditional, municipal zoos with
`generalized' animal collections. Outside of the mainstream lie smaller
municipal zoos and privately-owned institutions which feature specialized
collections. In more recent decades, those smaller institutions have developed
reptile exhibits and husbandry programs, rapidly catching up with – and, in
many cases, surpassing – their larger municipal cousins blessed with far more
resources. This is certainly welcome news. The aforementioned Atagawa Tropical
As the result of this development,
and traditional zoos expanding reptile programs, more diverse reptile
collections have been made available for public viewing in
There are approximately 7,150 extant reptile species; most are squamates with 6,850, followed by turtles (260), crocodilians (22) and tuatara (2), according to Pough et al. (1998). The chelonian collection held by JAZGA member institutions is quite representative, including nearly all families and some 45% of the world's species (Kawata, 2003). As shown in Table 1, the Japanese collections cover nearly all crocodilian species. The squamate collection, by comparison, is not as extensive due to the huge number of species in this order. Nevertheless, the collections still include a fair cross-section of the world's lizard and snake species.
Squamata. As might be expected, universally
common zoo (and pet trade) species such as green iguana, leopard gecko and boa
constrictor make a prominent presence in this inventory. Behind such standard
specimens lie regional specialities. Notable on this list are lizards and
snakes from remote and small islands that are little known to the public.
Examples include skinks in Eumeces, Ryukyu keelback, Ryukyu green snake
and some vipers in Trimeresurus. Found in limited geographical
distributions, they are not commonly seen in zoos in other regions of the
world. Another regional characteristic is the presence of sea snakes, which are
rarer in North American collections. Conversely, rattlesnakes are uncommon in
Japanese collections in comparison to their
Crocodilia. Atagawa Tropical and
Births and hatchings of squamates
and crocodilians during the 1999 fiscal year (
Table 3. Sauria, Serpentes and Crocodilia bred in Japanese collections.
(Figures in brackets represent the number of animals which failed to survive.)
Species No. born No. collections
Tegu 9 (3) 1
Rainbow boa 10 (10) 1
Sand boa 10 (9) 1
Blood python* 11 (0) 1
Ball python 5 (0) 1
Chinese alligator 3 (0) 1
*First breeding in
During the 2000 fiscal year a total of 20 species in reptiles and two species in amphibians reproduced (offspring from four of them did not survive) in 11 zoos and eight aquariums. Considering that there were 99 zoos and 70 aquariums, or a total of 169 JAZGA member institutions, in the country during that year, the figures may appear surprisingly low in the eyes of European and American zoo officials. However, in the historical context, even such a modest `report card' represents an improvement (Kawata, 2003).
There may be hidden factors behind
rather low figures. Some institutions may be regulating reptilian reproductions
based on marketability; more common species can saturate the country's carrying
capacity rather quickly. This is particularly true with crocodilians. Hideo
Shimizu (2001) of the Atagawa Tropical and
Varanidae, Boidae and Crocodilia include
a large number of species in the CITES Appendices. Reflecting this status,
JAZGA's squamate and crocodilian inventory includes 13 CITES Appendix I species
and 53 CITES Appendix II species. However,
As far as reptiles and amphibians
A total of 23 Chinese alligators
are held in five institutions. Thus far, Maruyama Zoo in
Compared to the above two species
the other two are larger, which adds more challenges to managers. There are
nine gharials (three of them unsexed) in three institutions, and 17 false
gavials (nine of them unsexed) in five institutions. More than half of the
false gavials are long-term captives believed to be around 30 years of age,
indicating the difficulty in importing wild-caught specimens, and the urgent
need for captive breeding. The aforementioned H. Shimizu of the Atagawa
a global view on crocodilians in captivity, one cannot help but notice a
poverty of even the basic data on the numbers in each country, indicating a
lack of awareness on conservation and breeding. Statistical data in IZY
and ISIS alone do not shed insight into the reality of captive situations.
Husbandry protocol itself seems to have unresolved questions. We sent gharials,
seems to exist a mentality, according to which just one crocodilian is
sufficient for a zoo; such exhibit-centered thinking reflects the fact that a
satisfactory facility for crocodilian breeding is extremely costly. It is
unrealistic for a nation in the temperate zone, such as
As in any similar programs, those
who are given the charge of managing amphibian and reptile programs are
experiencing growing pains. It is, however, encouraging that this oft-forgotten
animal group is making an inroad into the management programs of
Table 4. Longevity of squamates and crocodilians in Japanese collections.
(In nearly all cases the years
indicate duration of captivity, not ages, of animals living as of
Species >36 yrs 31–35 yrs 26–30 yrs 21–25 yrs
Boa constrictor – – 0.1 –
Ball python – – – 1.0
Erabu sea snake – 0.1 – –
Salt-water crocodile – 0.0.1 1.0.1 –
Cuban crocodile – – 0.1 –
Dwarf crocodile – 1.0 2.1 –
False gavial – – 1.0.1 –
American alligator 1.0 1.2 – –
Chinese alligator – 0.0.1 – –
Broad-nosed caiman – – 1.1 –
(Spectacled) caiman – – 1.1 1.0
Data in Table 4 represent squamates
and crocodilians that had been living in Japanese collections for at least 21
years as of
Considering their biological faculty
for long life spans, the number of crocodilians on the list is not surprising,
particularly American alligators, which were an established fixture on public
Addendum to chelonians: In the 1999 Annual Report,
previously unreported data in chelonian longevities were presented by Ueno Zoo,
Tokyo, to be added to Table 4, IZN 50 (5): 274. As of
The author would like to express
sincere appreciations to the following friends: Frank Indiviglio, Herpetology
Department of the Bronx Zoo, for his critical review of the manuscript and
resourceful suggestions; Dr Richard Goris for a master list of reptiles and
Behler, J.L. (1995): Reptile rendezvous. Wildlife Conservation 98 (2): 40–41.
Collins, J.T., and Taggert, T.W.
(2002): Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American
Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles and Crocodilians, Fifth Edition. The Center for
North American Herpetology,
Goris, R.C. (2003): A Guide to the
Amphibians and Reptiles of
International Species Information
Japanese Association of Zoological Gardens and Aquariums (1962): The JAZGA Directory. (In Japanese.)
Japanese Association of Zoological Gardens and Aquariums (1999): The 1998 Annual Report. (In Japanese.)
Japanese Association of Zoological Gardens and Aquariums (2000): The 1999 Annual Report. (In Japanese.)
Japanese Association of Zoological Gardens and Aquariums (2001): The 2000 Annual Report. (In Japanese.)
Kawata, K, (1991):
Kawata, K. (2003): Reptiles in Japanese collections. Part 1: chelonians, 1998. IZN 50 (5): 265–275.
Miyashita, M. (1995): News from
Pough, F.H, Andrews, R.M., Cadle,
J.E., Crump, M.L., Savitzy, A.H. and Wells, K.D. (1998): Herpetology.
Takizawa, A. (1986): The Record
Ueno Zoo (1982): Ueno Zoo: The
100 Year History.
Visser, G. (2003): Herpetology at
S. (1968): Zoos in Japan. In The
World of Zoos (ed. R. Kirchshofer). Viking Press,
Ken Kawata, General Curator,
* * *
BREEDING TITI MONKEYS AT LA VALLÉE DES SINGES
BY JAN VERMEER
Titi monkeys (Callicebus
spp.) have always been rare in European zoos. Only the primate station of
The taxonomy of the genus Callicebus
is disputed (Hershkovitz, 1990; Groves, 2001; van Roosmalen, 2002), as is the
identification of the animals from
Our breeding group has one inside
enclosure with an area of about 12 m2. Outside they have access to a
wooded area of about 3,000 m2. They share this area with a family of
white-faced saki monkeys, a pair of golden lion tamarins and a family of common
marmosets. Despite the fact that the animals were kept in cages at
The non-breeding couple with the old female have two inside enclosures of about 2.5 m2. They share a wooded area of over 6,000 m2 with a group of 60 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis) and a family of golden-headed lion tamarins. Contacts with these species are also positive. Although they are sometimes somewhat dominated by the boisterous young squirrel monkeys, there are rarely aggressive interactions. Play and grooming between the titi monkeys and the lion tamarins occurs often.
We are planning to mix our third couple with a variety of callitrichids and saki monkeys on a new territory in 2004.
Rain and cold rarely stop the animals from going outside. The temperature of the inside enclosure is kept between 17° and 19°C, and humidity at 70%.
The feeding behavior of C.
cupreus and the closely related C. brunneus has been studied on
different sites in
Table 1. Diet of titi monkeys at La Vallée des Singes (for five adults)
08.3075 grams of Mazuri tamarin cake improved with casein, vitamins, minerals and sunflower oil.
12.00 65 g apple
40 g carrot
80 g fruit (kiwi, peach, orange, pear, etc.)
35 g cucumber or zucchini
80 g vegetables (chicory, fennel, turnip, lettuce)
16.15 100 g apple
35 g carrot
35 g paprika
50 g cucumber or zucchini
6 grapes or 60 g other fruit
a small amount of vegetables (celery, fennel, radish, lettuce, cabbage)
50 g banana
20 g peanuts
Once a week one egg (white only)
During the day, several small feedings with biscuits, Cruesli (a breakfast cereal, a mixture of oats, wheat, raisins, nuts and honey), sultanas, nuts and 20 g mealworms.
Our diet (Table 1) was based on
these studies, discussions with Dr Welker of
A large variety of health problems
with titi monkeys have been reported by the veterinary department at
The reproductive biology of C.
cupreus has been studied extensively at
Until now, six offspring have been
born at La Vallée des Singes (Table 2). Before our breeding female came to us
she had reared several offspring at Davis (Phillip C. Allen, pers. comm.). The
interbirth intervals were about 12 months. Her first infant at La Vallée des
Singes was indeed born 12 months after the birth of her earlier infant.
However, the interbirth interval between the four subsequent births in Group 1
decreased to only eight months and one week. This high reproductive rate does
not seem to have had any negative effect on her condition. Matings have also
been observed during pregnancy. Our old female had reared several offspring in
Table 2. Titi monkeys at La Vallée des Singes.
Name Sex Date of Place of Arrival
Loretta female 03.02.92
Muqui male 11.03.01 Romagne –
Tapajo female 04.09.02 Romagne –
Anya female 28.05.03 Romagne –
– male 06.02.04 Romagne –
Lucia female 13.03.81
Piquiri male 10.10.99
– unknown 23.02.04 Romagne –
Titi monkeys live in monogamous pairs that do not accept the presence of other adults in their neighbourhood. Keeping titi monkeys in captivity close to conspecifics may cause stress, which results in serious health problems (Jantschke, 1992). However, temporary contacts between a sexually receptive female and a male from a neighbouring group has been observed in the wild (Kinzey, 1997). The bonds between both adults are very strong and there is rarely any aggression. They defend their territory by impressive calling bouts. While at rest, all individuals of the family group entwine their tails. Especially when the group is getting larger, it may take a lot of time for everyone to find a good sleeping position in the evening.
Group size ranges from two to six animals. Although the peripheralization of a sub-adult is often reported to happen without much aggression from the adults (Kinzey, 1981; Welker, pers. comm.), this happened differently in our group. After the birth of the fourth baby in 2003, our group had grown to seven individuals. Three weeks after the birth, the breeding female started to attack her oldest daughter, who was at that time about 38 months old. Both animals were wounded, and we had to separate the daughter to prevent anything worse happening.
As with the callitrichids, the adult male titi monkey is the principal carrier of the newborn offspring – the female only takes it for nursing (Kinzey, 1997). This is also the case in our group, but there was some variation between the babies. The breeding female did all the carrying in the first week with one baby, while with the others the carrying was shared between the father and the older offspring during the first week. After the first week the father does almost all the carrying of the offspring.
In the three years that we have now kept titi monkeys in our park, there have been very few husbandry problems. However, they have to be observed closely as short periods of diarrhoea can quickly cause serious loss of condition. Our original breeding pair has reared several offspring, and our second pair has also started breeding. Offspring should probably be removed from the breeding group before they reach the age of three years. Titi monkeys are active and attractive animals, and a welcome addition for European zoos.
I would like to thank the keepers of the titi monkeys for taking good care of the animals and observing them closely.
Crandlemire-Sacco, J. (1988): An
ecological comparison of two sympatric primates: Saguinus fuscicollis
and Callicebus moloch of
Hershkovitz, P. (1990): Titis,
Jantschke, B. (1992): Der Springaffe. Zeitschrift des Kölner Zoo 35: 155–160.
Jantschke, B., Welker, C., and Klaiber-Schuh, A. (1995): Notes on the breeding of the titi monkey Callicebus cupreus. Folia Primatologica 64 (4): 210–213.
Kinzey, W.G. (1978): Feeding
behavior and molar features in two species of titi monkeys. In Recent
Advances in Primatology. Vol. 1: Behaviour (eds. D.J. Chivers and J.
Herbert), pp. 373–385. Academic Press,
Kinzey, W.G. (1981): The titi monkeys, genus Callicebus. In Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 1 (eds. R.A. Mittermeier and A.F. Coimbra-Filho), pp. 241–276. Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Rio de Janeiro.
Kinzey, W.G. (1997):
Lorenz, R., and Mason, W.A. (1971): Establishment of a colony of titi monkeys. International Zoo Yearbook 11: 168–175.
Roberts, J., Murphy, B., Prahalada,
S., and Anderson, J. (1984): Diseases of captive titi monkeys at the
Roberts, J., Line, S., and Blanchard, P. (1986): Spontaneous hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in a titi monkey. Journal of Medical Primatology 15: 131–138.
Tirado Herrera, E.R., and Heymann, E.W. (2000): Mom needs more protein – sex differences in the diet composition of red titi monkeys, Callicebus cupreus. Folia Primatologica 71: 189–248.
Valverde, C.R., Pettan-Brewer, K.C.B., Lerche, N., and Lowenstine, L.J. (1993): A 20 year retrospective study of causes of mortality in a colony of titi monkeys (Callicebus spp.). Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians 1993: 208–213.
Van Roosmalen, M.G.M, van Roosmalen, T., and Mittermeier, R.A. (2002): A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10 (suppl.): 1–52.
Webster, D. (2003): European Studbook for Red Titi Monkeys (Callicebus cupreus). Blackpool Zoo, U.K.
Jan Vermeer, La Vallée des Singes, Le Gureau, 86700 Romagne, France. (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org )
* * *
BY PAUL A. REES
Deep in the heart of the
The centre has been constructed around
a kopje: a small rocky outcrop that is characteristic of the Serengeti
landscape. One of its main themes is the famous wildebeest migration which
links the grasslands of the Serengeti to those of the Masai Mara in
The path eventually leads across a high-level
walkway to a two-storey open-air building containing more display boards. As
the visitor approaches, the sound of lions and hyenas can be heard from hidden
loudspeakers, although it only becomes apparent that they are not the real
thing when the source is discovered. The walkway joins the building at the top
floor, where near life-size photographs of Dr Bernhard Grzimek and
A series of bilingual (English and
Swahili) information boards describes the work of Dr Grzimek and his son,
including photographs of the black-and-white striped Piper Cub they used to
conduct aerial wildlife censuses of the area. Other exhibits illustrate the
history of Tanzanian wildlife legislation, and include historical maps of the
development of the system of protected areas. The collection of early
photographs includes one of the German governor responsible for the
introduction of the first wildlife laws, Hermann von Wissmann, and his
protection troop, taken in 1889 (above). The
The ground floor exhibits explain
the work of TANAPA (Tanzania National Parks Authority), the management problems
faced by the park authorities, and the place of the Masai and other tribes in
the local culture and ecology. TANAPA was created in 1959 to oversee the
management of the growing number of national parks in
The last port of call is a small shop and a refreshment area where the local avifauna is attracted to a small pool. I hoped to find all manner of useful publications about the Serengeti on sale at the centre but, alas, the shop was filled with the usual African souvenirs with hardly a book in sight. Anyone wishing to take away more information about the park and its spectacular wildlife will be disappointed.
In spite of this criticism, the Serengeti visitor centre is a remarkable addition to an extraordinary place, made possible by the work of a single zoological society and support from the European Union. East African national parks are sadly lacking in interpretation centres, or indeed interpretation of any kind. This one should serve as a model for how zoos and national parks can co-operate to truly engage in conservation education.
Dr Paul A. Rees, School of Environment & Life Sciences and Telford Institute of Environmental Systems, University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester, M5 4WT, U.K. (E-mail: email@example.com )
* * *
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
I was fascinated by Dr van Bruggen's interesting and valuable paper on the Amsterdam Aquarium, and particularly by his references to early problems in keeping certain fish species.
Certainly the herring is still a
notoriously difficult-to-keep species, largely on account of the strong
migratory instinct that makes it almost the piscatorial equivalent of the
wildebeest – in fact its habit of rapidly moving in large numbers gives it its
name, from the Saxon here, meaning `army'. This is the time when captive
shoals, restlessly moving about, lose large areas of scales by brushing against
rocks and other `furnishings'. The British collection which has done best with
the species is
Earlier in the paper it was noted that it was rare for anything to live more than a year or so in early aquaria. I, for one, would not dispute this, but there's always the odd exception that contrives to prove the rule, and a very notable, and coincidental, one here is the first living fish to be photographed, c. 1853, in Regent's Park's `Fish House', as its first aquarium was called. It died on 19 April 1870 – an astonishing record when it's born in mind that this was a pike (Esox lucius), a species still difficult to keep for long in good health owing to its susceptibility to infestations of ectoparasites, particularly the dreaded `ichth' or `white-spot' (Ichthyophthirius).
* * *
HANDBOOK OF THE BIRDS OF THE WORLD:
Volume 8 – BROADBILLS TO TAPACULOS edited by Josep del Hoyo, Andrew Elliott and
David Christie. Lynx Edicions,
With Volume 8, the Handbook of the Birds of the World has crossed a major ornithological watershed, that separating the non-passerines from the passerines. For many readers, myself included, this means a move into relatively unknown territory. Non-passerines, much more often than not, can be identified at a glance, at least to family level. Even we amateurs know an auk, an owl, a wader, a pigeon, a hornbill, a humming bird, a woodpecker when we see one. We may not often be able to go any further, but at least we know roughly where it fits into the pattern of the class Aves as a whole. But passerines are another matter: here we feel lost in a formless blur of species, many of them the sort even birders tend to lump together as `little brown jobs', the Lumpenproletariat of the bird world.
From now on, though, as the Passeriformes start getting the HBW treatment, we'll begin to see them finding their places in the pattern. This first volume on them covers nine families – Broadbills, Asities, Pittas, Ovenbirds, Woodcreepers, Typical Antbirds, Ground-antbirds, Gnateaters and Tapaculos. All these birds are small or medium-sized, and yes, many are brown – though some, especially among the pittas, are astonishingly gaudy. Only the broadbills and pittas, I think, have any significant presence in zoos, and only a few species of them – the hooded pitta (by no means the most spectacular of the group, and not threatened, so its frequency in captivity must be a historical accident), and the green and long-tailed broadbills – seem to have self-sustaining ex situ populations. [A recent breakthrough at Walsrode which may be the start of more successful pitta management and breeding was reported in IZN 50 (4), 244.] At the other end of the spectrum, none of the 55 species of tapaculo `has been reported to have been successfully held in captivity,' though the Bronx Zoo succeeded in keeping a single Acropternis orthonyx alive for a few months. Since many tapaculos (though not this one) have dull plumage, and all feed by foraging in undergrowth and avoid flying whenever possible, they aren't often seen in the wild either.
With many zoos' current enthusiasm
for all things Madagascan, it may be only a matter of time before asities start
appearing in our collections. (
In general, of course, Volume 8 follows the now tried and trusted HBW formula, so it has all the features readers have come to expect. Little improvements continue to be made here and there – for example, the distribution maps now include major rivers, making it easier to pinpoint species' ranges, especially in inland areas. The photos have always been one of the series' supreme triumphs: am I imagining it, or are the present lot even more stunning than usual? Actually, I think that tends to be my reaction to every new volume! They are different in one respect, though; many more of them than previously were taken specifically for HBW. This, a policy to be continued in future volumes, is in part a response to the fact that many passerine families are relatively poorly known. For the same reason, this volume contains much more previously unpublished information than any previous one.
The foreword on a general
ornithological topic is a regular bonus in HBW. This time it's `A brief
history of classifying birds' by Murray Bruce, who takes the story through from
AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS: BIOLOGY AND CAPTIVE
MANAGEMENT by Stephen Jackson. CSIRO Publishing, 2003. xxii + 524 pp.,
hardback. ISBN 0–643–06635–7. AU$240.00. [For prices and purchase details
THE NATURAL HISTORY OF
When new books as impressive as these two can land on my desk within a few weeks of each other, I feel inclined to proclaim that the golden age of natural history publishing is here right now. Each of them, it seems safe to say, is by far and away the best book on its subject ever to appear; and neither is likely to be superseded in the foreseeable future. Each of them, too, is an essential purchase for any zoo holding animals from the region it is devoted to.
That said, they don't have much else
in common. Australian Mammals: Biology and Captive Management is a
practical husbandry guide to all the country's native mammals, with separate
chapters on platypus, echidnas, carnivorous marsupials, numbats, bandicoots and
bilbies, koalas, wombats, possums and gliders, macropods, bats, rodents and the
dingo. Stephen Jackson, who compiled most of the book (there are additional
contributors for a few of the chapters), was the author of an article in International
Zoo Yearbook 38 entitled `Standardizing captive-management manuals:
guidelines for terrestrial vertebrates', in which he outlined the principles he
here puts into practice. Australian Mammals might indeed serve as a
model for others to follow, not merely in fat volumes like this one, but also
in more modest management guideline notes for single taxa. Each of the book's
twelve chapters follows the same outline, with an introduction followed by
sections on Taxonomy, Natural history, Housing requirements, General husbandry,
Feeding requirements, Handling and transport, Health requirements, Behaviour,
Breeding and Artificial rearing. Each section is further subdivided into
numbered sub-sections, which in turn may be subdivided. So if you want to know
the main health problems of kangaroos, or whether wombats are suitable for a
mixed exhibit (they aren't), or how to hand-rear a fruit bat, or how to train a
dingo or catch a wallaby, it's easy to go straight to the appropriate heading.
Numerous tables, charts and line drawings are included for information best
presented in such ways – nest types and locations for different possum species,
oestrous cycle and gestation data for macropods, koalas' daily activity cycle,
methods of handling microchiropterans, typical weight growth in echidnas,
nest-box designs for numbats. . . Speaking as someone whose zoo knowledge is
overwhelmingly theoretical, I cannot remember ever seeing a book which made the
practical side of zoo work seem more intelligible and accessible. It
goes without saying that every zoo with any Australian mammals should buy a
copy. But so should any zoo with bats or rodents, for there's nothing peculiar
In its very different way, The
Natural History of Madagascar is equally ground-breaking. There seems no
reason to doubt the publishers' claim that it is `the most extensive collection
of research ever assembled on the vast diversity of life found on this
spectacular island.' Indeed, there may never have been a comparable book
published on the natural history of any country or region. Its sheer
physical dimensions command respect: almost 1,800 pages, a weight of about four
kilos – this isn't a book ecotourists will want to take with them to
As the editors point out in their
preface, there has been an exponential growth of biological research in
Madagascar in recent decades, so that `the associated expansion of scientific
reports and publications on the fauna and flora of the island . . . is now
beyond the scope of a single researcher or research group to synthesize.' To
produce a synthesis in the present volume, consequently, they have enlisted no
fewer than 281 contributors from 15 countries (including an encouraging number
Chapters follow on climate, forest ecology, human ecology, and marine and coastal ecosystems, and then on plants, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. A lengthy chapter on conservation concludes the book. Each chapter except that on climate consists of a series of essays on different topics; thus every significant vertebrate taxon, for example, has its own expert monograph. So many Madagascan species are currently of major interest to zoos – not just lemurs, but freshwater fishes, frogs, chameleons, day geckos, tortoises, numerous birds, tenrecs, fossas, giant jumping rats. . . – that it is hardly possible to single out particular topics to mention. Here, anyway, are up-to-date monographs on all of them.
The closing 170-page chapter on conservation includes reports on general policy and on particular reserves, taxa and projects. The in and ex situ work of zoos is given good coverage, with sections on, for example, the Madagascar Fauna Group, the work of the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, and the efforts to establish ex situ breeding populations of endemic fish species (an extraordinarily diverse assemblage, as yet largely intact but almost all under some degree of threat). The Natural History of Madagascar is not a book many people will read from cover to cover: but I am sure I and many others will come to rely on it as an all-embracing, authoritative work of reference. It sets a new standard which future natural histories of biodiversity hotspots will find hard to match.
* * *
Bongos return to Africa
At that time, bongos were found in
three separate forests in central
Meanwhile, fortunately, several
Before their repatriation, the
animals were assembled at White Oak Conservation Center in Florida from the
participating institutions: African Safari Wildlife Park in Ohio, Busch Gardens
and Disney's Animal Kingdom in Florida, Cape May County Zoo in New Jersey,
Houston, Jacksonville, Los Angeles, Sacramento, St Louis and Virginia Zoos,
Peace River Refuge and Rare Species Conservancy Foundation in Florida, and
White Oak itself. This group of bongos is the first of several that will be
making the trip to
Abridged and adapted from Zooscape
(Los Angeles Zoo) Vol. 27, No. 7 (February 2004), with additional material from
Marc Lacey in the New York Times (
Siamese crocodiles survive in Cambodia
The Siamese or mountain crocodile (Crocodylus
siamensis), one of the world's most endangered animals, is a handsome
freshwater crocodile with a distinctive bony crest at the back of its head. It
is reputed to be rather timid and not a `man-eater'. Siamese crocodiles
originally inhabited all countries in south-east
The crocodile's decline began with competition With rice farmers for wetlands, but the deathblow came in the 1950s, with the rise of organized crocodile farming and the international skin trade. These crocodiles produce fine, soft leather and are easy to breed in captivity. To speed up production, they were hybridized with salt-water crocodiles (C. porosus – native to coastal areas) and Cuban crocodiles (C. rhombifer). The thousands of `Siamese' crocodiles in captivity today contain a bewildering array of mongrels which only genetic testing can distinguish.
Today, two wild individuals are
The ecology of this species is still
poorly understood, but research on the wild colonies in
Decades of hunting have taught Siamese
crocodiles to be shy, but in some parts of the
The Cambodian government must be
praised for strengthening protection for the crocodiles, notably by gazetting the
Jenny Daltry, Boyd Simpson and Chheang Dany in Fauna and Flora No. 5 (October 2003)
An unusual translocation success story
In the early 1990s the Brehm Fund
for International Bird Conservation sponsored studies by Dieter Rinke [now
scientific director of
Despite rumours in the late 1990s
that both transfers had been successful, no hard evidence was published.
Finally, in March 2003 ornithologist Dick Watling, based in nearby
René W.R.J. Dekker in Annual Review of the World Pheasant Association 2002/2003
The greater stick-nest rat (Leporillus
conditor) was abundant at the time of the European settlement of
Stick-nest rats are native rodents with the unique habit (amongst Australian rodents) of constructing large stick and twig nests. They have compact fluffy-coated bodies with large rounded ears and blunt noses. The rats seem to prefer building their nests around, underneath or adjacent to some form of existing structure. Records exist of nests built in caves, under sandstone overhangs, around trees, against fences. The reproductive rate is low compared to Rattus rats, with a gestation period of 42 days, one to four offspring in a litter (average two) and a period of up to a month when the young are `attached' to the dam's teats. Endearingly, for those of us lucky enough to work with this species, they are extremely tolerant of handling and rarely, if ever, attempt to bite.
The Greater Stick-nest Rat Program
received original funding in 1983 from the World Wildlife Fund to cover two
major projects – a three-year population study of the
– Maintain the
– Establish an effective captive-breeding population;
– Increase the number of wild populations from one to at least three, with each population consisting of no fewer than 500 mature individuals;
– Increase the total number of mature individuals from about 1,000 to at least 5,000;
– Increase substantially the geographic spread of these populations within the species' former known range.
Captive breeding for release was
identified as a key method for achieving these objectives. Breeding would be
performed by National Parks and Wildlife Service staff at the Monarto Fauna Complex,
which is located within
A total of 420 captive-bred rats
were released to six sites between 1990 and 1999. The release sites were
By 1999, the aims of the recovery plan had been met. Enough suitable release sites were supporting sustainable populations of 500 rats. At the same time it was noticed that the incidence of cataracts had been increasing in the rat population managed at Monarto. It was decided to use the remaining captive rats to investigate the reasons, and this research was completed in 2003 with results pending.
The captive breeding and release
component of the recovery program has proven an enormous success, achieving all
goals set out for it, and firmly establishing the species' recovery process.
Now that this phase of the program is complete,
Abridged from Suzy Barlow in ARAZPA Newsletter No. 60 (November 2003)
An ecological domino effect
The North Pacific's ecosystem
remains in flux half a century after Japanese and Russian whaling ships
conducted massive campaigns in its waters, a new study reveals. Slaughter of
great whales, including bowhead, sperm and humpback, caused irreversible damage
down the food chain that is currently affecting fragile kelp forests in
Puzzled by a 90 percent reduction of kelp forests in some areas, scientists concluded that a population explosion of kelp-grazing sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus spp.) was to blame. The sea urchins were proliferating because one of their main predators, sea otters, had become scarce in the 1990s. The scientists were able to trace the cause of the otters' disappearance up the food chain, through a string of events that began 50 years ago with the commercial whaling campaigns.
The whaling ships took half a million great whales, depriving orcas of their main prey. The orcas were forced to turn to alternative prey sources, beginning with harbor and fur seals. It takes a lot of seals to equal the calorific value of a single whale; consequently, the orcas soon depleted seal stocks, and moved on to sea lions, with similar results. When most of their larger prey populations were exhausted in the 1970s and 1980s, orcas began to hunt the relatively diminutive sea otter, causing a population crash for the otters that began in the 1990s and a subsequent sea urchin boom. This domino effect reinforces the need for ecosystem-scale conservation, rather than species-specific conservation.
Kit Sergeant in Zoogoer (Friends of the National Zoo) Vol. 33, No. 1 (January/February 2004)
* * *
INTERNATIONAL ZOO NEWS
The adolescent male gorilla Makula, the third son of our troop leader Bongo, was causing some trouble in his birth group, indicating that he was ready to start a group of his own. He was eventually given the companionship of his younger half-brother M'Tongé while he waits to be transferred to another zoo. The two gorillas have been placed together on an island of their own. The white-throated capuchins live on two islands connected by a climbing frame. An electric fence now divides one of the islands into two parts. Approximately one-eighth is for the monkeys and the rest has been made gorilla-proof for Makula and M'Tongé. In this way, the capuchins can still use their climbing frame, while the gorillas have a considerable part of the island for themselves. The electric fence keeps the two groups from mingling. Once each species had been given the chance to acclimatize in the absence of the other, it should be possible for them all to be out at the same time without problems.
Translated by Gina Kornblith from De Harpij Vol. 22, No. 3 (2003)
Translated by Gina Kornblith from De Harpij Vol. 22, No. 3 (2003)
Seahorses have always captivated the fish fancier. They come in all shapes and sizes – from the small pygmy seahorse, the size of your thumbnail, to the giant seahorses that are over a foot long, seahorses grab our attention with their unique life under the sea. The seahorses' graceful, fluid movements, distinctive form and the curious fact that the male carries the young drove Denver Zoo's interest in keeping these creatures.
Keeping seahorses has long been the bane of many aquarists' careers, as their natural diet was hard to replicate in captivity. For many years, institutions and hobbyists alike tried to sustain seahorses with brine shrimps (Artemia salina), but these were nutritionally deficient. The seahorses would slowly lose weight, show signs of stress, develop diseases and eventually perish. What the public may have perceived as a thriving seahorse exhibit was, in reality, an exhibit in which the seahorses were constantly replaced. Until recently, Denver Zoo was no exception. The zoo had attempted, in good faith, to keep seahorses in the past, but with little success. Adult seahorses arrived in good health, but over the next few months would meet the same, sad fate.
In the 1990s, a few aquariums around the world started perfecting seahorse husbandry. Food was one of the most critical pieces of the puzzle that needed to be solved. Institutions on the coasts started collecting small shrimps called mysids directly out of the ocean to nourish these hard-to-keep creatures. These very small shrimps turned out to be a great food for the seahorse. Adult seahorses increased their resistance to disease, began surviving for years, and finally reproduced in captivity. The newly discovered food source was a great find for institutions on the coasts, but for those of us in landlocked aquariums, mysid shrimps were very costly. Each little shrimp costs five cents on average, and each adult seahorse eats hundreds per day. This might not seem like a lot of money for one seahorse, but for 30 seahorses, food alone would cost $4,500 per month. Thus, the cost made mysids prohibitive for Denver Zoo.
Luckily, one species of mysid shrimp has now been commercially harvested and frozen for us to feed to our fish guests. This breakthrough paved the way for inland aquarists to keep and even reproduce the fascinating seahorse. Yet, in spite of this development, there was still one more hurdle to overcome in raising young seahorses.
Unfortunately, we were not prepared
for this surprise. Despite our efforts to raise the fry, we were unsuccessful.
Even though we were able to provide an adequate diet for the fry from the
beginning (the fry eat brine shrimps), we had other obstacles. The fry were
getting air entrained in their bodies, which caused them to stay on the surface
and prevented them from swimming and feeding, and ultimately led to their death.
The solution was to keep the fry away from the water surface. Obviously, they
cannot get air stuck in their systems if they do not come into contact with
air. To address this issue and to prepare for the next batch of fry, we needed
a round tank without corners and with a constant, circular water flow that
keeps the seahorse fry from ever coming into contact with the surface. Very
fancy and expensive Kreisel tanks that utilize this design have been used in
other places for jellyfish exhibits, but an individual commercially purchased
tank can cost $10,000 or more. Here in
Kent M. Weissenfluh in The Zoo Review (Fall 2003)
Thanks to some pioneering work by
vets and a specialist surgeon and the dedication of the keepers, a young giraffe
at the zoo has overcome a potentially life-threatening condition to make a full
recovery. Keepers first realised that something was wrong in late October when
they noticed that Sapphire, a female born in July 2002, was refusing to eat. So
they called in a team from the
Briefly, the vets and keepers considered euthanasia, as the break was very severe, and it was possible that Sapphire would be unable to eat and just waste away from malnutrition. However, they decided instead to call on the expert services of Professor Dixon, a veterinary surgeon also based at the Royal, who specialises in orthopaedic work with horses. He decided to use a procedure which he has developed for horses, and which we believe has never been used on a giraffe before.
Because of the great size and depth of giraffes' teeth, they are excellent at anchoring surgical wires to help treat jaw fractures without the use of any surgical plates and screws that could damage the long teeth lying within the mandible. As Prof. Dixon explains: `The fracture was repaired simply by wiring the incisor teeth (in the loose part of the jaw) to the stable cheek teeth further back in the giraffe's mouth on both sides, and tightening the two wires together in front, to compress the fracture together. Because giraffes are herbivores, they cannot open their mouths very far and so this teeth wiring was performed through small openings made in the cheeks – taking care to avoid the facial nerves and salivary ducts.'
Anaesthesia carries significant risks for giraffes, so the first relief was when Sapphire recovered from this, and was alert and lively within hours of the procedure. She was kept inside overnight, and monitored by a closed-circuit TV that the keepers fixed up to record her behaviour. The very next morning, she seemed to be interested in food. At first, the keepers gave her only loose hay, to prevent any pressure on the fracture site, but by the afternoon she was chomping on carrots and bananas, her usual favourites.
Weeks passed, and then, in January this year, the veterinary team came back to the zoo to remove the wires, again under general anaesthetic. Thanks to their continued skill and ability, this operation also went very smoothly, and Sapphire has made a complete recovery.
Abridged from an
John G. Shedd Aquarium,
The huge face hovering at eye level is so riveting that you hardly notice the scar. But the hand-sized indentation on the broad forehead of Bubba, the 140-pound Queensland grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) in the Wild Reef shark habitat, is a mark of how far veterinary medicine has come, and how far Shedd's dedicated animal-care staff will go, when the patient is a fish and the diagnosis is cancer. Shedd veterinarians believe that the use of chemotherapy to halt a connective tissue tumor on Bubba's head is the first such application in treatment of a fish.
Bubba arrived at Shedd in 1987 as a
ten-inch [250-mm] female left at the receptionist's desk. Most likely his owner
realized that this fast-growing fish would become more than a home aquarium
In August 2001, aquarists noticed pimple-like pink growths on his forehead. Thinking that the fish had a bacterial infection, Shedd's veterinarians treated him with antibiotics. Initially, the bumps seemed to go away, but by the end of August he had a bunch of nodules on his head. A biopsy in January 2002 revealed nothing, but a second test six months later came back positive for a malignant tumor. `On 8 November we did the first surgery and chemotherapy,' says Dr Natalie Mylniczenko, Shedd's associate veterinarian. `I was able to get a good chunk of tissue out. The wound was only about a centimeter deep, so it healed beautifully.' Mylniczenko also injected a chemotherapy agent into the tissue surrounding the excised area. `We watched him very closely. He did so well and healed so quickly. Then we started seeing pink lumps and bumps around the edges of the surgical wound.' The cancer had come back.
The veterinary team did a second surgery in March 2003. `We went very deep and took very wide margins to get as much tumor as possible,' Mylniczenko says. `That's why he has such a big hole in the tissue now. We wanted to make sure the cancer cells were gone. Because it was such a big hole, we put pig epithelium on it to enhance healing and tissue growth.' She again injected a chemotherapy agent around the edges of the surgical wound, using human plastic-surgery collagen to keep the treatment in the tissue longer. `We also gave him aspirin for several days after the surgery for pain.'
Though his treatment isn't experimental, Mylniczenko notes, `The use of chemotherapy agents hasn't been reported in fish. In zoo and aquarium medicine, everything we do has to be creative and extrapolative of everything we've learned in veterinary medicine. This treatment was not used in a grouper before, but certainly chemotherapy is used in small animals. We're taking it to different levels with animals that live in water – it gives us a whole different set of limitations.' For one thing, the surgery had to take place in water. Divers steered the bulky fish into a specially designed sling, then lifted him into a water-filled tub at the pool's edge. A standard fish anesthetic added to the water kept Bubba still while the sling held him in position, with his forehead out of the water, during the one-hour surgery and chemotherapy treatment. Back in the reserve pool, divers guided the fish around in the water until the anesthetic was out of his system.
Healing was also underwater. `Obviously, we couldn't keep the wounds dry,' says the vet, `but fish have an incredible immune system on their skin. The mucus contains immunoglobulins, or antibodies.' In October, Bubba was given a clean bill of health and introduced to the 400,000-gallon [1,500,000-liter] central habitat in the Wild Reef exhibit. Like the marine mammals, Bubba has training sessions to accustom him to come to, or `target' on, a specific shape – in his case a large blue plastic triangle – at mealtimes. By having Bubba target, aquarists can make sure he gets the food intended only for him as well as get close enough to check his forehead as it heals.
`He's very comfortable around us now,' says Wild Reef collection manager Mark Schick. He's also comfortable in the company of the two dozen or so sharks with whom he shares the spacious habitat. Before the grouper left the reserve pool, aquarists wanted to make sure the sharks weren't curious about the healing wound on Bubba's head, so they carefully introduced several sharks. `He was fine with them,' Schick says, `and they were fine with him.' The story of Bubba's battle with cancer has generated many wishes for the big fish's continued good recovery. After several years off exhibit, he seems to find the parade of guests interesting. He is usually front and center in the shark habitat, affording Wild Reef visitors a chance to get eye-to-eye with one remarkable fish.
Abridged from Karen Furnweger in WaterShedd Vol. 25, No. 1 (Winter 2004)
Occasionally fate contrives to
provide a zoo with an incredible list of births that any curator would wish
they could replicate annually, but they know this would be impossible. London
Zoo is having one of those years. At the time of writing the most recent birth
was that of a Malayan tapir, only the third in ZSL's history, the first being
in 1921. Other hoofstock births included bearded pigs (two litters), a female
okapi and three bongo calves. Hopefully the birth on 1 July of our second
female okapi in recent years, coinciding with a birth on the same day in
For two of the three female bearded pigs this was their first successful rearing of litters, and the arrival of the five youngsters has proved incredibly rewarding, with the whole group proving, as pigs always do, to be favourites with the visitors.
Within a few weeks of each other the giant anteaters and a species new to London Zoo, a tamandua, gave birth. Although the baby was her first offspring, the mother proved to be absolutely perfect with it.
Births in Geoffroy's marmoset,
common marmoset, Goeldi's monkey and golden-headed lion tamarin complemented
significant births of a red-bellied lemur, a
Abridged from Nick Lindsay, senior curator, in LifeLines (Zoo Federation) No. 83 (December 2003)
We ringed 1,375 chicks in 2003, an increase of 5% over the previous year. One hundred and seventy-one species and subspecies of parrots were bred. Not every species reproduces on a yearly basis: there are always species that have a break in breeding, or are unsuccessful in breeding or in the incubation period. Nevertheless, aside from the regular breeding parrots, 30 species and subspecies produced young for the first time after a breeding pause.
Taxa bred here for the first time
were Salvin’s amazon (A. autumnalis salvini), orange-winged amazon (A.
amazonica), Tres Marias amazon (A. oratrix tresmariae),
Traditionally, the first parrots regularly inaugurating the new breeding season, already in December, are the keas. Our reliable pair have already laid four eggs and are incubating well. But the highlight of January is the clutch of one of our palm cockatoo pairs, newly formed last year from an adult male and a younger, only five-and-a-half-year-old, female. Both of them have moved to a high wooden nesting box and built a nest with all sorts of branches, and they are incubating on a rotating basis the single egg of the clutch.
Another sensational announcement is
of an egg from the Riedel's eclectus parrot (E. roratus riedeli). These
birds exist in only two zoos in
Abridged from the report for January 2004 compiled by Matthias Reinschmidt, Curator, Loro Parque
National Zoo Conservation and
The Conservation and Research Center (CRC) of the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, about 75 miles from Washington, DC, is a unique facility, in that it houses collections of animals – clouded leopards, Micronesian kingfishers, and hoofstock such as Mongolian wild horses and Eld's deer – many of which are not easily housed in traditional zoo situations. But beyond that, the CRC is both a field site for long-term ecological monitoring studies and a home base for scientists from many disciplines who work around the world to study and protect species and ecosystems.
The land on which the CRC sits
(3,200 acres [1,300 ha] which originally comprised about 75 small farms at the
turn of the last century) was obtained by the U.S. Army during World War I to
serve as a Quarter Master Remount Depot, where horses and mules were housed, bred
and trained for use by the U.S. Cavalry. After World War II, the `cavalry' no
longer consisted of four-legged animals, but was instead armored cars and
tanks, and the old Remounts became obsolete. The land was obtained by the U.S.
Department of Agriculture in partnership with
In late October 2003, a number of
American Zoo and Aquarium Association staff were invited to visit the CRC.
After our tour of the grounds, we went to the veterinary hospital to meet with
the scientists and learn about some of their research projects and the work they
do in areas such as gamete biology, genome banking, endocrinology and
nutrition. Next was the bird house, where
After taking a break for lunch, we divided into two groups to observe and take part in the CRC's long-term white-tailed deer study. For almost a decade, scientists at the CRC have studied how white-tailed deer affect the forest understory, and in turn, affect other species. Many of the deer are radio-collared and tracked to provide behavioral information on foraging, reproduction and dispersal. Part of our group had to head back to DC and just got a brief overview of the deer study using stationary triangular radiotelemetry sites. The rest of us were given the chance to participate in the `walk-up' deer tracking, and the interns who work on the study drove us out to the wooded project site and gave us a briefing on both the telemetry equipment and the global positioning system (GPS), and how they worked. Some people might not be too enthusiastic about spending a few hours tramping through the woods on a cold day, trying to listen for the subtle differences in the pinging sounds that the telemetry equipment made, while at the same time trying to avoid tripping over logs or getting smacked in the face with a tree branch. But on a normal weekday afternoon, AZA staff would be sitting in a meeting or sending faxes, so this was a welcome and exhilarating change! We headed into the woods, each taking turns using the equipment and leading the group. After everyone had the chance to use the equipment, and just as the day was winding down, we finally located one of our elusive quarry, plugged in its position using the GPS unit, and called it a day, with everyone feeling chilly but satisfied.
This trip wasn't just an opportunity to get out of the office for a day, it was a chance to go and be a part of what we spend our days working for. It allowed us to re-focus and become re-invigorated about what we do and to meet our members face-to-face. We were fortunate enough to see first-hand the different facets of the CRC, and the variety of ways – education, captive breeding, field research, partnerships, capacity building and more – in which they, and all AZA members, are contributing to conservation of species and habitat. Now we can get back to those faxes, phone calls and e-mails that help the membership do what it does best, but with a greater understanding of why.
Abridged and adapted from Michael Souza in Communiqué (American Zoo and Aquarium Association), January 2004
We currently house 2.4 Asian elephants. The bulls are 41 and 20 years old and are managed in protected contact. The cows range from eight to 48 and are managed in free contact. About 18 months ago, we started taking a closer look at our program and began expanding and improving on many things. As at many facilities, our animals were overweight and under-stimulated. One of the first steps was to work with the veterinarian and nutritionist to evaluate the diets and develop a better plan to monitor what each elephant is eating. Next, we focused on exercise (or the lack of it). This was a big concern, so we started looking at all the different options available. As a result, training has become a major focus for our program and all of the elephants have benefited. Besides the tremendous mental stimulation and better husbandry techniques that training provides, the elephants are in better physical shape as well.
We have greatly expanded the bull training programs and begun routinely walking them in the exhibit. For the cows, a whole new world has been opened up. They are learning to push and pull logs, brace, bow, paint and many other behaviors. A special donation has allowed us to purchase two work harnesses to pull logs and other large items. One elephant in particular has responded very well to the new training program. Rose is a very intelligent nine-year-old with a lot of energy to burn. She learns very quickly and has come a long way in the last year. Along with the behaviors the other elephants have learned, she is learning a tub sit, a ground sit, a routine for demonstrations, to pull in a harness and is now used for behind-the-scenes tours. Also, we are currently walking two of the cows in the zoo before operating hours. One of the cows, Shine, was born at this facility 20 years ago and had never been beyond the barn doors. She is now walking in the zoo and the health and enrichment benefits are quite remarkable. By closely monitoring her diet, increasing her training, and walking in the zoo, she has lost nearly 1,000 pounds [450 kg] in the last two years. Another huge benefit of being able to walk the elephants involves our youngest cow, Chendra. We discovered that Chendra's left jaw was swollen and we were concerned that she had an abscessed tooth. The vet staff took X-rays at the barn with a portable machine, but this was not powerful enough to produce very clear pictures of her tooth. So what do you do? You take the elephant to the bigger X-ray machine at the vet hospital! Luckily, she was still small enough to fit through the hospital doors, and after a few days of walking calmly into the X-ray room, we laid her down and took X-rays. She was fabulous and the pictures were much clearer. Thankfully, it appears that her tooth is normal.
Our oldest cow, Pet, is 48 years old and pigeon-toed. Over the years, her feet have continued to turn inward resulting in severe arthritis. We have confirmed arthritis in the joints of her wrists and feet (interdigital joints and metacarpophalangeal joints) by X-ray, and it is very likely that she also has arthritis in her hips and shoulders. For a while, we feared the end was near. Now we go into the yard several times a day to pick up her feet. She has a lot more flexibility now and appears to be in a lot less pain. We do not plan on taking Pet on long walks through the zoo, but our goal is to take her to a clearing and let her kick up her heels for a while. The entire training process for walking the elephants has been a valuable experience for the staff as well. In the near future we hope to have all three cows walking through the zoo together.
We believe that educating the public is an integral part of our job and by making it a memorable experience we can make a difference. We have expanded our traditional keeper talks to include demonstrations and discussions on training that involves the cows and the bulls. We also bring overnight groups into the exhibit to scatter food for the elephants and focus on talking with the guests as we go through our day. We are also currently working on a logging routine that demonstrates the history and culture between humans and Asian elephants.
We have a wonderful volunteer staff, who do everything from cutting up fruit and cleaning to making enrichment items, and any other project we may think of. One of the elephant handlers developed a special group of volunteers that make up the Elephant Enrichment Committee. They meet with the staff once a month to identify enrichment needs and develop a plan to meet their goals. They are so efficient that other areas of the zoo are trying to use members of the committee to help with their enrichment projects. Some of the ideas include a speaker system throughout the barn for audio enrichment, a hay feeder with enrichment items built in, and a scratching post. One of the interesting projects we are working on is in collaboration with a local university. Students from the Portland State University Engineering Department are developing a machine that will encourage the bulls to exercise when the handlers are not present. The device randomly sets off an audible cue from stations around the yard. The elephant has to walk to the stations to trigger the motion sensors. Once the sequence is complete a different audible cue will sound and a separate machine will dispense a flake of hay at the opposite end of the yard. Another project in the works is a computer program that will generate a random enrichment schedule. It includes the ability to add or subtract items to be included on the calendar. The goal of this program is to reduce the amount of time necessary to schedule enrichment, which is one of the many obstacles in having a successful enrichment program.
Oregon Zoo is well known for its amazing Asian elephant breeding history. Twenty-seven elephants have been born at this facility, including the first second-generation captive birth [see IZN 51 (1), 40 – Ed.]. However, with the loss of our breeding bull, the direction of our breeding program is undetermined at this time. We are committed to breeding at our facility and we are currently discussing our options. We will determine which option is best for the species and for our facility. Even though we are not breeding, we have done introductions with one of our bulls and the oldest cow to provide an opportunity for social interaction.
Many facilities battle with foot
problems associated with captive elephants, and we are no exception. The wet
winters in the north-west present even more challenges when it comes to
maintaining healthy feet. Fortunately, we recently learned that we have
received a grant from the
Abridged from April Yoder in Journal of the Elephant Managers Association Vol. 14, No. 3 (Winter 2003)
For the third year in a row a web
camera will be placed in one of the bear dens at Orsa Grönklitt, one of
We first offered the unique opportunity to visit a bear den via the internet in January 2002. The camera project, which was the first of its kind, received an enormous response from all over the world. During the three months that the camera was placed in the den, more than 400,000 visitors were recorded from over 80 different countries. The female bear Saga and her three cubs were the bear park's largest attraction during the summer season. The 2003 project also generated worldwide attention. However, this time it was the female bear Ebba and her two cubs that were the centre of attention.
The opportunity to provide information globally is one of the major reasons why Orsa Grönklitt will once again start a new camera project. However, the decision was also based on demands from predator enthusiasts, all over the world, who would like to see a continuation of the project. `The two previous projects demonstrate that there is great interest in our predators and particularly in the brown bear,' says Torbjörn Wallin, the park's managing director. `Therefore it feels extra satisfactory that we are able to offer the opportunity to follow life in one of our bear dens this year as well.'
The keepers have confirmed that Freja has had her cubs and that there are at least three of them. However, as they are currently no bigger than a squirrel and are lying close to their mother embedded in her fur, it is quite possible that there is another one. Further information about this will be available on the website. As the cubs grow, the activity in the den will gradually increase.
The web project is a collaboration between
Orsa Grönklitt, the
Abridged from the park's press release
Information about the newly found
sixgill shark (Hexanchus griseus) population in
Aquarium researchers are able to
attract sixgill sharks to a research station built at the end of the aquarium's
pier in 60 feet [18 m] of water. This program is a long-term investigative
effort with multiple partners to further the body of knowledge of this exciting
apex predator, attempting to answer natural history questions through visual
and acoustic tagging efforts, genetic analysis of tissue samples and
hypervariable microsatellite nuclear markers. The new exhibit featuring the Sixgill
Shark Research Station will give aquarium visitors an opportunity to view the
sharks that swim under the pier through both live and recorded video footage.
Interpreters will use this footage to explain the research program, demonstrate
the research process, introduce the importance of sixgill sharks to the
Communiqué (American Zoo and Aquarium Association), January 2004
The Storm's stork (Ciconia stormi)
is considered one of the rarest storks in the world. Estimates say there are
fewer than 400 remaining in the wild. These beautiful storks are found in
remote areas of
Four birds were received by the Zoological Society of San Diego from Malaysia's Zoo Negara in 1995, all thought to be two to three years of age. One pair was housed at the zoo and another pair at the park. For the first few years, the birds showed little interest in nest building. But then that changed with the pair housed off-exhibit at the park's bird breeding complex.
The keeper staff first noticed that
the birds' facial colors were getting deeper, a sign that breeding could be
imminent. The pair then began courtship behaviors, facing each other on the
nest and extending their wings. The next step was courtship bowing, which was
repeated several times and accompanied by vocalizations that can be best
described as `wheezing'. These displays continued until some signal told the
male it was time to approach the female for mating. The Bird Department staff
were quite excited by the developments, hoping that eggs were on the way. To
put these events in perspective, Storm's storks had never been successfully
bred in captivity outside of
Fortunately, our hopes were realized, and the female laid one egg every other day until she had a clutch of four. In the wild, both parents participate in incubation. While one bird is sitting on the eggs, the other spends most of its time perched on the edge of the nest, perhaps serving as a sentinel. Because these birds are so rare, however, and because we wanted to increase the chances of hatching success, we removed the eggs from the parents either right after they were laid or after they had been incubated for a short time, taking the eggs to our off-exhibit facility to incubate them in safety. The oval, chalky-white eggs were placed in an artificial incubator, and the development of the embryos was carefully monitored.
Incubation took 29 days. On
hatching, the chicks were sent to the
As with many species, the most serious threat to Storm's stork in the wild is logging and deforestation in their home range. The exact status of the species in the wild is difficult to determine and will require more extensive scrutiny in the future. We are currently talking with officials at Zoo Negara about the possibility of a reintroduction project for this rare stork. We will also exchange offspring to increase genetic diversity, so we can make every effort to try to ensure that this species will be around for many generations to come.
Abridged from Michael Mace in Zoonooz Vol. 77, No. 1 (January 2004)
The 24 living species of softshell
turtles belong to one family, Trionychidae, and have a distribution through
Softshells also have an array of physiological tricks that allow a longer stay underwater. They can pump water in and out of their mouths and throats, where the rich vascular lining extracts oxygen directly from the water. These turtles often lie in shallow water and bury their entire bodies in sand or the mud bottom, so that only a small portion of the head is visible. When they need to breathe, they stretch their heads to the surface until just the nostrils touch, then quickly gulp a few breaths while the body remains buried.
Narrow-headed softshell turtles (Chitra
indica) are one of the true giants among the softshells. They approach four
feet [1.2 m] in length and weigh nearly 250 pounds [110 kg] – about the size of
a card table and the weight of a mid-sized Galápagos tortoise. They feed on
fish, mollusks, and crustaceans. The species is widespread in southern
In the wild, narrow-headed softshells live in some of the same rivers as gharials (Gavialis gangeticus). So in planning the new Indian gharial exhibit at the zoo, we decided to include softshells and display them with the crocodilians – a feat few zoos have tried. Along the exhibit's main beach, there are two submerged sand pits made especially to accommodate the turtles. They can often be seen buried in these pits, with just the eyes and a vague outline of the shell visible. In this position, the turtles periodically extend their elongated heads and necks to the surface to take a quick breath, causing visitors to wonder what peculiar creature shares the exhibit with the strange-looking `alligators'. I've even heard visitors say, `Ooohh, look at that eel!'
The narrow-headed softshell turtles
are actually just the start of turtle-watching at the gharial exhibit – they
share the habitat with six other species of turtle. One of the most distinctive
is the painted terrapin (Callagur borneoensis). In the wild they are
found in tidal flats, large freshwater and brackish streams, and rivers
In the horsetail and reed beds of
the exhibit, you may notice small turtles peering out of the vegetation. These
Spotted pond turtles (Geoclemys
hamiltonii) come from slow-moving waters of the
One of the easiest turtles to spot
in their wild habitat is the Chinese stripe-necked turtle (Ocadia sinensis),
usually found basking on logjams or along the shoreline. They are found in slow-moving
rivers, lakes, and ponds in
Other than the softshells, the
largest turtle on exhibit is the Malaysian giant terrapin (Orlitia
borneoensis), which will be almost 32 inches [0.8 m] when fully grown. This
species inhabits larger bodies of water in
The river terrapin (Batagur baska)
is a critically endangered species that also grows to a large size, almost two
feet [0.6 m]. Also on the 25 Most Endangered Turtle list, they were
historically widespread in
Abridged from Donal M. Boyer and John Kinkaid in Zoonooz Vol. 76, No. 12 (December 2003)
Finless porpoises (Neophocaena
phocaenoides) are one of the many endangered species whose survival is threatened
as a result of bi-catch fatalities, coastal water development, pollution
created from human activities and diminished fish stocks. The species is found
only in shallow coastal waters ranging from the
In May 2001, a male finless porpoise was rescued from a setnet, which had been left in shallow water and was light enough to allow him to surface and breathe. At the time of rescue, the porpoise was exhausted, suffering several deep cuts from the net and would have soon drowned had he not been removed. He was brought to the recently opened museum, and after several months of rehabilitation and treating infections of the wounds, he finally began to swim, eat and behave normally enough for us to feel confident that he had overcome the experience. He is now the rarest animal maintained in our aquarium.
If they are to survive in their
natural habitat, finless porpoises throughout
Grant Abel in ARAZPA Newsletter No. 60 (November 2003)
The zoo's new `Creatures of the Night' show is designed to showcase the incredible adaptations of animals that feed and hunt in the night. It features over 19 species of night animals from around the world, including puma, binturong, small-toothed civet, barn owl, eagle owl, great horned owl, reticulated python, small-clawed otter, leopard cat, fishing cat, crab-eating raccoon, raccoon, serval, rat, striped hyena, spotted hyena, flying fox, fruit bat, banded mongoose and timber wolf.
This varied cast of animals is the largest number of species featured in any zoo show in the world. The state of-the-art amphitheatre for the show seats 600 and the set depicts the ruins of an ancient coliseum that has been partially devoured by the jungle. A futuristic sound and lighting system enhances the unique sounds and sights of a rainforest. To house the extensive animal cast of 80 mammals, raptors and reptiles for the show, an extensive back-of-house facility was also incorporated into the theatre. This includes large yards and holding areas, landscaped with natural material to ensure the animals are comfortable and happy when not working in the show. A large training yard, one of the biggest available for a facility of this nature, allows trainers to develop new behaviors and routines in an area that will best mirror actual stage conditions.
Developing the animal action for the show was the biggest challenge we faced. The ground rules for the trainers were simple. Every behavior featured in the show had to highlight a unique adaptation for hunting, food gathering or survival in the night jungle, and everything had to happen within 30 minutes for the show. A crew of ten trainers was assigned various animals and routines to work on. From casual play sessions with the animals, and armed with special food rewards, the trainers spent hours coaxing the various animal cast members to display a wide range of hunting and food-gathering behaviors. Patience was the key, especially with the many small predators we were working with. An important part of the work also involved hand-raising different species, especially the large carnivores featured. This ensured that there was a special bond with the trainers and that these young animals were slowly acclimatized to get comfortable with the various different distractions that would be part of a live production.
All the animals were trained on the operant conditioning system, which basically meant that the animals were the operators during training – they were in control and could decide if they wanted to participate or not. The trainers had to be very creative and come up with various ideas to encourage the animals to display the required action. This also meant there were endless late-night meetings with the training and production crew, as animals decided to go a different way, which meant that the animal action plan had to be rewritten. In tandem, the script, lighting and sound effects had to change as well. This left a lot of frustrated humans scrambling to come up with last-minute creative changes to their areas. The crew, especially the specialists not used to working with wild animals, quickly learned that the animals were in charge.
To feature the many species in the 30 minutes available for the production, we had to have animals overlap each other as they entered and left the performing area during the show. Timing these entries and exits was crucial to ensure the flow of the show was effective and quick. More crucial was that animals had to perform with minimal or no cues from the human performers – this was to create the impression that the animals just appeared from the jungle, displayed a behaviour and disappeared back into the forest.
To develop an engaging, interactive script for this new show, the services of scriptwriters from Action Theatre, a professional theatre production company, were engaged. From a rough working script developed in house, the team from Action Theatre set out to create the words that would support the animal action. After numerous drafts and brainstorming sessions with the production crew, the final script incorporated three different endings and – unlike normal theatre productions – adequate additional material for the presenters in the event that the animals decided to `change gears' and do something different from the plan during a live show!
Abridged from a
Dr Bernhard Blaszkiewitz
In October 2001 the zoo received a
pair of aye-ayes from
The female came into oestrus for the
first time in January 2002. Copulation was observed in April and June, but no
pregnancy resulted. Her fourth oestrus occurred in July. No copulation was
observed, but pregnancy was confirmed at the end of September by changes in the
female's mammae. On
The female came into heat again in January 2003, and copulation was observed. Her genital region around the time of oestrus had now been photographed for a full year, so that it was possible to determine pregnancy from these observations. Pregnancy was confirmed at the beginning of March. In the evening of 8 July, she began carrying twigs into her nest box. She did not leave the box on 9 July, but a faint voice could be heard, and during the night there were sounds of suckling as well. On 10 July 10 the female came out of the box with the baby in her mouth. She kept trying to take it into her hands, but kept dropping it. However, a thick layer of wood chips had been spread on the floor and the baby was unharmed. By evening the baby was weakening, so the keepers picked it up, fed it milk, and returned it to the nest box.
After that, the mother gradually got used to handling the baby. But after about two weeks the baby began to lose weight, and the mother would walk around with it in her mouth as many as 30 times a day. It was surmised that she was not producing enough milk, and it was noted that she was not eating her mealworms and honey very well. When she was given mealworms without honey, her daily intake of five grams increased to 30 grams. Now she is given three species of insect larvae, of which she eats about 55 grams a day, and the baby is gaining weight steadily.
On 6 September the baby came out of the nest of its own accord, and began tapping branches and gnawing on them. After ten days it was climbing up and down, and at the end of September it was even jumping.
On 24 October it showed interest in the macadamia nuts its mother was eating. At the age of about four months it was frequently seen eating fruit with its middle finger. The normal nursing posture of the aye-aye has not been reported, but inside the nest box this female would lie on her back and the baby would suckle at the teats near the groin with its head between the legs of the mother.
English summary of article in Japanese by Takahisa Hosoda, published in Animals and Zoos Vol. 56, No. 1 (January 2004)
Over the last three years Underwater World has had some amazing success with the breeding of a variety of cartilaginous fish species. These include brown-banded bamboo sharks, blotched fantail rays, shovelnose rays, wobbegong sharks and sandbar whaler sharks. We were also the first aquarium in the world to successfully breed grey nurse sharks on several occasions in the 1990s.
Currently Underwater World breeds over 300 brown-banded bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium punctatum) each year, with many being used for research and educational purposes. Some are transferred to other aquariums and many are released. This species has always done well in captivity and specimens never need to be obtained from the wild.
The blotched fantail ray (Taeniura meyeni) grows to over 1.8 m in diameter and is a pleasant, tame and docile species well-suited to captivity. There is very little published information available about this species.
According to S.W. Michael's Reef
Sharks and Rays of the World (Sea Challengers, Monterey, 1993) this species
only has a longevity record in an aquarium of 81 days; however, Underwater
World has kept a pair of adults since 1989. For many years we had problems
rearing our juveniles due to an unknown monogenean trematode (fluke), but we
now have a better understanding of the life cycles and have implemented new
procedures to manage these parasites. Although we have successfully produced
pups on six separate occasions, it is only since 2000 that juveniles have
successfully been reared. Litter sizes average seven pups, and due to this
recent success we have sent juveniles successfully to Sydney Aquarium as well
as to Busan Aquarium in
We constantly breed wobbegongs (Orectolobus ornatus) and shovelnose rays (Aptychotrema rostrata) in our main tank and ray pool. These juveniles are removed and placed into safer smaller exhibits and quarantine tanks for rearing before being put back into the main tank. We attribute this success to the professionalism of the staff, the excellent water quality and other environmental parameters that are being maintained.
The beautiful and majestic sandbar whaler shark (Carcharinus plumbeus) is listed by IUCN as lower risk (near threatened) globally. In February 2003 both our females produced pups. These were transponder-tagged and placed into our cave zone exhibit where they would not be eaten by our large grey nurse shark. The pups are growing well and thriving. Our female is again pregnant and possibly due to have pups again in February 2004. This success is a testament to the dedication of the keepers who maintain their environment. The research and success we have achieved in reproducing this species in captivity will hopefully lead to its better conservation.
The grey nurse shark (Carcharias
taurus) is now listed as vulnerable worldwide, and the local population on
the east coast of
Currently Underwater World, together
with Melbourne Aquarium, the resources company BHP Billiton and
Andreas Fischer in ARAZPA Newsletter No. 61 (February 2004)
News in brief
Amsterdam Zoo's 50-year-old male
Asian elephant Murugan died peacefully on
Translated by Gina Kornblith from De Harpij Vol. 22, No. 3 (2003)
* * * * *
A giant anteater was born at
Communiqué (American Zoo and Aquarium Association), December 2003
* * * * *
The koala breeding programme at
Translated by Gina Kornblith from De Harpij Vol. 22, No. 3 (2003)
* * *
C.: Das Siberut-Schutzprojekt – ein Projekt zur Förderung des Primatenschutzes
in Indonesien und der sozioökonomischen Entwicklung von Nord-Siberut. (A project to promote primate
V.: Arbeitsgruppe Buschmannhase – eine neue Initiative des südafrikanischen
Endangered Wildlife Trusts zum Schutz des Buschmannhasen. (A new conservation initiative for the riverine
Baker, W.K.: Can fatigue or stress play a part in compromising safety in the workplace? Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 31, No. 2 (2004), pp. 58–59.
Baker, W.K.: Recommendations for preventing human encroachment into a zoological facility. Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 30, No. 12 (2003), pp. 484–486.
Baker, W.K.: What types of reference materials are available for crisis management? Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 31, No. 1 (2004), pp. 27–28.
Bauer, H., and Van Der Merwe, S.:
Inventory of free-ranging lions Panthera leo in
Bayrakci, R.: Starting an injection
training program with lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus). Animal
Keepers' Forum Vol. 30, No. 12 (2003), pp. 503–512. [
Bertok, K.: Ideas for kinkajou
enrichment. The Shape of Enrichment Vol. 12, No. 3 (2003), pp. 1–3. [Potos
flavus; Carnivore Preservation Trust,
Bralsford, G.: Breeding the chestnut-backed thrush Zoothera dohertyi. Avicultural Magazine Vol. 109, No. 4 (2003), pp. 150–153.
Congdon, S.: Breeding the bearded barbet Lybius dubius at Disney's Animal Kingdom. Avicultural Magazine Vol. 109, No. 4 (2003), pp. 154–162.
Davies, H.T., and du Toit, J.:
Anthropogenic factors affecting wild dog Lycaon pictus reintroductions: a
case study in
S., and Bo, D.: Durchbruch in Sachen Naturschutz in Sichuan. (Breakthrough for conservation in
W.: Von der Bienenfresser- zur Eisvogelbrutwand: Erfahrungen aus dem Zoo in die
freie Natur übertragen. (From
a bee-eater breeding-wall to one for kingfishers: transfer of zoo experience to
the wild.) Der Zoologische Garten Vol. 73, No. 6 (2003), pp. 402–408.
[German, with English summary. The author describes the construction of a
breeding-wall for kingfishers (Alcedo atthis) at the riverside of an old
branch of the
W.-E., and Horn, H.-G.: Erstmalige Nachzucht von Karl-Schmidt's Waran, Varanus
jobiensis, im Zoo Leipzig. (First
breeding of peach-throated monitor at Leipzig Zoo.) Der Zoologische Garten
Vol. 73, No. 6 (2003), pp. 353–358. [German, with very brief English summary.
One 27.2-cm lizard hatched on
Fa, J.E., Burn, R.W., Stanley Price, M.R., and Underwood, F.M.: Identifying important endemic areas using ecoregions: birds and mammals in the Indo-Pacific. Oryx Vol. 38, No. 1 (2004), pp. 91–101. [Concentrations of large numbers of endemic species have been singled out in prioritization exercises as significant areas for global biodiversity conservation. This paper describes bird and mammal endemicity in Indo-Pacific ecoregions. An ecoregion is a relatively large unit of land or water that contains a distinct assemblage of natural communities. The authors prioritize 133 ecoregions according to their levels of endemicity, and explain how variables such as biome type, whether the ecoregion is on an island or continental mass, montane or non-montane, correlate with the proportion of the total species assemblage that are endemic. Following an exploratory principal components analysis, they classify all ecoregions according to the relationship between numbers of endemics and overall species richness. Endemicity is negatively correlated with species richness. They show that plotting the logit transformation of the endemicity of birds and mammals against log of species richness is a more effective and useful way of identifying important ecoregions than simply ordering ecoregions by the proportion of endemic species, or any other single measure. The plot, divided into 16 regions corresponding to the quartiles of the two variables, was used to identify ecoregions of high conservation value. These are the ecoregions with the highest endemicity and lowest species richness. Further analysis shows that island and montane ecoregions, regardless of their biome type, are by far the most important for endemic species.]
Furmanski, W.: Studying scent
enrichment for sika deer and Indian muntjacs. The Shape of Enrichment
Vol. 12, No. 3 (2003), pp. 4–7. [Cervus nippon and Muntiacus muntjak;
Gottschalk, C., Thielebein, J., and Spretke, T.: Anmerkungen zum Flohbefall bei einem Korsak, Vulpes corsac (Linnaeus, 1768) im Zoologischen Garten Halle. (Notes on a flea infestation in a corsac fox at Halle Zoo.) Der Zoologische Garten Vol. 73, No. 6 (2003), pp. 416–421. [German, with very brief English summary. The wild-caught animal was infested with Pulex irritans; microscopic measurements suggest possible differences between these and `normal' human fleas.]
Guerrero, D.: Integration of Zalophus californianus and Phoca vitulina. Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 30, No. 12 (2003), pp. 487–488.
Guerrero, D.: Wolf training. Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 31, No. 1 (2004), pp. 23–24.
Hegetschweiler, K.T., Jermann, T., and Baur, B.: Einfluss der pflanzlichen Strukturvielfalt im Terrarium auf die Aktivität und das Verhalten junger Jemenchamäleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus). (Influence of different terrarium plant structures on activity and behaviour of young veiled chameleons.) Der Zoologische Garten Vol. 73, No. 6 (2003), pp. 359–367. [German, with English summary; Basel Zoo. The plant structure of the terraria of six individually housed young chameleons was alternately changed to form a moderately structured or a highly structured habitat. A moderately structured terrarium contained two to three branches of Prunus spinosa. To obtain a highly structured terrarium, four 40-cm-high Dracaena plants were added. The chameleons showed higher locomotory activity in moderately structured terraria than in highly structured terraria. In moderately structured terraria they also showed more stress signals such as scratching on the walls. These effects were more pronounced as the chameleons grew older (six months). This finding indicates that young veiled chameleons require abundant cover and hiding places and that these needs increase with age.]
A.B.: Schutzprojekt für den Rotohrara in Bolivien. (A conservation project for the red-fronted
Hu, G., Dong, X., Wei, Y., Zhu, Y.,
and Duan, X.: Evidence for a decline of François' langur Trachypithecus
francoisi in Fusui Nature Reserve, south-west
Hübner, S.M., Prinzinger, R., and Wink, M.: Neue Erkenntnisse zur Taxonomie der Hornvögel (Aves: Bucerotiformes) und ihre Bedeutung für die Zucht in Menschenobhut. (New findings on hornbill taxonomy and their significance for captive breeding.) Der Zoologische Garten Vol. 73, No. 6 (2003), pp. 396–401. [German, with English summary. Within the scope of developing a molecular phylogeny of hornbills, some results with relevance to captive breeding have arisen. Partly they are of purely formal importance – that Tockus apparently consists of two genera, that Ceratogymna and Bycanistes should be united into only one genus Ceratogymna, that there are obviously two genera behind Tockus and that Aceros comatus should be relocated into Berenicornis. But other results are of immediate interest for captive breeding: Tockus d. deckeni, T. d. jacksoni, Anthracoceros a. albirostris and A. a. convexus are corroborated as subspecies. In the case of Bucorvus leadbeateri the results imply the existence of genetically distinctive populations. Tockus n. nasutus, T. n. epirhinus and some subspecies of T. erythrorhynchus differ to such an extent that they should be treated as full species. Further, the existence of more than one Penelopides species is confirmed; there are also Penelopides-hybrids in European zoos.]
Hyatt, C.W., Metzler, T., French, B., and Fahrenbruck, D.: Mirrors as enrichment for Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of the Elephant Managers Association Vol. 14, No. 3 (2003), pp. 12–16. [Mirrors were placed in the activity yards of 15 Asian elephants and responses noted. Although no explicit behaviors indicating self-recognition were observed, there were no aggressive acts demonstrated. Significant effects were found showing increased activity levels when examining time spent looking at the mirror and frequencies of reaching for the mirror when compared to baseline. The active interest toward the mirrors displayed by several of the animals supports the use of supervised mirror interaction as novel behavioral enrichment for elephants.]
Jacobs, B., Yantz, A., and Lacasse,
C.: Recovery from spinal trauma in a juvenile Allen's swamp monkey (Allenopithecus
nigroviridis). Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 31, No. 2 (2004), pp.
Jones, M.L.: A history of the genus Picathartes in captivity, 1948–2002. (Continued from Vol. 109, No. 3.) Avicultural Magazine Vol. 109, No. 4 (2003), pp. 167–173.
Kobold, S.: Die Primaten von Mentawai und das Siberut Conservation Project. (The primates of Mentawai and the S.C.P.) ZGAP Mitteilungen Vol. 19, No. 2 (2003), pp. 7–9. [German, no English summary. See above, s.v. Abegg.]
W.: Beiträge zur Embryogenese des Mohrenkopfpapageien (Poicephalus senegalus
L., 1766): Erstes Dunenkleid, Zehenstellung und Schnabelform beim Schlupf. (Notes on the embryology of the
J.-M.: Das internationale Erhaltungszuchtprogramm für den Gelbbrustkapuziner:
eine Zusammenfassung. (A
summary of the international breeding programme for the yellow-breasted
capuchin monkey.) ZGAP Mitteilungen Vol. 19, No. 2 (2003), pp. 26–27.
[German, with English summary. The yellow-breasted capuchin is a subspecies (xanthosternos)
of Cebus apella, nowadays being often considered to be a distinct
species. Its original range included a very large area of tropical rain forest
along the coast of
S., and Wood, P.: Das Orangehaubenkakadu-Projekt auf der Insel Sumba. (The
N.: Erhaltungsprojekt für Chamaeleo africanus: erste Daten aus Ägypten
und Neues aus Griechenland. (A
conservation project for the African chameleon: first data from
Mickelson, L.: Raising captive
whooping cranes for the recovery program: an analysis of egg management and
chick rearing at the Devonian Wildlife Conservation Centre. Animal Keepers'
Forum Vol. 31, No. 2 (2004), pp. 76–79. [Grus
Miller, A.: Malayan tapir enrichment at Disney's Animal Kingdom. Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 31, No. 2 (2004), pp. 63–68.
V., and Smeets, M.: Zum Status des Bawean-Pustelschweins und des
Bawean-Hirsches. (Status of
the Bawean warty pig and Bawean deer.) ZGAP Mitteilungen Vol. 19, No. 2
(2003), p. 25. [German, with English summary. A brief field study on the status
of the Bawean warty pig (Sus verrucosus blouchi) and the Bawean deer (Axis
kuhli) took place in 2002 on the small
Nyhus, P.J., and Tilson, R.:
Characterizing human–tiger conflict in
Owen, N.: Breeding the grey treepie Dendrocitta formosae. Avicultural Magazine Vol. 109, No. 4 (2003), pp. 145–149.
Pagel, T.: Biologie, Haltung und Zucht von Spinten am Beispiel des Weissstirnspintes (Merops bullockoides) im Zoo Köln. (Biology, husbandry and breeding of bee-eaters, with special reference to white-fronted bee-eaters at Cologne Zoo.) Der Zoologische Garten Vol. 73, No. 6 (2003), pp. 374–395. [German, with very brief English summary. Cologne Zoo has kept white-fronted bee-eaters for the last 11 years. The article describes their diet and the construction of an artificial riverbank.]
Port, M., and Rothe, H.: Eine nichtinvasive Methode der Gewichtserfassung an einer Gruppe semifreilebender Weissbüschelaffen (Callithrix jacchus). (A non-invasive method of taking weights in a semi-free-living group of common marmosets.) Der Zoologische Garten Vol. 73, No. 6 (2003), pp. 422–425. [German, no English summary.]
Pratte, J.: Sleeping cats: it's what they do. . . The Shape of Enrichment Vol. 12, No. 4 (2003), pp. 6–7. [Sleeping platforms for big cats.]
Prouse, E.: Breeding the blue-crowned motmot at Riverbanks Zoo and Botanical Garden. Avicultural Magazine Vol. 109, No. 4 (2003), pp. 163–166. [Momotus momota.]
Quinlan, C.: An intern's enrichment. Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 30, No. 12 (2003), pp.
498–499. [Houston Zoo,
Raboy, B.E., Christman, M.C., and Dietz, J.M.: The use of degraded and shade cocoa forests by Endangered golden-headed lion tamarins Leontopithecus chrysomelas. Oryx Vol. 38, No. 1 (2004), pp. 75–83. [Determining habitat requirements for threatened primates is critical to implementing conservation strategies, and plans incorporating metapopulation structure require understanding the potential of available habitats to serve as corridors. The authors examined how three groups of golden-headed lion tamarins in Southern Bahia, Brazil, used mature, swamp, secondary and shade cocoa (cabruca) forests. Unlike callitrichids that show affinities for degraded forest, Leontopithecus species are presumed to depend on primary or mature forests for sleeping sites in tree holes and epiphytic bromeliads for animal prey. In this study the authors quantified resource availability within each habitat, compared the proportion of time spent in each habitat to that based on availability, investigated preferences for sleeping site selection, and determined how golden-headed lion tamarins allocated time to foraging behaviour in different habitats. Each group preferred to range in certain habitats during the day, yet patterns were not consistent across groups. In contrast, all groups preferred to sleep in mature or cabruca forest. The tamarins spent a greater proportion of time foraging and eating fruits, flowers and nectar in cabruca than in mature or secondary forests. Although the extent to which secondary and cabruca forests can completely sustain breeding groups is unresolved, we conclude that both habitats would make suitable corridors for the movement of tamarins between forest fragments, and that the large trees remaining in cabruca are important sources of food and sleeping sites. It is suggested that management plans for this species should focus on protecting areas that include access to tall forest, either mature or cabruca, for the long-term conservation of the species.]
Reichenbach, H.: Marvin L. Jones 75 Jahre. (Marvin Jones – a 75th birthday tribute.) Der Zoologische Garten Vol. 73, No. 6 (2003), pp. 426–429. [German, no English summary.]
Restall, R.: Breeding the black-faced grassquit Tiaris bicolor omissa, with some notes on behaviour. Avicultural Magazine Vol. 109, No. 4 (2003), pp. 174–179.
Savastano, G., Barone, A., Hessel,
D., Jones, V., and Vibal, D.:
V., and Schaefer, H.M.: Erste Erfolge im Schutz des Orces-Sittichs in Ecuador. (First success for conservation of
the El Oro conure in
H., and Reul-Schneider, M.: Einige Erfahrungen zur Haltung und Zucht des
Chinesischen Gelbkehlhäherlings. (Notes on the husbandry and breeding of the yellow-throated laughing
thrush.) ZGAP Mitteilungen Vol. 19, No. 2 (2003), pp. 28–29. [German,
with English summary. The European Studbook for the Chinese subspecies of the
yellow-throated laughing thrush (Garrulax galbanus courtoisi), kept by
Schwammer, H.M., and
Stoeger-Horwath, A.S.: The history of the African elephant in
Serra, G., Abdallah, M., Assaed, A.,
Abdallah, A., Al Qaim, G., Fayad, T., and Williamson, D.: Discovery of a relict
breeding colony of northern bald ibis Geronticus eremita in
Steele, T., and Steele, R.:
Motivating travel by alternating feeding locations. The Shape of Enrichment
Vol. 12, No. 4 (2003), p. 5. [Canis lupus; Menominee Park Zoo,
Stenke, R.: Projekt Goldkopflangur auf Cat Ba Island, Nordvietnam. (Golden-headed langur project in Cat Ba.) ZGAP Mitteilungen Vol. 19, No. 2 (2003), pp. 3–5. [German, with English summary. For the first time in decades the world population of the critically endangered golden-headed langur (Trachypithecus poliocephalus) has increased. A total of nine births (seven in 2003) but only three animal losses have been recorded since October 2000, when the Zoological Society for the Conservation of Species and Populations, in partnership with Münster Zoo, initiated the Langur Conservation Project on Cat Ba Island, Vietnam. Increasing conservation awareness among the local indigenous people and improving habitat and wildlife protection constituted the main objectives of the conservation project during the past two and a half years. Poaching was brought under control through ranger work, a strictly protected langur sanctuary in Cat Ba National Park was established, and active involvement of local people in protection work is taking place. Resulting from a major governmental development plan for Cat Ba Island, however, habitat destruction and fragmentation have increased, and so has the pressure on Cat Ba National Park, which is currently in danger of losing up to 30% of its area. The langur project is working to alleviate threats to the park by contributing to mapping the future park boundaries and by assisting to apply for UNESCO Biosphere Reserve nomination for the Cat Ba Archipelago. With about 60 individuals, scattered over several isolated sub-populations, the langur population is still extremely small and fragile, and with new threats such as proposed military roads, the species will still need all the help it can possibly get. Even translocation of langurs seems to be unavoidable.]
Streicher, U.: Saisonale Veränderungen
in Fellfärbung und Fellzeichnung beim Zwergplumplori (Nycticebus pygmaeus)
und ihre taxonomische Bedeutung. (Seasonal changes in fur colour and pattern in
pygmy loris and their taxonomic significance.) Der Zoologische Garten
Vol. 73, No. 6 (2003), pp. 368–373. [German, with English summary. Fur
coloration and pattern of the pygmy loris are frequently used to distinguish it
from another species, the intermediate loris (N. intermedius). This
study aimed to clarify the taxonomic questions concerning these species, to aid
identification of individuals at the
J., and Rouys, S.: Ökologie, Gefährdung und Schutz des Hornsittichs und des
Ziegensittichs in Neukaledonien. (Status and conservation of horned parakeet and red-crowned parakeet in
Tilson, R., Hu, D., Muntifering, J.,
and Nyhus, P.J.: Dramatic decline of wild
Williams, J.L., and Friend, T.H.: Behavior of circus elephants during transport. Journal of the Elephant Managers Association Vol. 14, No. 3 (2003), pp. 8–11. [Circuses, zoos, sanctuaries, and private owners transport elephants for trips lasting from a few hours to several days. This study used time-lapse video to record the activities of elephants hauled in semi-trailers and in rail cars. Bouts of lying down, weaving, and standing were recorded. Video observations of elephants in semi-trailers lasted from to 3.8 hours, while observations of elephants in rail cars lasted from 40 minutes to 26.3 hours, with the shorter observation periods the result of video equipment failure. The percentage of observed time spent weaving by elephants hauled in semi-trailers ranged from 4.2% to 93.2%/ while elephants hauled in rail cars spent zero to 68.5% of observed time weaving. While weaving, elephants engaged in activities such as eating, throwing feed over their back, and looking out the windows. Only two elephants, both of which were transported in rail cars, were observed lying down (2.8 and 4.6% of the observed time). Occurrence of weaving was highly variable between elephants. Because the elephants observed in this study engaged in a range of activities while weaving and were not in a trance-like state, weaving during transport did not appear to be indicative of poor welfare.]
A.: Gefährdung und Schutz des Hainangibbons. (Status, threats and conservation of the
Publishers of the periodicals listed:
Animal Keepers' Forum, American Association of Zoo
Animal Welfare, Universities Federation for Animal
Welfare, The Old School, Brewhouse Hill, Wheathampstead, Herts. AL4 8AN,
Avicultural Magazine, Membership Secretary, Stewart
Pyper, 21 Primrose Hill, Nunney, Frome,
Journal of the Elephant Managers
The Shape of Enrichment,
ZGAP Mitteilungen, Zoologische Gesellschaft für Arten- und Populationsschutz e.V. (Zoological Society for the Conservation of Species and Populations), Franz-Senn-Strasse 14, D-81377 München, Germany.
Der Zoologische Garten, Urban & Fischer Verlag GmbH, P.O. Box 100537, D-07705 Jena, Germany.