International Zoo News Vol. 50/8 (No. 329) December 2003
IN MEMORIAM – Gerard van Dam
Husbandry of Dholes at Farshid Mehrdadfar, Justin Chuven,
San Diego Wild Animal Park Kelly Casavant, and Karen Barnes
Vocalizations of Juvenile Cheetahs Angela S. Stoeger-Horwath
during Feeding at Schönbrunn Zoo and Harald M. Schwammer
Heidelberg – a Zoo Reborn John Tuson
Kerbert and the Japanese Giant A.C. van Bruggen
Salamander: Early Scientific Achievements
in the Amsterdam Aquarium
A Note on the Births of Bearded Saki Daniela Fichtner Gomes and
and Woolly Monkey in Brazilian Zoos Júlio César Bicca-Marques
International Zoo News
Index to Contributors, Vol. 50
Index to Books Reviewed, Vol. 50
Subject Index, Vol. 50
* * *
Gerard van Dam, 1927–2003
[Gerard van Dam took over the fledgling International Zoo News from its founder, Bent Jørgensen, in 1954, and thereafter ran it with great success until 1973. Below, Bent Jørgensen shares some early memories of Gerard van Dam.]
Some months after the publication of the first issue of International Zoo News in 1951, I received a letter from Wageningen in the Netherlands that surprised me. IZN was intended as a magazine for zoos, and it had never occurred to me that there could be other people than myself who – without working in a zoo – had a deep fascination with zoo life. Nobody had told me about zoo enthusiasts!
The letter was from Gerard van Dam, a young man who (as far as I remember) worked with public relations but, like me, had zoos as his only hobby. He was well known in Dutch zoological gardens and had learned about IZN during a visit to Rotterdam Zoo. He told me that he had for some time thought of creating something similar to IZN, and now he wanted to know whether he could be of any assistance to me. He was immediately made correspondent to IZN, and from issue No. 11 in December 1951 many news items and articles were signed `G.Th.v.D.'
In the spring of 1952 I was invited to stay with the van Dam family for a week. Gerard had talked several Dutch zoos into sponsoring a large part of my expenses, and every morning we left to visit one or two zoos. Everywhere we were cordially welcomed by the zoo directors, and it was apparent that Gerard van Dam was highly regarded as a guest. So we had a long meeting with Dr Sunier in his large office in Amsterdam, were shown around in Arnhem by Reinier van Hoof, had coffee with the animal dealer van Dijk in Tilburg, and ate lunch with several staff members in Rotterdam. And in trains and buses Gerard and I talked and talked about zoos and zoo animals. The evenings were spent in the cosy home of the van Dams. This was a time when there were severe housing problems everywhere in Europe, but Gerard and his wife had found a solution to their problem. They had bought an old train waggon and converted it into a small house.
When Gerard learned that I planned a Danish edition of IZN, he decided to do the same in Dutch, so early in 1952 International–Dierentuin–Nieuws appeared. Gerard's Dutch edition was much more professional than both my international and Danish editions, and was an omen of what would come. Late in 1952 I had to give up as publisher of IZN. The deficit had grown too big for an 18-year-old boy. Soon, Gerard wrote me that he would like to try his luck with a new launch of International Zoo News. Would I give him my blessing? Of course I would, and in January 1954 the first issue of his IZN was published – a magazine much closer to today's version than the rather primitive issues that I had published.
In his first editorial Gerard van Dam wrote that he hoped to create a magazine which would `be a medium valued by all zoo directors' and which could `strengthen the ties between zoos in all parts of the world.' And this is what he did indeed create.
[IZN's 25th anniversary issue in 1976 included an article by Gerard van Dam entitled `Has my ideal been realised?' As copies of this issue have long been unobtainable, we reprint this article below, both as a tribute to Gerard van Dam and as a small contribution to zoo history.]
`May this paper prove to be a medium valued by all directors of zoological gardens which will strengthen the ties between zoos in all parts of the world: my ideal will then be realised.'
These were my first words in the new-look IZN which was issued in January 1954, after I had taken over the paper from my good friend Bent Jørgensen. The first IZN from Holland now looks rather poor: only 10 pages, with two photographs, a cover picture, and news from only 15 different zoos.
From my childhood – about six years of age – I lived in the small Dutch town of Rhenen, where the still existing Ouwehand Zoo attracted my full attention. Since that time in 1933, I spent every spare minute of my life in that zoo which was still in its developing stage. As a little boy, I am told, I had the correct feeling for handling animals; and until the age of 18 I had `worked' as a freelance in all departments of this zoo, and I gained a lot of experience in everything which went on on both sides of the bars.
Growing up, I spread my wings; I got in touch with other zoos and zoo people, inside Holland and later on, when the Second World War was over, throughout the world. I collected zoo guides and postcards, corresponded with zoo directors, asked them for recent news, and visited zoos in and around Holland.
Some time in 1950 I had close contacts with numerous zoo directors in Western Europe; and from talks with them I learned that there was hardly any communication on an international scale between the zoos. This hurt my feelings as a Public Relations Officer, for which job I was now well trained. So I started looking for ways to improve this situation, the more so since I pretty well understood that only by cooperation on an international scale could the zoos in future survive and overcome all the wildlife conservation problems which threatened.
On a lucky day in 1951 I accidentally found in a zoo's library a copy of Bent Jørgensen's International Zoo News; from that moment I clearly realised that such an information bulletin could serve as a unique communication medium. I got in touch with Bent Jørgensen, became one of his closest co-workers, and during one week in 1952 we both visited 12 Dutch zoos and laid a perfect foundation for the future of International Zoo News, our mutual baby.
When the Danish IZN got into financial trouble, I took over the whole business; and with the moral and financial assistance of the zoos in Manchester, England, and Rotterdam, Holland, I started the new IZN from the Dutch Zoo-Centrum.
I recall with gratitude the fine co-workers from the very beginning such as Marvin L. Jones, U.S.A., Marcel Langer from Switzerland, Bent Jørgensen from Denmark, Sigrid Hettwich from Berlin; and later on Pierre Brouard from France, Geoffrey Schomberg from England, Bebbo (P.L.) Florio from Italy, and Ken Kawata from Japan. Without their enthusiastic assistance it would never have been possible now to celebrate the 25th anniversary of International Zoo News.
For many consecutive years the `old' IZN published the annual zoo attendance lists and the number of animals, divided into species, on exhibit in the world's zoos. These pages formed unique items in those times, because this information could not be gathered from any other source.
Rather sensational was the article, published in IZN in July 1954, on the USSR's leading zoo, the Moscow Zoo Park; in fact that report was the first sign of life from Russia after World War II, and readers much appreciated this rare information.
Zoo animal exchange on an international level started around 1954. The Manchester Zoo, England, wrote me in a letter: `The value of IZN has just been demonstrated by a letter recently received from Rotterdam Zoo, who say that they read in the September number that we have three female polar bears in our zoo and that, as they have three males, they would like to exchange one of their males for one of our females.' Result: the polar bears were exchanged between Manchester and Rotterdam. Since then hundreds of animals have been moved by means of my mediation.
In January 1956 Zoo-Centrum published a very special publication called List of the Zoological Gardens of the World, containing 531 addresses of zoos all over the world. As far as I know this was the most up-to-date list ever published, and it brought me a lot of enthusiastic reactions from every corner of the globe. This publication was important in increasing the popularity of IZN.
Another uncommon source of information at that time (1956) was a series of diets for captive wild animals, as developed and used at the Philadelphia Zoo, U.S.A. These articles were made possible by my good friend H.L. Ratcliffe, who gave his kind permission to print them in IZN. Some months later Dr Hans Wackernagel wrote a worthwhile article on the new feeding system at the Basle Zoo, Switzerland.
Looking back on those old days I remember the annual conference of the International Union of Directors of Zoological Gardens, held in 1956 in Chicago. The president, Mr Walter Van den Bergh of Antwerp Zoo, Belgium, paid special attention to my proposal to find a way to cooperate closely with the Zoo Union. Most members liked my work and my paper, but they decided that it was impossible for an `outsider' to act on behalf of the Zoo Union in an official capacity. Since then I have made numerous attempts to achieve some kind of cooperation with this Union and with other national zoo associations, but, alas, I cannot say I was very successful.
I believe it is useful to mention that the editing of IZN, and all work connected with it, had to be done in my spare time, purely as a hobby. I have done this work for twenty years: every free minute of my life I spent on my paper, writing thousands of letters to all parts of the world, to collect news items, to hunt after special articles, to gather zoo guides and to do the enormous administration. I have given the best twenty years of my life to this interesting project, and only a very severe illness was able to stop me, at the end of 1973.
International Zoo News grew satisfactorily: in 1954 the volume numbered 56 pages, in 1959 ran to 196 pages and in 1973 three hundred pages. Building up a real contact organ is most difficult in the first five years; later on you have formed such a great number of contacts that the news and articles flow in automatically.
A great deal of my time was spent on correspondence with friends; I remember that I have had weeks on which more than one hundred letters were sent out. Especially in the first ten years, many zoo directors contacted me with specific questions on such things as feeding, diet advice, animal exchange, animal housing, and so on.
IZN was a hobby of mine; the logical (?) consequence was that I sent hundreds of copies free of charge to zoos which could not pay, for whatever reason. Personal requests from zoo keepers, zoo veterinarians, students, private collectors and so on were always answered by sending free copies, year after year. So now and then this method caused financial problems because the incoming subscriptions and the advertising fees did not cover all expenses. Fortunately numerous zoo directors understood this and have done me the great favour of sending additional money.
From the beginning my ideal had been to publish an important contact magazine in which all zoo directors throughout the world gave their news and advice and told of their problems and their plans: a magazine so closely concerned with each zoo director as to be indispensable.
I have always believed in one international zoo paper serving all zoo people in the world. Mutual contacts and mutual exchange of relevant information must be promoted. Every zoo man needs this kind of guidance. Moreover experience has shown that only a careful exchange of animals will guarantee a zoo's stock. Natural resources are drying up; civilization and human expansion are going on. Where will the world's fauna live? Only the zoo with the utmost sense of responsibility can save the rest of the world's animal kingdom. Modern methods will assist zoo people; one of the necessary instruments is an intensive mutual contact with colleagues with equal interests.
International Zoo News has been, and still is, an excellent tool! Only when a great percentage of zoo directors use this tool in all its aspects will my ideal finally be realised.
Gerard van Dam (1976)
* * *
HUSBANDRY OF DHOLES AT SAN DIEGO WILD ANIMAL PARK
BY FARSHID MEHRDADFAR, JUSTIN CHUVEN, KELLY CASAVANT, AND KAREN BARNES
Dholes (Cuon alpinus) belong to the family Canidae, though finer classification is in dispute (Kleiman, 1967; Fox, 1971; Clutton-Brock, 1976). They are the only members of the genus Cuon. Their range includes central and east Asia, from China (Manchuria) in the north to India and the Malay Peninsula in the south. They are also found on the islands of Sumatra and Java, but are absent in Borneo, Sri Lanka, and Japan (Johnsingh, 1985). They are adapted to a wide variety of climates and habitats including steppes, scrub, dense forests, and mountainous alpine regions. Due to their secretive nature and the remoteness of their habitats, dholes are seldom studied. They are referred to by a variety of common names including Asian/Asiatic wild dog, Indian wild dog, and red dog.
Cuon alpinus is included under Appendix II of CITES, and listed as Vulnerable by the IUCN. As of 3 January 2003, ISIS listed the international captive population of the species as 73.58.4.
Dholes vary in color, typically having a reddish-brown coat with a whitish belly and chest. They have a bushy, partially black tail. Their legs are stout and their ear tips are rounded. One feature which distinguishes them from other canids is the presence of six molars in their lower jaw instead of seven. This gives them a shorter muzzle, and hence a stronger bite (Alderton, 1994). Females differ from other canids by having twelve to fourteen teats instead of the usual ten. They can weigh from 28 to 44 lbs [approx. 12–20 kg]. Their life-span in captivity is 10 to 16 years (Alderton, 1994).
Dholes have a complex social system much like that of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). Since they live in such a wide variety of habitats, their prey is diverse. They have been known to hunt musk ox, ibex, mountain sheep, various deer species, rodents, rabbits and even turtles in some parts of their range (Cohen, 1977). They are primarily diurnal and crepuscular, but are occasionally active during the night.
They have a complex vocal repertoire that serves many organizational and social functions (Johnsingh, 1982). Their vocalizations include a unique whistling sound, whines, yelps, yaps and growls. Dholes are seasonal breeders across most of their range, with the exception of southern regions, where they may breed at any time of the year (Bueler, 1973). Typically, only one female in the pack bears young each season.
Dholes are kept in several zoos in Europe and Asia, but the group at San Diego Wild Animal Park is the only one in the United States. Since their arrival, interest in this species has been expressed by the Canid Taxon Advisory Group and by other American institutions. In this paper we present the husbandry routines which have been successfully established at the park.
Collection and housing
Our collection consists of 3.2 dholes. The animals were shipped from Moscow Zoo, and following quarantine at San Diego Zoo, were received by the Wild Animal Park in May and June 2001.
The dholes are kept in an off-exhibit area, located in coastal chaparral habitat which is home to a variety of native species including mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and various birds. Temperatures vary year-round, ranging from occasional freezes to over 100°F [38°C]. They are housed in six long, narrow pens, built side by side in an area removed from other captive animals. The pens measure 40 feet by 70 [12.2 ´ 21 m] and are surrounded by chain-link fence topped with in-rigging. The pens have a grass substrate with shade trees and bushes. In each pen, there is a molded plastic house, 4 feet by 4 feet by 6 feet high [1.2 ´ 1.2 ´ 1.8 m], placed on a cement pad; the house is bedded with hay during the winter months. A shade structure consisting of four metal poles with a corrugated metal top is situated above each plastic house.
Around the perimeter there is a second chain-link barrier to prevent contact between the dholes and native wildlife. A covered alley runs along one end of the pens. There is a gate in each common fence line. These gates, as well as the front alley, can be used to shift animals between pens.
Dholes have an affinity for water. Each pen is provided with a 50-gallon [190-liter] rugged plastic tub, which is filled with fresh water each day. The water tub provides great enrichment for the animals year-round. They often walk through it in order to cool their feet, and sometimes lie down and soak for a few minutes.
In May 2002, two dholes were paired for breeding. They have the use of two pens, each with multiple options for denning. The remaining three animals are housed in individual pens, but have visual, olfactory, and tactile access through the chain-link fence. One pen has been left empty between the pair and the other three animals. The fence line between the pair and the empty pen has been covered with plywood, with the exception of one section where a `window' was left. This gives the pair visual contact with the other dholes, but also allows them the option to seek privacy.
One of the pair's two pens has a small catch-pen in the back. Access to this can be controlled from an adjacent alley. Each pen has a molded plastic house; in each is an extra large vari-kennel. Each kennel is angled to provide privacy and is pushed toward the back of the house to provide a `porch' on the front portion of the cement pad. Hay is packed around the sides, behind and above the kennel to provide insulation. The female has shown a strong preference for one of the houses. The pair also has a plastic `dog loo' and two lean-tos (one provided with a nest box).
When the dholes first arrived, they were very flighty in the presence of keepers and ran up and down the fence line jumping off the fence. To address this, a small group of three keepers was chosen to care for them. With consistent care, the dholes have calmed significantly. They are playful with the keepers at times, and are never really aggressive. We are always impressed with their swiftness and agility as they move between and over items in their pens. Since there is no aggression toward keepers, we are able to service the pens without the need to shift the animals elsewhere. This is very beneficial for collecting fecal and urine samples to support research goals.
Each animal is fed two to three pounds [900–1350 g] of Natural Balance Carnivore diet (5% fat) five days per week. One day per week, they each receive a rabbit. One day per week is a light feed day; on this day, they receive a bone, and a small amount of meat. For enrichment purposes, they also receive a bone on one of their regular meat days.
The dholes are usually hand-fed through a chain-link or crate door barrier. Their food is distributed over two feedings, which allows us more time to work with them and gives us the opportunity to administer bi-daily medication when prescribed. We have offered a variety of food items for enrichment, training, and medication purposes. Dholes are finicky eaters, but we have had some success with beef heart, bone marrow, lamb, and Natural Balance carnivore diet (15% fat).
To properly care for this species, it was evident that an operant conditioning program would be needed. On average, an animal receives ten to fifteen minutes of husbandry training four to five days per week. Our primary focus has been crate training. In order to make the process as comfortable and stress-free for the animals as possible, we have designed a squeeze crate specialized for dholes (see Appendix A). We also include other behaviors which may facilitate management goals, such as `stand' to observe their feet and `scale' to obtain weights. Additional behaviors, such as `sit' and `down', have been included to provide variety during training sessions.
We have found our dholes to be a challenge to train; they are not necessarily food-motivated, and interest in doing behaviors is inconsistent. However, we have made progress and continue to work with this fascinating species. The operant conditioning program is labor-intensive but has proven to be instrumental in the well-being of this species.
The dholes have adapted to the described system of management. Basic husbandry routines have been established to help meet the research and breeding goals for which this species was brought to our facility. Consistent care, specialized husbandry tools and a willingness to explore creative options have been key factors in learning how best to care for this species. Further study will allow us to refine our husbandry techniques, to facilitate research goals and to develop successful protocols for breeding this species.
Appendix A: Specialized Squeeze Crate
The crate is made of aluminum and has features to facilitate training and husbandry procedures. It measures 60 by 22 by 28 inches [1520 ´ 560 ´ 710 mm] (external dimensions) and has one panel that can be manually pushed on rollers to decrease the width inside the crate. A quick-release ratchet system along the top aids the squeeze process by preventing an animal from pushing back against the keeper's efforts. Opposite the movable panel is a wall made of perforated aluminum; half-inch [13-mm] diameter holes in this wall allow for syringe access and for viewing of the animal. At the base of the perforated wall, there are small doors that span the length of the wall, allowing access to different parts of the animal's body. Each door is three inches [75 mm] tall, and slides along half of the crate. At each end of the crate, there are double doors that slide vertically; one is made of clear Plexiglas and the other of solid aluminum. Each door fits into a plastic runner, which aids smooth and quiet closure of the doors. The top of the crate has four small, hinged doors that provide access to the animal from above. These doors provide the opportunity to administer topical medications such as Frontline® flea and tick preventative.
We wish to thank Paula Augustus and Rebekah Whelpley for commenting on the manuscript. We are grateful to the management of the Zoological Society of San Diego for supporting a labor-intensive approach to meeting the husbandry needs of this species. Please feel free to contact us for further information on this article.
Alderton, D. (1994): Foxes, Wolves and Wild Dogs of the World. Blandford, London.
Bueler, L.E. (1973): Wild Dogs of the World. Stein and Day, New York.
Clutton-Brock, J., Corbet, G.B., and Hills, M. (1976): A review of the family Canidae, with a classification by numerical methods. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology 29: 117–199.
Cohen, J.A. (1977) A review of the biology of the dhole or Asiatic wild dog (Cuon alpinus Pallas). Animal Regulation Studies 1: 141–158.
Fox, M.W. (1984): The Whistling Hunters: Field Studies of the Asiatic Wild Dog (Cuon alpinus). State University of New York Press, Albany.
Johnsingh, A.J.T. (1982) Reproductive and social behaviour of the dhole, Cuon alpinus (Canidae). Journal of Zoology (London) 198: 443–463.
Johnsingh, A.J.T. (1985): Distribution and status of dhole (Cuon alpinus Pallas, 1811) in South Asia. Mammalia 49 (2): 203–208.
Kleiman, D.G. (1967): Some aspects of social behavior in the Canidae. American Zoologist 7: 365–372.
Farshid Mehrdadfar, Justin Chuven, Kelly Casavant and Karen Barnes, San Diego Wild Animal Park, 15500 San Pasqual Valley Road, Escondido, California 92027, U.S.A. (E-mail: Fmehrdadfar@sandiegozoo.org, email@example.com, CRESWapKeeper@sandiegozoo.org.)
* * *
VOCALIZATIONS OF JUVENILE CHEETAHS DURING FEEDING AT SCHÖNBRUNN ZOO
BY ANGELA S. STOEGER-HORWATH AND HARALD M. SCHWAMMER
All cat species use sound communication at close, medium and long distances.
Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) have a very complex vocal communication system uttering various sounds, yet the complete acoustic repertoire has not been analyzed and information about the acoustic structure is rare. Most vocalizations in felids are generated by oscillations of the vocal folds during exhalation (Peters, 1991); but there are a few vocalizations which regularly include inhalatory sound production. Hissing is a sound which can probably be performed without laryngeal sound generation (Peters, 1991). Also, as a vocalization, purring is peculiar in that it can be produced continuously during both phases of respiration.
Many of the cheetah's calls are unlike the sounds of other cats, particularly the two discrete cries, `chirping' and `churring', which are often given alternately and repeatedly, at varying intensity. The chirp, which sounds like a high-intensity call of a bird, is the usual call given by females to summon hidden or lost cubs, by greeting or courting adults and by cubs around a kill. The intensity of the call reflects the degree of excitement.
`Churring' is a growling sound and, like the chirp, is used on many occasions.
In anger or fright, cheetahs `growl', `snarl', `hiss' and `cough'. When forced to surrender its prey to another predator, a cheetah may hiss and sometimes moan loudly.
`Bleating' is a sound of distress: for example, a female circling a lion who had stolen her kill uttered a `growling bleat' (Peters, 1991).
Contended and friendly cheetahs purr like huge housecats, especially while greeting or licking each other.
Cubs squabbling make a whirring sound (possibly equivalent to growling in other cats), which may rise to a squeak at peak intensity and subsides to a rasp.
A sound like `nyam, nyam, nyam' is associated with eating; and other calls heard between mother and cubs include `ihn, ihn, ihn', which like chirping is used to summon young. A sharp `prr, prr', elicits close following when the mother is moving. A short, low-pitched sound makes the cubs stay still.
Table 1 shows a preliminary overview of the calls uttered by cheetahs.
Table 1. Acoustic calls of the cheetah – a preliminary overview (modified from Peters, 1991).
Behavioural context Call type
Courting, greeting, summoning young, chirping (or yelping)
cubs around a kill churring
Anger, fright growling
Content and friendly purring
Maternal and juvenile whirring
Mother calling cubs ihn ihn
`Follow me' prr prr
Schönbrunn Zoo, Vienna, Austria, has a long tradition in keeping cheetahs, and the birth of four (2.2) cubs on 31 May 2001 was the second breeding success, after 1999. Husbandry seems to be the key factor for a good breeding performance in felids, especially in cheetahs (Caro, 1993; van Oorschot, 1998). The basic scientific information (Lee, 1992; Lindburg, 1982; Manton, 1970, 1971; Marker and O'Brien, 1989; Marker-Kraus and Kraus, 1991) needs to be increased and the complex social behaviour still needs further investigation. Vocalization is a broad potential source of information about the mental state of animals. This information may provide an accurate estimate of animal behaviour and of the most favourable conditions for holding and breeding them in captivity. Cheetahs are a highly communicative species and vocalization seems to be an important communication channel. For that reason, the bioacoustic working group at Schönbrunn decided to start a research project on cheetah vocalization. The preliminary results presented here give a first impression of the very interesting acoustic structures of the different calls.
Material and Method
At Schönbrunn Zoo, five cheetahs, the mother Mona and her 14-month-old young, were recorded during their routine feeding in August 2002. The cheetahs were fed with freshly killed rabbits which were offered one by one through the bars, where the cheetahs could grab and seize the rabbits.
Recordings were made with a Sony Stereo Cassette-Corder WM-D6C, the condenser microphone AKG SE 300B and the condenser capsule CK 93. The recording distance was approximately one metre. The recorded sounds were analysed using the sound analysis program STx from the Acoustic Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Science. The calls were recorded using the sample rate of 48 kHz and saved as WAVE files. The spectrographic examinations were analyzed using basic acoustic parameters, the fundamental frequency, the dominant frequency, the number of harmonics, the duration of the call as well the kind of modulation.
Four different call types could be recorded during the feeding procedure: `chirping', `churring', `cheeping' and `yelping'. The vocalization, for the most part, occurred from the moment the cheetahs first saw the keeper with the rabbits until all of them had started to feed, when vocalizing stopped. As all the cheetahs were vocalizing at the same time, it was unfortunately impossible to assign the calls to the individual animals. For that reason, no individual differences were taken into consideration. But one can maintain that most of the calls were uttered by the four young cheetahs, because Mona (the mother) was easily recognized and she usually started feeding first.
`Chirping' (n = 85)
The `chirp' is, to the human ear, a bird-like sound. Like most of the recorded calls, the chirps are very short in duration, with a mean of 0.2 seconds (min = 0.1 sec; max = 0.61 sec). The chirps are modulated, rising in a mean of 0.04 seconds to the maximum frequency and descending again after reaching the top. The fundamental frequency corresponds always with the dominant frequency, starting around 2200 Hz and ascending to a mean of 3000 Hz (min = 2600 Hz; max = 3600 Hz). The call shows a harmonic structure where the harmonics may reach into the ultra-sound range. Figure 1 gives an example of a chirp.
`Churring' (n = 13)
`Churring' is a cooing sound which may last up to two seconds. The call can be modulated with several stresses as shown in Figure 2. The churring of our cheetahs shows an acoustic structure with up to five plainly recognizable upper harmonics at the stresses. The fundamental frequency and the first upper harmonic are the most dominant frequencies, at approximately 500 Hz and 1000 Hz. By looking at the acoustic structure, one can clearly see that churring consists of short, repeated single pulses lasting between 0.02 and 0.04 seconds. During the feeding procedure, the churring and the chirping were uttered alternately.
`Cheeping' (n = 18)
Hearing the `cheeping' call reminded us of a vocalizing cricket. The duration of this call is very short, around 0.1 seconds. Usually, it was uttered by our cheetahs two to three times in a row. Figure 3 shows two cheeping calls, 0.09 and 0.1 seconds in duration, with an interval in between of 0.07 seconds. The dominant frequency is around 2000 Hz. As with the churring, single pulses can be seen. But it seems to be characteristic that one cheeping call consists of three pulses, each pulse taking around 0.03 seconds. Nevertheless, it cannot be totally excluded that the cheeping call is a modulated short version of the churring.
`Yelping' (n = 25)
The `yelp' is a high-pitched call that sounds similar to a little dog's bark. Again, the duration of the call is very short – less than one second in the mean. The frequency lines increase to the end of the call for at least 300 Hz in the fundamental frequency. The structure of the call shows several harmonics. When the intensity of the call is very high, the harmonics may reach 6 kHz. Figure 4 shows a very intense yelp followed by a chirp.
Number of occurrences of each call
During the feeding procedure, the calls were used to differing extents. The chirp was the most frequently uttered call with 60%, followed by the yelp with 18%, the cheep with 13% and churring with just 9%.
Figure 1. `Chirp'. FFT: 1024; TD: 10.66 ms; FD: 46.87 Hz; overlap: 75%; window: Hanning.
Figure 2. `Churr'. FFT: 2048; TD: 21.33 ms; FD: 23.43 Hz; overlap: 75%; window: Hanning.
Figure 3. `Cheep'. FFT: 1024; TD: 10.66 ms; FD: 46.87 Hz; overlap: 75%; window: Hanning.
Figure 4. `Yelp'. FFT: 2048; TD: 21.33 ms; FD: 23.43 Hz; overlap: 75%; window: Hanning.
Until today, the cheetah's acoustic communication system is, in the main, still unknown. No detailed descriptions about the acoustic structure of the different calls could be found in the literature. Peters (1991) described 14 different calls, but without giving details about their acoustic structure. For that reason the results of our first project produced one call (the `cheep') that had apparently not been mentioned before. Whether that call had simply not been taken into consideration by Peters, or whether the authors differ in their interpretation or definition of the calls, needs to be further investigated.
According to Peters, churring and chirping are used by cheetahs on many occasions, as, for example, by cubs around a kill. This statement seems to correspond with our findings, as the recordings were made during the feeding procedure. The rabbits were offered one by one through the bars, where the cheetahs could seize them. This procedure imitates the situation around a kill, were the young typically compete for the food. The occurrence of churring and chirping was therefore expected, while yelping and cheeping could be recorded in addition. All types of vocalization were expressions of excitement combined with competition for food. As soon as a cheetah got hold of a rabbit, it stopped vocalizing and started to devour the prey.
The bioacoustic working group at Schönbrunn are planning to do further studies of the vocal communication of the cheetah. The most interesting calls are always associated with communication between a mother and her cubs. In the case of successful breeding, recording equipment will be placed within the nest-box, to ensure the documentation of all communications between the mother and her cubs from the first day on.
Acoustic recordings of cheetahs living in the zoo will enable us to gain a better insight into the species' complex acoustic communication system, as it is not easy to follow these shy cats in the wild, especially females with cubs. Increased knowledge about the usage and meaning of different calls could give further important information on the husbandry requirements of this highly communicative felid species.
Caro, T.M. (1993): Behavioural solutions to breeding cheetahs in captivity: insights from the wild. Zoo Biology 12: 19–30.
Lee, A.R. (1992): Management Guidelines for the Welfare of Zoo Animals: Cheetah. Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland, London.
Lindburg, D.G. (1982): Behaviour problems in captive reproduction. Zoonooz 55 (11): 4–7.
Manton, V.J.A. (1970): Breeding cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) at Whipsnade Park. International Zoo Yearbook 10: 85–86.
Manton, V.J.A. (1971): A further report on breeding cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) at Whipsnade Park. International Zoo Yearbook 11: 125–126.
Marker, L., and O'Brien, S.J. (1989): Captive breeding of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in North American zoos (1871–1986) . Zoo Biology 8: 3–16.
Marker-Kraus, L., and Kraus, D. (1991): The status of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Draft report to IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group.
Peters, G. (1991): Vocal communication. In Great Cats: Majestic Creatures of the Wild (eds. J. Seidensticker and S. Lumpkin), pp. 76–77. Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania.
van Oorschot, W. (1998): Management Guidelines for Mother-reared Cheetahs in Captivity. Wassenaar Wildlife Breeding Centre, the Netherlands.
Volodina, E.V. (2000): Vocal repertoire of the cheetah Acinonyx jubatus (Carnivora, Felidae) in captivity: sound structures and their potential for estimating the state of adult animals. Zoologicheskii-Zhurnal 79 (7): 833–843.
Angela S. Stoeger-Horwath and Harald M. Schwammer, Schönbrunn Zoo, Maxingstrasse 13b, 1130 Vienna, Austria (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com).
* * *
HEIDELBERG – A ZOO REBORN
BY JOHN TUSON
I first visited Heidelberg Zoo some ten years ago. At that time it was a distinctly underwhelming place, with many buildings which had no place in a modern European zoo: the elephant house and the great ape house stood out as being particularly poor. Only a strong bird collection seemed to be at all worthwhile.
Heidelberg's status as one of western Germany's least impressive zoos was emphasised by its position at the bottom of the heap in Stern magazine's `Grosser Zoo Test' in 2000 – only the truly execrable collections at Lübeck and Mönchengladbach – described as `small zoos' and thus judged in a different category – achieved lower scores. Perhaps more reliably, in the same year a report by Mike Grayson in Zoo! (the journal of the British-based Independent Zoo Enthusiasts Society, and normally a place in which to find enthusiastic comments about even the most unexceptional collections) decried the state of the collection, concluding `it will take a generous injection of imagination, as well as capital, to bring this place up to the standard of many other German city zoos.' But ironically, by the time Heidelberg was on the receiving end of those two attacks it had already started to make huge improvements, with a new management team in place and a new philosophy guiding its development. Today it is a zoo almost reborn. There are still big improvements to be made – that horrible elephant house remains for the time being, and one or two enclosures could still do with some drastic overhauling – but Heidelberg is well on its way to excellence.
Heidelberg's zoo was founded in 1932, its location the site of the former city graveyard, and opened to the public in 1934. Only the entrance building and the restaurant survive from this period; indeed, the zoo was just about the only place in Heidelberg to be bombed during the Second World War (the placement of an anti-aircraft gun in the zoo grounds explains this bad fortune). Development of the zoo in the post-war years was slow, until a spate of building was kicked off by the construction of a sea lion pool in 1973. This was followed by a house for African ungulates (1977), a cat house (1979), a bear enclosure (1981), a bird area (1985), a great ape house (1988) and a walk-through aviary for seabirds (1991). At that point, development of the zoo ceased as all available money was put aside to build an aquarium. But the aquarium never arrived, and despite receiving about 400,000 visitors a year, the zoo began to take on a rather sorry appearance. Several of the newer enclosures were inadequate: the cat house was cramped and unimaginative; the ape house, in which moats seemed to take up more space than the animals, was one of Germany's worst; the string of aviaries failed to do justice to the birds within. Older buildings, too, were poor, and overall Heidelberg had a surprisingly shabby look, contrasting sharply with the beautiful city around it.
In 1998, long-standing director Dr Dieter Poley retired. His interest in birds had meant that Heidelberg had built up a wonderful avian collection, but in all other respects the zoo he passed on was every bit as poor as the Stern magazine verdict would later suggest. No more than a few hours from any number of world-class zoos – Frankfurt, Cologne, Stuttgart and others are all within easy driving distance – Heidelberg was a peripheral place, doing few of the things which any modern zoo worth its salt should be doing: there was no education department, there was little involvement in conservation programmes, the collection of animals on display would have done little to inspire anyone with the wonder of the natural world. Little news emanated from the place (news from Heidelberg has never, as far as I can ascertain, appeared in IZN, for example), and, with the exception of that bird collection, the few seasoned zoo visitors who made the trip found little about which to get excited. It was at this point that the zoo turned to Dr Klaus Wünnemann to take on the challenge of its improvement. Wünnemann, a vet who had previously worked at Carl Hagenbecks Tierpark and, for six years, as curator of mammals at Magdeburg Zoo, has, I think, succeeded in turning the zoo around. No longer is it an embarrassment, but rather an example of how a failing zoo can be made to work. It is a lesson which has come too late for the city of Glasgow, which in 2003 lost its zoo, but which could well be heeded by many other European cities as they contemplate zoological establishments in need of improvement.
Partly, the zoo's rebirth has come about because a good team has been established: in addition to Dr Wünnemann, Sandra Reichler has come in as curator and Dr Arnd Löwenberg as the zoo's first education officer. Good keepers, too, have played their part, and while there is still progress to be made in this area there are keepers who are doing all they can to improve the zoo for visitors and animals, keenly embracing the new philosophy of the place. That philosophy places a vastly improved zoo at its centre, a zoo which is, above all, a good place to visit, and, if you are an animal, a good place in which to live: the slums are going, the husbandry is improving. But it is also a philosophy which looks beyond the zoo's boundaries, enthusiastically participating in EEPs and playing an integral part in the establishment of WAPCA – an in situ conservation programme focused on the primates of Ghana (see below). Whereas before this was a zoo which seemed to have been sleeping for far too many years, now it is a zoo which is alive and vital, an exciting place for which the possibilities seem tremendous.
It is the bird collection – or a part of it – to which Heidelberg's visitors are first introduced after they have passed through the zoo's entrance. One of Dr Poley's most notable and most impressive monuments is a walk-through aviary for waders and seabirds, the Kustenpanorama (`coastal panorama'). A wave machine offers a feeling of constant movement, the landscape is well done, and the birds on display – black-winged stilts, stone curlews, oystercatchers, redshanks, lapwings, and two non-Europeans, the Inca tern and the very rarely displayed grey gull (Larus modestus) of South America – look tremendous. This is a great exhibit, and one which the current zoo management were fortunate to inherit. The zoo's masterplan sees the Kustenpanorama becoming part of a group of exhibits focusing on Nature Tourism (one of five areas into which the zoo will gradually develop); a Yellowstone Park display is starting to take shape nearby, with a lake, a periodically spouting geyser, and plans for a large aviary for bald eagles.
While there are various aviaries dotted throughout the zoo, the bulk of the Heidelberg bird collection is displayed in a string of 25 cages (a number which will be reduced when the elephant enclosure is expanded in the near future). There is certainly little which is remarkable about the aviaries in themselves – they are uniform in shape and size, and they could certainly do with more height. But they are well planted, and geographically organised (it seems to make so much more sense to have birds housed together which might be seen together in the wild), and as a consequence this is an excellent corner of the zoo. The species which stand out as being most notable include black-billed turaco (Tauraco schuetti), crested coua (Coua cristata) and brush turkey (Alectura lathami) – none of which is common in zoos. Elsewhere, in conjunction with the EAZA Hornbill TAG, several large aviaries have been devoted to Sunda wrinkled hornbills (Aceros corrugatus) in order to facilitate free choice of mates; a large flock of Caribbean flamingos brighten up an attractive lake; and, in a thoughtful touch, a kea aviary has its floor raised so that these predominantly ground-dwelling parrots can be viewed more easily.
While the Heidelberg masterplan calls for the development of a series of themed areas (`Life in front of our doors', `Habitat water' and so on), today's visitor is presented with a rather more random selection of exhibits – some old, some old but refurbished, and some new. There is something reminiscent of some of the better zoos in the former East Germany about much of Heidelberg: enclosures which were once pretty awful (for both visitors and animals) have been broken up, rebuilt and reinvented. This is particularly true of the various enclosures for small cats: visitors in the past were confronted with several strings of uninspiring, uniform cages in which were contained a collection of some size (in 1998 there were a total of 30 individuals of seven small cat species). That collection has now been reduced: only 21 individuals, of five species, remain, and with just one very old ocelot left that number will shortly be reduced still further. As a result, it has been possible to combine enclosures, extend their parameters, soften their barriers. This works to particularly good effect with a large and attractive enclosure for Asian golden cats (a species for which Heidelberg runs the EEP); here, visitor viewing is through gaps in the bamboo which surrounds the cats' area, with the enclosure as a whole merging into the surroundings, rather than clashing harshly with them as it did prior to its redevelopment.
On a much larger scale, in 2002 Heidelberg's Sumatran tigers moved into a splendid outdoor enclosure, far vaster than the original space with which their predecessors were endowed when the house was first opened in 1979. This too merges into its setting, with viewing from specified stations rather than from the entirety of the enclosure's perimeter. Planting will, eventually, conceal the fence, except in those areas where viewing is invited; meanwhile, the tigers are able to appreciate an undulating area with abundant natural planting, viewing platforms and plentiful water. The zoo's lions and Siberian lynxes remain in their original accommodation – fine, but not as wonderful as that which is devoted to the tigers.
Just as the new tiger
enclosure represents a massive improvement of the cat house, so too do the
changes to the ape house signify a welcome upgrading of that facility. For many
Alongside the trio of great ape species can be seen several smaller primates: an active group of entellus langurs, golden-lion tamarins, Geoffroy's tamarins, squirrel monkeys (these last two adding some mammalian interest to the zoo's bird area), belted ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata subcincta) and, possibly the most notable species at the zoo, Roloway monkeys (Cercopithecus diana roloway).
The Roloways are kept in
two groups and, since arriving from
The mixing of species is very much a motif of the new Heidelberg Zoo. For a long while the zoo's very first exhibit, encountered even before one has paid to enter, has been of Syrian brown bears and corsac foxes, the latter happily avoiding their cage-mates in a pleasing but not over-large open enclosure. Elsewhere, one of the zoo's most aesthetically attractive displays combines red pandas with the rarely-seen Indian muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak), along with several trees and much bamboo; in 2003, another infrequently-seen species, the Indian grey mongoose (Herpestes edwardsi) arrived from Sharjah and successfully took up residence alongside the zoo's group of rhesus monkeys (this in a rather barren pit-type enclosure which, it must be said, remains one of the zoo's least attractive areas). For the future, there is talk of combining Malayan tapirs with golden cats, while the redeveloped elephant enclosure will also provide a home for Indian deer. Such mixing of species is surely to be welcomed, if it benefits the animals concerned (or if, at least, it does them no harm), for the resulting `display' can be so much more appealing – and educational – to the general public.
A rather more
conventional mixing of species is to be found in one of the zoo's better old
exhibits, an African `savannah' in which can be seen small herds of blesbok,
greater kudu and Damara zebra, along with marabou storks and pelicans. Amongst
the other mammal exhibits which pre-date the current management are those for
Patagonian sea lions and common seals, Malayan tapirs, gayal (one of only four
such herds on display in
On a smaller scale than
the proposed new elephant accommodation, there have been a number of new exhibits
opened to the public since 1998. Some solidly constructed owl aviaries, a
display of bees, and a walk-through aviary for ibises (and others) have all
added to the zoo. Equally, a number of developments not directly related to the
animal collection have appeared: a bio-gas plant means that the zoo produces
all its own power, a string of play areas bring with them an ecological theme,
a zoo shop has opened. In fact,
On the animal front, in addition to the improvements to the accommodation for the apes and elephants, the medium-term future will also see a new house for various island-dwelling animals, including giant tortoises and Madagascan couas. The older enclosures in the zoo will continue to see improved enrichment, while one old bear pit – currently home to porcupines and raccoons (one of the zoo's more puzzling animal combinations) – will be retained as an example of zoo history, enabling visitors to see the changes which have taken place in wild animal husbandry.
Heidelberg is still a
long way from being a great zoo, but after many years as a bad zoo it is
now firmly establishing itself amongst the ranks of those collections, perhaps
unique to Germany, which are neither large nor small but which bring with them
scientific credibility and which provide a wonderful resource for the local
community. It may never be a
Gless, F., and Handlogten, G. (2000): Der grosse Zootest. Stern 31: 47–64.
Grayson, M. (2000): Heidelberg Zoo. Zoo! 15: 14–17.
* * *
KERBERT AND THE JAPANESE
GIANT SALAMANDER: EARLY SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE
BY A.C. VAN BRUGGEN
Scientific research has
always been one of the basic tenets of `Artis', the
obituaries Sunier, 1927, and Weber, 1928, both unfortunately without lists of
publications) started his career in 1885 in
One of the greatest initial difficulties was the water temperature, which in the large tanks connected to the circulation system could not be regulated at all. Enormous fluctuations throughout the year following ambient outside temperatures caused many deaths among the inhabitants. Keeping a specimen alive for over twelve months was considered an achievement of note. Heating and cooling systems were only installed much later. Also, transport of live specimens in tubs by rail left a lot to be desired – most consignments counted only a few survivors, which influenced the selection of species to be shown. Species such as thornback ray (Raja clavata, almost six years), sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus, almost five years, but one of seven arriving from Russia in 1883 survived until 1953, thereby setting a record for the species), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, over two years), brown scorpionfish (Scorpaena porcus, two years), cuckoo wrasse (Labrus mixtus, two years), flatfish (three to five years depending on species), wels or European catfish (Silurus glanis, three years), local species of the carp family (one to six years depending on species), pike (Esox lucius, over six years), European eel (Anguilla anguilla, five years), and conger eel (Conger conger, five years), proved to be hardy. In addition, of necessity studies on various fish parasites were conducted (e.g. Kerbert, 1884).
Recently I acquired a
curious little illustrated pamphlet in French (Kerbert, 1906) dated
The results of keeping
delicate species of fish were considerable.
The greatest achievement
(now and for ever?) of the
Two more giant
salamanders received in 1893 proved to be a pair who produced their first
(unfertilised) eggs on
Kerbert died in harness
My thanks are due to
various colleagues for valuable assistance in composing this illustrated essay:
Mesdames Henriette Plantenga and Charlotte Vermeulen (Artis), and Drs M.S.
Hoogmoed, M.J.P. van Oijen and
Bussy, L.P. le Cosquino de (1904): Eerste
ontwikkelingsstadiën van Megalobatrachus maximus Schlegel. Ph.D.
Hoogmoed, M.S. (1978): An annotated
review of the salamander types described in the Fauna Japonica. Zool. Meded.
Kawata, K. (2001): Zoological
Kerbert, C. (1884): Chromatophagus parasiticus, nov. gen et nov. spec. Ein Beitrag zur Parasitologie. Ned. Tijdschr. Dierk. 5: 44–58.
Kerbert, C. (1888): Het aquarium en zijne bewoners, beschreven en toegelicht. Bijdr. Dierk. Feest-nummer uitgegeven bij gelegenheid van het 50-jarig bestaan van het Genootschap: 1–98 (N.B. all papers in this special issue are paged separately).
Kerbert, C. (1904): Zur Fortpflanzung von Megalobatrachus maximus Schlegel (Cryptobranchus japonicus v.d. Hoeven). Zool. Anz. 27: 305–320.
Kerbert, C. (1906): L'aquarium de la Société Royale de Zoologie `Natura Artis Magistra' Amsterdam. 15 pp., Amsterdam.
Kerbert, C. (1913): Mitteilungen über Zaglossus. Bijdr. Dierk. 19: 167–184.
Kerbert, C. (1922): Over dracht, geboorte, puberteit en levensduur van Hippopotamus amphibius L. Bijdr. Dierk. 22: 185–191.
J.H. (1916): Onderzoekingen over de veeren bij hoenderachtige vogels. Ph.D. Thesis,
Kuwabara, K., Suzuki, N.,
Wakabayashi, F., Ashikaga, H., Inoue, T., and Kobara, J. (1989): Breeding the
Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus at
Lange, D. de (1906): De kiembladvorming van Megalobatrachus maximus (Schlegel). Ph.D. Thesis, University of Amsterdam, 196 pp.
D. de (1916): Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Japanischen
Riesensalamanders (Megalobatrachus maximus Schlegel). Onderz. Zool. Lab.
Portielje, A.F.J., and Abramsz, S. : Het Artisboek, Vol. 2. 304 pp., Zutphen.
Rooy, P.C. de (1907): Die Entwicklung des Herzes, des Blutes und der grossen Gefässe bei Megalobatrachus maximus Schlegel. Jen. Zeitschr. Naturwiss. 42: 309–346.
Smit, P. (1988): Artis, een Amsterdamse tuin. 392 pp., Amsterdam.
Sunier, A.L.J. (1927). C. Kerbert†. Zeitschr. Säugetierk. 2: 197.
Weber, M. (1928). In memoriam Dr. Coenraad Kerbert. Vakbl. Biol. 9: 26–30.
Dr A.C. van Bruggen, National Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
* * *
A NOTE ON THE BIRTHS OF BEARDED SAKI AND WOOLLY MONKEY IN BRAZILIAN ZOOS
BY DANIELA FICHTNER GOMES AND JÚLIO CÉSAR BICCA-MARQUES
Bearded sakis (genus Chiropotes)
and woolly monkeys (genus Lagothrix) are
In this report, we
present data on the birth of C. satanas and L. lagotricha in
Two institutions located
in the State of
Eleven (3.5.3) births of
L. lagotricha were recorded from 1988 to 1996 (Parque Zoológico
Municipal Quinzinho de Barros/SP, n = 8, and Zoológico Hotel Tropical
Manaus/AM, n = 3). These births were distributed throughout the year (February,
n = 1; April, n = 3; May, n = 1; June, n = 1; August, n = 1; September, n = 1;
October, n = 1; November, n = 1; December, n = 1). A grouping of these birth
records per semester (April–September and October–March) failed to detect
differences in their distribution along the year (χ2 = 0.818, d.f. = 1, NS). Therefore,
woolly monkeys did not show a birth season in captivity in
We thank the personnel
from the zoos who replied to the questionnaire, and the Pontifícia Universidade
Ayres, J.M. (1981): Observações
sobre a ecologia e o comportamento dos cuxiús (Chiropotes albinasus e Chiropotes
satanas, Cebidae: Primates). CNPq/INPA/FUA,
Di Bitetti, M.S., and Janson, C.H. (2000): When will the stork arrive? Patterns of birth seasonality in neotropical primates. American Journal of Primatology 50: 109–130.
Hick, U. (1968): Erstmalig gelungene Zucht eines Bartsakis [Vater: Rotrückensaki, Chiropotes chiropotes (Humboldt, 1811), Mutter: Weissnasensaki, Chiropotes albinasus (Geoffroy et Deville, 1848)] im Kölner Zoo. Freunde des Kölner Zoo 11 (2): 35–41.
Kinzey, W.G. (1997a): Synopsis of
New World primates: Chiropotes. In
Kinzey, W.G. (1997b): Synopsis of
New World primates: Lagothrix. In
Malacco, A.F., and Fernandes,
M.E.B. (1989): Captive colony of brown bearded sakis in
Nishimura, A., Wilches, A.V., and
Estrada, C. (1992): Mating behaviors of woolly monkeys, Lagothrix lagotricha,
at La Macarena, Colombia (III): Reproductive parameters viewed from a longterm
study. Field Studies of
Rylands, A.B., Schneider, H.,
Langguth, A., Mittermeier, R.A.,
van Roosmalen, M.G.M., Mittermeier,
R.A., and Milton, K. (1981): The bearded sakis, genus Chiropotes. In Ecology
and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 1 (eds. A.F. Coimbra-Filho and
R.A. Mittermeier), pp. 419–441. Academia Brasileira de Ciências,
Daniela Fichtner Gomes and Júlio César Bicca-Marques, Faculdade de Biociências, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, 6681 Pd. 12A, Porto Alegre, RS, 90619–900, Brazil (E-mail: email@example.com).
* * *
SAVAGES AND BEASTS: THE BIRTH
OF THE MODERN ZOO by Nigel Rothfels.
(1844–1913) has been the subject of more biographies than any other single
person associated with zoological gardens, and every book, it seems, published
within the last century discussing the development of zoos, devotes at least a
paragraph or two, if not a chapter or more, to the `King of Zoos' (Bernard
Heuvelmans) and the `King of Animal Dealers' (James Fisher). So it was a brave
student indeed who a decade ago chose to write a Ph.D. dissertation on
Hagenbeck and the creation of his new zoological park in
Does Nigel Rothfels
really have anything new to say on all that? Surprisingly, he does. His title, Savages
and Beasts, gives a first hint of what he argues was a vital yet largely
overlooked influence on the design of Hagenbeck's zoo opened in what was then a
suburb but now a ward of Hamburg in 1907: his thirty-year tradition of staging
ethnographic performances by visiting troupes of indigenous peoples from exotic
countries and colonies. It was in 1874 that Hagenbeck first engaged Lapps –
Nigel Rothfels insists on the politically correct term Sami – from Norway to
accompany a herd of reindeer he had acquired, bringing with them traditional
clothing, tents, weapons and other gear. A glut in the wild-animal market and
an overstock of specimens for sale (although not of reindeer, apparently) had
brought Hagenbeck's business – he was always first and foremost an animal
dealer – close to bankruptcy. New ideas to save the company were obviously
welcome, and Heinrich Leutemann, a friend and Hagenbeck's first biographer, was
credited by Hagenbeck for suggesting that a show of performing Lapps amongst
the reindeer marked for later sale, doing whatever Lapps do (or were assumed to
do), could prove to be a money-maker. Which it was. Until his death almost four
decades later, Carl Hagenbeck alone would stage over 50
anthropological-zoological exhibitions, as he preferred to call his shows, and
brothers and competitors hundreds more. These spectacles, enormously popular
In a recent book review (of Robert Dallek's biography of John F. Kennedy) for the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, the historian Hans-Peter Schwarz reiterated the four golden rules of a biographer. First of all, be diligent, read everything you can get your hands on with reference to your subject. Secondly, don't believe anything your subject ever said or wrote; very likely he was a compulsive liar, so question everything. Thirdly, narrate your story well, keep your reader interested from the first page to the last. Nigel Rothfels, whether he was aware of them or not, certainly heeded these first three rules. Access to the Hagenbeck archives was limited, so at times he quotes secondary sources where original records might have been preferable, but who would want to blame him for that? He plainly took the second rule to heart: convinced that too many zoo historians have crowned Hagenbeck with a halo, he rarely misses an opportunity to cut him down to size. And he is a very good writer. It is Schwarz's fourth golden rule of the biographer that Nigel Rothfels would have done well to respect more: explain things, but don't moralize.
Those unfamiliar with
the true character of ethnographic shows nowadays seem to have the impression
that `savages' from faraway places were dragged to
Making up, apparently, for all the past biographers who have piled too much praise upon Hagenbeck, Dr Rothfels takes him to task for his animal business as well. The animal trade as Hagenbeck knew and ran it is unthinkable today, and again, it was controversial enough in his time. In his own memoirs Hagenbeck reprinted another cartoon headed `Hagenbeck's coming!' showing a cage-wagon driven by animal trappers in the middle of the jungle, away from which all animals flee in panic. Nigel Rothfels writes that Hagenbeck tended to downplay the character of his new zoo as an entrepôt for his animal trade, emphasizing the `Noah's ark' character he would have preferred to give his `invention', but when one reads the old Tierpark guide-books, one notes in fact that Hagenbeck actually used his dealership as a selling point for visitors to come again: who knows what interesting animal will be here next time you come?! Considering the losses animal transports suffered, not to mention animals killed in the process of capturing others, it's legitimate to ask if an animal dealer can really sell himself as a modern-age Noah. But then, must all farmers be condemned as being cruel to animals by nature, as they always know too well what will happen to their lambs and calves come winter? The animal-rights people think they have the answer, but to judge the zoo community of a century ago by the moral standards of today is, again, hardly historical. Suggesting that Hagenbeck may not have been quite the animal lover he claimed to be even by the standards of his own time, Nigel Rothfels quotes him (on page 185) from his autobiography, writing about a walrus hunt, that `the largest bull. . . fortunately killed, had a weight of approximately 3,000 kilograms' (emphasis added). He then scolds Hagenbeck for having been `explicitly pleased that the largest bull in the herd had ``fortunately'' been killed. . .' Thankfully, he is very meticulous in giving his sources. He always quotes from the first German edition of Hagenbeck's memoirs published in 1908, not the abridged English translation (although oddly he always gives the wrong publisher and place of publication for that edition). Now when comparing what Hagenbeck really wrote in the passage quoted, it becomes obvious that Nigel Rothfels, who I know does have a good command of German, is not yet quite fluent: Hagenbeck wrote that the walrus was `glücklich erlegt', that is, successfully hunted. If he had wanted to say that the poor walrus was `fortunately' killed, he would have written `glücklicherweise erlegt'. But he didn't.
Nigel Rothfels' critical look at an important historical figure is certainly refreshing, although it's unfortunate that he lets his own moral standards occasionally get in the way of his scholarship. He has written a genuinely important book for anyone interested in zoos, his perspective is new and convincing, and he has also heeded what many would consider the fifth golden rule of biography: keep it short. What's important for his thesis he has kept to 200 pages of narrative; the rest are his useful endnotes. The book is also nicely illustrated, largely with pictures that make a point. Although two excellent books on Carl Hagenbeck and the Hagenbeck firm respectively were issued in Germany in 1998, the year of the company's sesquicentenary [reviewed in IZN 46 (2), 102–105], Savages and Beasts deserves a German edition. The book's few kinks can surely be ironed out in translation – and, hopefully, in a second English edition as well. Strictly speaking, it is not a biography, it's a history of Hagenbeck's Tierpark in the making. One learns little of Carl Hagenbeck as a man, a human being; it's what he represents that concerns the author. The picture that emerges of Carl Hagenbeck, nevertheless, even through the critical pen of Nigel Rothfels, is the fascinating figure of the man who did, more than any other single personality, give birth to the modern zoo.
DE TUIN VAN HET LEVEN:
Fortunately Antwerp Zoo and its outstation Planckendael near Mechelen are well-documented; at least six books have appeared since World War II on this venerable institution. These vary from modest tomes by local newspaper reporters to prestigious treatises published on anniversary occasions (one even in three editions: Dutch, French, and English). The book reviewed here does not belong to either category – although indeed modest in size (24 ´ 17 cm), it is well-produced and lavishly illustrated with old documents and excellent quality photos, mainly in colour. The layout is thoroughly modern, the text tastefully interspersed with `boxes’ on a soft background colour: these highlight and illustrate various subjects in more detail than the main text. The authors/editors are staff members of Antwerp Zoo and are thoroughly familiar with their subject.
There is a good deal of
history with some nostalgic photography and also details on the two species
that have gained
Nevertheless, a few words of criticism should conclude this review. Most of the illustrations have been captioned satisfactorily; however, there are at least 15 full-page colour photos or colour spreads (including stunning pictures of sitatunga, feeding an elephant seal, etc.) that have no explanation. An index to personal and animal names would have been appreciated, but might have expanded the book too much. Personally I would have liked to find a list of directors (1843 to date); also, the name of Prof. Agatha Gijzen, who as the first university-trained zoologist attached to the staff (1947–1974) initiated scientific research in the zoo, is sorely missed.
To conclude, the book (for the time being only available in Dutch) is great value for money and provides valuable documentation on these two important zoological establishments.
A.C. van Bruggen
Famous, and not so famous, people and animals are presented, including such well-known primates as Bushman, Sinbad, Cy DeVry, Marlin Perkins, and Lester Fisher. Many others are also included. Among the new television shows in the early 1950s was Zoo Parade – live from the Lincoln Park Zoo. Many other accomplishments are included. It is an informative and factually useful book (despite some minor discrepancies), as well as a quality picture book. In addition to being a history of one particular zoo, it is a reflection of American zoo history. It is the story of a major collection in a city that has fostered important cultural museums.
Supplementing the informative text are many black-and-white illustrations (mostly photographs) as well as a handful in color. There are also sidebars on interesting topics, a section on Bushman the gorilla, a bibliography, reference sources, and index. The photographs, which are numerous and have good captions, are a treat all by themselves. In addition, Mark Rosenthal incorporates personal information and insights obtained from oral interviews with the `old timers'. This is a tremendous contribution on one of our finest and oldest American zoos. It is a solid addition to the expanding list of institutional zoo histories. But we still need more of them, particularly if they are as informative and well done as this one.
TORTOISE by Peter Young.
Reaktion Books (
Tortoise is one of the first four books (the others are Crow, Ant and Cockroach) in a new series (`Animal') which will, in the publishers' words, `explore the historical significance and impact on human cultures of a wide range of animals, from insects and birds to sea creatures.' Future subjects already in preparation are wolf, bear, horse, spider, dog, snake, oyster, falcon, parrot, rat, whale and hare. On the evidence of Tortoise there seems no reason why this series should not run and run: there must be hundreds of animals whose impact on culture in the widest sense – mythology and religion, scientific thought, food, trade, craft and industry, art, literature, everyday life – has been sufficiently influential to provide material for one of these neat, pocket-sized volumes.
Each animal will no
doubt provide a different range of appropriate topics. In Tortoise,
Peter Young casts his net extremely wide. In the first chapter alone, there are
quotations from, among others, Livy, Pliny, Darwin, Edgar Allan Poe, Mark Twain
and Gilbert White, and illustrations which include four Tanzanian stamps
featuring the pancake tortoise, beautiful (and beautifully accurate) depictions
of tortoises by Edward Lear and the 17th-century artist Albert van der
Eeckhout, a 1930-ish American strip cartoon, and several photos of live
animals, including the best I can remember ever seeing of a saddle-backed
Galápagos subspecies, and one of the famous Jonathan, a Seychelles (or more
probably Aldabran) giant tortoise often claimed to have been on St Helena since
the time of Napoleon's enforced residence. Regrettably, the claim is false, as
Mr Young points out. However, since Jonathan may have been about 50 years old
when he arrived on the island in 1882, he is a serious contender in any
chelonian longevity contest. There seem to be a number of well-authenticated
150- or 160-year-olds, but as they were all wild-caught their precise ages are
unknown. It may be the end of the present century before a fully-documented,
zoo-hatched tortoise passes the 150-year mark. Size records are easier to
verify (though even if you have suitable scales it's not that easy
manoeuvring a large Geochelone nigra onto them); the champion here is
apparently Goliath, at the Life Fellowship Bird Sanctuary,
It would be easy to go on quoting snippets from this engaging book. Peter Young seems to have read everything, and has uncovered tortoise lore in the most unlikely places. In English literature, he ranges from Swift and Gibbon to Terry Pratchett and J.K. Rowling. Through history, the tortoise as a symbol has represented many different attributes – not just the obvious longevity, but indestructibility, persistence, modesty, good luck, or on the other hand cowardice, obstinacy, boastfulness, cunning, bad luck. . . Tortoises, it seems, can be whatever you want them to be. They have famously raced against a hare and Achilles. In modern times, they have been used to advertise beer, polish, stoves, chocolate and electricity.
When it comes to real,
rather than symbolic, tortoises, mankind's influence has largely been a
destructive one. The ancient Greeks made their shells into lyres, the Chinese
used them to foretell the future (and in the process, says Young, wiped out an
entire species, though he doesn't say which). A chapter entitled Exploitation
tells the grim story. When European ships began to sail the world, from the
late 15th century on, tortoises became a popular convenience food – you could
load them into the hold, and they'd stay alive and fresh until you needed them.
Long after Westerners
had stopped eating tortoises, they were still being exploited on a massive
scale for the pet trade. Most British people of my generation will remember
seeing young tortoises, mostly Testudo graeca from
Peter Young is clearly a tortoise-lover, and writes knowledgeably about the growing efforts to conserve these animals, both in and ex situ. But really, his whole book does its bit towards tortoise conservation, by raising the reader's awareness of the major part which tortoises have always played in human life. And Tortoise is not merely a fascinating and informative read – it's a visual delight as well, with illustrations showing the use the artists of three millennia have made of tortoises to produce images as curious, comical or beautiful as the animals themselves.
ZOOTIERHALTUNG – TIERE IN MENSCHLICHER OBHUT: GRUNDLAGEN,
7th ed., ed. by Lothar Dittrich. Harri Deutsch,
* * *
In situ study of Komodo dragons
Because of its size, the Komodo dragon has been a scientific curiosity for decades. Even so, continuous, long-term examinations of dragon biology have not been completed. Understanding the biology of this species is important for two reasons. First, like all other island-dwelling species, the dragon population is susceptible to catastrophic loss from natural events. Second, dragons have not reproduced well in captivity, and thus plans to have a self-sustaining captive population have not been realized.
In 2000, the Zoological
Society of San Diego began negotiations with the Indonesian government to
conduct the long-term studies necessary to understand the biology of the Komodo
dragon. It was determined that four to five years of continuous field studies
would be needed to answer key biological questions. In 2002, the Komodo study
became one of the Society's Millennium Postdoctoral Fellowship projects with
the hiring of Dr Tim Jessop, who would live in
The two key aims of this
project were to implement broad-scale studies to investigate the biology of the
terrestrial fauna and flora in
During 2002, research activities
included general wildlife and habitat monitoring of fauna and flora on
A major effort in 2002 was
to determine the location of Komodo dragon nesting sites as an index of the
annual female reproductive rate. An intensive survey of all the major valleys
Some of the preliminary information from this study revealed that the dragon population inhabiting Gili Motang, a small island in the south-eastern part of the national park, exhibited differences in its population structure. Most noticeably, juvenile and large adult dragons were not captured, suggesting that these size classes were absent or very scarce. Further research will be conducted in 2003 to determine if this unusual population signature is a result of human activities interfering with food availability on this island, or if it is a result of natural variation in body size between the different island dragon populations.
Abridged from John A. Phillips in CRES Report (Fall 2003)
A valuable tool in conservation management
VORTEX is a simulation programme that provides realistic ideas of how an animal population will develop, given that assumptions made in the different scenarios are valid. It is a valuable tool to assess the relative impact of different factors, such as hunting, change of death rate, or loss of habitat, on a population, allowing us to model the development of a population over time under certain circumstances. The simulations incorporate basic data, e.g. birth, death and dispersal rates, inbreeding and carrying capacity of the habitat. These data have to be entered first, and that is actually the most difficult part of the process – many of these data are not available for most species, and have to be entered as a `best guess' estimate. VORTEX's greatest value lies in enabling comparison of different scenarios: it provides us with arguments to use when prioritising potential conservation activities – arguments that are based on complex analyses of hard core data and best estimates.
CBSG Europe recently
hosted a workshop at Copenhagen Zoo introducing a Windows version of the
programme, as VORTEX was developed by CBSG more than a decade ago as a
DOS-based programme. The workshop was attended by participants from
Abridged from Bengt Holst in EAZA News No. 44 (October–December 2003)
Massive breeding effort to save toad
Zoos from all over the
* * *
INTERNATIONAL ZOO NEWS
The zoo is being forced to lend out its beloved African elephants Dolly and Anna, victims of budget cuts that claimed 20 jobs and are forcing the removal of about 400 reptiles, amphibians and birds. The loss of the elephants will be the most visible sign of the zoo's struggle to stay afloat after a $700,000 reduction in state aid, compounded by a sagging economy and a year of terrible weather. In total, the changes are expected to save the zoo more than $1 million. The 20 job cuts will bring employment down to about 150 people.
Zoo officials hope the
two elephants can be bred and then return to
The cuts come within weeks of the opening of the zoo's new $7 million Polar Bear Watch exhibit, which features a tundra buggy from which visitors can view the bears. The 57-foot-long [17-m], 12-foot-high [3.6-m], 25-ton, climate-controlled observation vehicle is the type used to observe animals in the wild. `There's a certain irony associated with that,' comments Billie Grieb, president of the zoo. `There's some money that's been given to us that can only be used for capital projects. We're in the position of having the money to build but being very pinched in terms of having the money to operate.'
In recent years, the zoo has had a period of consolidation, and fewer new species have joined the collection. While, on occasion, we still obtain carefully selected new species, much of our efforts have been put towards establishing healthy and breeding populations of our existing stock. A high priority in the selection process has been given to those species whose wild populations are facing the threat of extinction, particularly where there are established captive-breeding programmes. In addition, wherever possible and relevant, we try to work with groups of related animals, particularly where there are close parallels between them in their captive management. With limited resources, it is vital that zoos use their resources to the best advantage, and one direction in which we feel this can be achieved is in specialization.
An advantage of such specialization is that it gives us the chance to exhibit to visitors a number of related taxa, which have evolved in response to similar stimuli. Thus, Belfast Zoo visitors are able to see interesting ranges of related animals, with the opportunity to contrast and compare the slight differences in their adaptations. One such area of specialization has been our collection of monkeys, and our larger species are now represented by a wonderful collection of African and Asian leaf-eating monkeys, also known as colobines. They are a fascinating group of animals, a key feature of their biology being their ability to eat and digest large amounts of cellulose, and their wild diets are predominantly composed of leaves, unripe fruit and seeds. These animals have several features found in no other primates, including a sacculated, or chambered, stomach which supports colonies of bacteria, and specialized teeth.
These specializations have made them a difficult group of animals to maintain in captivity in the long term. The provision of a suitable diet is perhaps the single most important facet of their captive management. Large areas of the zoo have been planted with shrubs, and these not only provide an attractive and natural backdrop to many of the animal enclosures, but also provide a valuable source of leaves and branches for our colobus monkeys and langurs, who are offered large amounts of leaves and branches on a daily basis.
Our first black-and-white colobus monkeys arrived here in the early 1970s, and we have been breeding this species ever since. The large breeding group of Kikuyu colobus, which currently numbers an impressive 18 animals, featuring a number of different generations, bears testament to the success we have had for many years. More recently, breeding groups of three langur species, François's, purple-faced and Javan brown, have been established in the zoo. Though their management is similar to that of the colobus, their captive requirements are slightly different, and our acquisition of breeding animals did not start until we had gained experience with a number of male Javan browns in 1993.
We have successfully bred all three species of langur during 2003. Of particular interest are the four babies born to our group of François's langurs. While three of the infants are being parent-reared, the fourth baby was rejected by his mother and has been hand-reared by zoo personnel. This is the second time we have achieved this, the process being difficult, delicate and extremely time-consuming.
It is rather sad that colobines are generally poorly represented in zoos, as a number of species are critically endangered in the wild and it is highly likely that captive breeding will become an even more important part of their conservation. Our tremendous recent success with the species we hold is an encouraging start for us to further develop our expertise in this area.
Abridged from Mark Challis in Zoo Crack No. 56 (Summer 2003)
On 23 and 25 March two wreathed hornbills (Aceros undulatus) hatched at the zoo. After 14 days, there was an obvious size difference and feeding competition was observed between the chicks, which led staff to pull the second, smaller chick for hand-rearing. To avoid imprinting on humans, the chick was raised in a simulated nest cavity in an isolated room and fed using a puppet. Staff mimicked the adult hornbills' vocalizations and beak-tapping at feeding times.
On 22 June, the first chick and the adult female emerged from the nest cavity on exhibit. The puppet-reared chick began showing signs of restlessness soon after, and was moved to an introduction cage attached to the adults' enclosure on 28 June. Three days later, it was introduced to its natal group and the adults immediately began feeding it. Both chicks are currently thriving on exhibit with their parents. It is hoped that this puppet-rearing technique and subsequent socializations will ensure success when this hornbill is eventually paired and produces young of its own.
Additionally, the zoo's pair of silvery-cheeked hornbills (Bycanistes brevis) produced two chicks and raised them to fledging. The chicks hatched on 21 and 23 May, and the female and chicks emerged from the nest on 11 August.
Communiqué (American Zoo and Aquarium Association), October 2003
De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife
More than five years
have gone by since our last report to IZN and many changes have taken
place. A major one was the sale of all our mini-antelopes – suni (Neotragus
moschatus) and blue duiker (Cephalophus monticola bicolor) – to
enable us to specialise in the two species we are known for and allow us to
expand on enclosures previously used by the antelope. This is mainly through a
generous donation from Miami Metrozoo,
The last two years have been very good as far as our cheetah population goes. In 2002 we had 34 (26.8) cubs, of whom three died at under one month old. This year we had 48 (32.16), of whom 3.4 were king cheetahs. This was the most kings we have produced for a few years, as we now have a number of non-related king gene carriers. Unfortunately we again lost three cubs. One problem no one seems to be able to explain is the large imbalance of males to females born.
A new project started
under de Wildt was the National Cheetah Management Programme. We poached the
head of the government's problem animal control section, Deon Cilliers, to
manage this very important programme, based on Laurie Marker's Cheetah
Conservation Fund in
Conditions for releasing cheetahs are very strict and for most landowners not financially viable. An experiment, with the blessing of the Limpopo Department of Nature Conservation and with the help of Howard Buffett, owner of Jubatus Reserve, was the fencing off of a thousand hectares of natural bush in the Waterberg area, about 150 kilometres due north of Pretoria. This was normal game fence which was then electrified to make it cheetah-proof (although the biggest culprits for making holes under the fence, which cheetahs then use, are wart hogs). An ecologist calculated the carrying capacity for the land in prey species, and we then stocked the area with impala, waterbuck, kudu and zebra. The next calculation was how many cheetah could survive on that amount of prey for two years without us having to top up prey species. The figure was one and a half cheetahs! We put in two bonded males, one wild-born, the other captive, as both would eat from the same carcass. A full-time student was appointed to follow the animals for the two years. This time is almost up, and it looks as if we got our figures pretty well spot on. Although two males are not a conservation project, the next step is to enlarge the area by 500 hectares and introduce a female. The data we get from this project will possibly allow game farmers to keep cheetahs on smaller areas than previously legislated, thus allowing us more places to relocate wild-caught cheetahs. There are many implications in this for the future, when a studbook will have to be kept and wild cheetahs possibly exchanged in years to come.
Our wild dogs (Lycaon
pictus) continually give problems! We have 90 dogs at the moment and
although we try to contracept, it doesn't always work. One contracepted female
had 14 pups, and a classic remark by one of my colleagues was, `You're lucky
you contracepted her, she might otherwise have had a large litter!' The
dogs have all been DNA-tested in
We now have our own ambassador cheetah, Byron, who recently returned from Annie Beckhelling of Cheetah Outreach. Annie specifically trains cheetahs to be used in school programmes and Byron is her newest graduate. He is taking a bit of time to settle down – surrounded as he is with other cheetahs, especially cubs, he now realises he is not the only cheetah in the world. Marilyn Dean, his handler, has faith that he will accept other cheetahs and be a true ambassador. School tours now have their own route and still manage to see all the animals as previously, but without having to cover a long distance in the hot sun. Adult tours remain fully booked throughout the year.
A new addition is the de
Wildt Cheetah Lodge. A small piece of land next door to us (14 ha) came on the
market and on it was an old two-storey farmhouse. Much time and money later the
farmhouse has been transformed into a gracious lodge, where we can accommodate
up to 18 people. It is very convenient for overseas visitors, as it is only an
Alan Strachan, Curator, De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Trust
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust,
Seventeen Livingstone's fruit bats are now living in Jersey Zoo's new bat flight tunnel, which has been designed with their needs in mind. The tunnel allows the bats, among the world's largest species, space to stretch their wings and develop their flying skills. `Working with rare and endangered species we are constantly learning about their needs,' explains Dominic Wormell, Deputy Head of Mammals. `We realised that unlike the smaller Rodrigues fruit bats, who can fly, twist and turn in smaller enclosures, this was impossible for large bats, like the Livingstone's, who need much more space to fly.'
But the tunnel is no glossy
exhibit or monument to the architect's skill. Zoo staff hit on the idea of
using an ordinary agricultural polythene to solve the problem. Relatively
inexpensive and easy to erect, the poly-tunnel has the advantage that it can be
altered and expanded as staff learn more about the needs of the bats. `Inside
the tunnel,' Dominic explains, `the ground has been carved away to allow extra
depth for the bats to swoop from their perches. This ``flight path'' will be
grassed and the edges have been planted with species from the bats' home in the
The new enclosure isn't open to the public just yet, as the bats need time to settle in and scientists are studying their behaviour as they get acclimatised to their new surroundings; but it is hoped that the new tunnel will be on view to the public next year.
On the Edge No. 95 (Autumn 2003)
It was decided that an old beaver enclosure would be converted into a new spacious enclosure for oriental small-clawed otters. As these otters, unlike their European counterparts, live in groups of up to 20 individuals in the wild, the enclosure was designed to hold a large number of animals (up to 15). The layout of the site, on a slope, remained the same as before, including natural bedrock, plants and pools. A team of specialists from different departments created the new enclosure with several objectives: to improve the welfare facilities for this species; to allow the animals to express their normal and natural behaviours; to replicate their natural habitat in the wild; to increase the land mass for a larger group of animals; and to deliver a project that uses natural materials which are green, sustainable and aesthetically pleasing.
The animals were provided with four dens supporting their natural life-style of nesting in rocky crevices or burrows in the ground. (They do not make these burrows themselves, but utilize those that other animals have previously made.) The otters use all four dens at various times. The entrances to the dens – hidden from the view of the public to provide privacy – are made from one-metre-long pipes; these lead to metre-square sleeping areas which are 0.5 m deep, heated, insulated and ventilated. The floor of the sleeping dens is lined with artificial turf. Hay is provided for nesting. Cable conduit has been installed into the dens for the provision of video cameras which will allow visitors an unobtrusive peek inside.
Water is continuously flowing through a series of waterfalls and pools from the top of the enclosure to the bottom, and is then recycled via underground channels back to the top. The stream connecting the pools was made to be fast-flowing, which helps build strength and adds excitement for the animals. It also means that food is washed up into the rocks on the shore, requiring the animals to search for it as they would in the wild. They also forage among plants for invertebrates. Otters have been known to suffer from kidney stones when kept in water that is too cold – they tend not to drink enough, so that their kidneys are not flushed out properly. With this in mind, one of the pools in the enclosure is heated by solar energy.
Plantings of bamboo and ferns complement the flowing stream; the otters bite leaves off the bamboo for use as nesting material. Trees, such as willows, were also chosen to reflect a wet area, and some interesting willow species were used. Poplar, willow, and elder trees existing on the site were retained, and offer autumn colour, while winter interest is provided by the evergreen temple cedar (Cryptomeria japonica).
Metal doors in the ground allow keepers access into the underground dens for cleaning and replacing hay. On two sides of the exhibit a double gate allows keepers access while protecting against otter escapes. To manage the large group of animals easily, an off-exhibit corral system was designed, into which the otters are occasionally encouraged with food. To enter the corral they must pass through a perspex tube, which is removable and can be used to catch specific animals for examination or transfer. The otters are brought into the corral only for feeding (this conditions them to passing through the tube), but remain in the outdoor exhibit at all other times.
Abridged and adapted from a presentation compiled by Monika Fiby in the ZooLex Gallery at www.zoolex.org. [Visitors to the website will find many more technical details and numerous colour photos of this exhibit – Ed.]
Harderwijk Dolphinarium (
A Pacific walrus (Odobenus
rosmarus divergens) was born on
EAZA News No. 44 (October–December 2003)
The elephant facility
has undergone a £0.5 million extension to cope with the thunder of tiny feet,
and to give visitors a spectacular new viewing platform. It also affords the
elephants even more space, making it one of the largest exhibits in
Nick Ellerton in EAZA News No. 44 (October–December 2003)
For the first time ever,
golden takins (Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi) can now be seen in a
European zoo. Liberec Zoo and Beijing Zoo,
A new pavilion with an
outside enclosure was constructed for the animals with help and consultation
from skilled employees of Beijing Zoo. The takins were transported to
Another great success
was the birth of a female blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis) on
25 June, the first blue sheep ever born in a Czech zoo. The parents are female
Lin, born in June 2000 in
Abridged from Josef Janecek in EAZA News No. 44 (October–December 2003)
Keepers from the zoo's
reptile house and Dr Wolfgang Wüster (
Keepers noticed a difference in scale pattern and coloration, and the new species was confirmed by Dr Wüster's DNA studies. The Nubian is differentiated from the red spitting cobra by its throat and neck pattern and overall body colour. N. pallida normally has a single, broad dark band across the throat, which encircles the body and crosses the neck; the rest of the body is uniformly dark red. N. nubiae has two bands across the neck, a distinct light throat area before the main throat band, and practically all specimens feature a small dark spot on each side of the throat. The rest of the body is dark brown.
The new cobras at the
zoo recently produced a clutch of ten eggs, all of which hatched successfully
Terry March, Team Leader of Reptiles at London Zoo, says, `Working very closely with the animals here in the reptile house, we noticed subtle differences when the animals arrived, and collaborating with Dr Wüster has led to a new species of cobra being identified. To then see the snakes successfully breed makes it even more significant, as there is so little known about the species and much to learn.'
London Zoo website (www.londonzoo.com)
Some new and very
interesting species have recently enriched our collection, the most important
one probably being three (1.2) red shining parrots (Prosopeia tabuensis)
Through an exchange of birds with an Austrian breeder, we were once more able to add a new species to the collection, consisting of three orange-breasted emerald lorikeets (Neopsittacus pullicauda alpinus). Thus, the Foundation's collection currently comprises 347 parrot species and subspecies.
In the meantime, our three young pileated parrots (Pionopsitta pileata), who hatched together with other individuals of their genus in a flocking aviary in our La Vera breeding centre, have fledged. This was the first time that this species has been bred with several individuals sharing one aviary.
After the foster-rearing of the first clutch of our short-tailed parrots (Graydidascalus brachyurus) by a pair of noble macaws, the female laid a second clutch whose two chicks were not removed for foster-rearing and are currently developing very well. The first clutch, however, had to be transferred into the Baby Station shortly after the young parrots got their first feathers, because the macaws started plucking them.
A new pair of mountain parakeets (Bolborhynchus aurifrons robertsi) also raised one chick this year, which has already fledged. The Finsch's conures (Aratinga finschi) started breeding late this year; at present, two pairs are raising three young each.
In spring, we received a
new male Pesquet's parrot (Psittrichas fulgidus) from
Abridged from the report for September compiled by Matthias Reinschmidt, Curator, Loro Parque
Everyone knows that koalas feed almost exclusively on the foliage of eucalypts. But this is where the simple part of the story ends. There are over 700 species of eucalypt and koalas feed on approximately 50 of these. Koalas from the north feed on different species from those of the south. They also have their favourites within these species.
Inevitably the browse trees die and need replacing. Over three days in June this year, a team of volunteers from Friends of the Zoos planted and protected over a thousand new seedlings, mostly red, swamp and blue gum. Koalas eat about 500 grams of leaves a day, which provide them with enough food and moisture; they rarely drink water. All koalas spend at least 19 to 20 hours of the day resting or sleeping, which significantly reduces their metabolic requirements. With so little time spent in active pursuits, these wonderful, unique Australians would have no idea how time-consuming and labour-intensive it is to provide their nourishment.
Abridged from Fran Pfeiffer in Zoo News Vol. 23, No. 3 (September 2003)
In November, a dozen
Planners from the zoo and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service had hoped to complete the project a year ago, but with money hard to come by, it was delayed. The zoo has raised about $1.35 million of the $3 million needed to build the off-exhibit breeding facility and pre-release flight pen, an on-site veterinary clinic and a condor exhibit at the zoo. Tony Vecchio, the zoo's director, says raising the remaining money will be tough, but he's confident it will come.
Zoo officials don't know
where condors raised in
Abridged and adapted from Seattle Times (
Riverbanks Zoological Park,
Births and hatchings during the period April to September 2003 were as follows: 2 Siberian tiger, 4 wart hog, 1 parma wallaby, 2 Bali mynah, 1 blue-winged leafbird, 2 curl-crested aracari, 3 king penguin, 1 spectacled owl, 3 superb starling, 2 toco toucan, 5 troupial, 13 African spurred tortoise, 1 bog turtle, 2 loggerhead sea turtle, 1 pancake tortoise, 1 radiated tortoise, 4 flat leaf-tailed gecko, 5 giant leaf-tailed gecko, 2 Henkel's leaf-tailed gecko, 3 lined leaf-tailed gecko, 2 spiny leaf-tailed gecko, 3 yellow-throated gecko, 10 eastern diamondback rattlesnake, 5 eyelash palm pit viper, 1 green tree python.
The following were acquired during the same period: 1 acouchi, 1 De Brazza's monkey, 1 Diana monkey, 1 golden lion tamarin, 1 parma wallaby, 1 pygmy marmoset, 1 blue-winged leafbird, 1 boat-billed heron, 1 fairy bluebird, 1 Indian pygmy goose, 1 magnificent ground pigeon, 1 robin chat, 1 Burmese black tortoise, 3 Chinese broad-headed turtle, 2 loggerhead turtle, 1 eastern coral snake, 2 king cobra, 4 ocellated mountain viper.
Susan Reno, Registrar
San Antonio Zoo, Texas, U.S.A.
Named after Sir
Frederick John Jackson, a naturalist and English diplomat,
With the wild population decreasing, San Antonio Zoo is taking an active role in working with this rare species. We received our first breeding pair in 1966 and celebrated a birth in 1968. Since that time, 44 hartebeest calves have been successfully born here, including two this summer.
Abridged from Janet Valadez in Wild Times (October 2003)
San Diego Zoo, California, U.S.A.
The zoo's long history with Galápagos tortoises (Geochelone nigra) began in 1928, when a large group arrived here to establish a captive-breeding program. They were brought by Dr Charles H. Townsend of the New York Zoological Society, who went to the islands to collect as many tortoises as possible in an effort to save the species from extinction. Expeditions to the Galápagos were the predominant way of acquiring tortoises at the time, and this era was dubbed the `rescue phase'. On the islands, the tortoises were under pressure from human consumption, the oil trade, and introduced feral predators. Generation after generation, these reptiles had survived other pressures such as essential freshwater sources drying up and fires destroying already limited vegetation. But introduced predators were proving to be the final straw that was about to break the tortoises' backs.
San Diego Zoo housed the
treasures from the 1928 Townsend Expedition, as did eight other zoological institutions
San Diego Zoo was not
the first institution to report success in breeding Galápagos tortoises, but 30
years after their arrival we were the fourth to report a successful hatch. The
late Charles Shaw, curator of reptiles at the time, reported that after an
eight-month incubation period, five tortoises hatched on
The history of
There are currently 20
Galápagos tortoises at the zoo, including representatives from six locations in
the archipelago. All but two of the subspecies are isolated populations on
different islands or volcanoes, separated by geographic barriers of lava and water.
The location best represented in our herd, with 4.2 animals, is
Another part of our herd
is made up of the subspecies native to three volcanoes on the northern half of
The sixth and final
subspecies at the zoo is the
There are many ways in
Abridged from Thomas C. Owens in Zoonooz Vol. 76, No. 10 (October 2003)
The great hornbill (Buceros
bicornis) has always been an extremely popular exhibit bird in European
collections. But in marked contrast to the large number of holders, breeding
successes have been achieved in only a few institutions to date (
For many years, a pair
of great hornbills has been housed in a combined indoor/outdoor compartment of
our large bird aviary. Dimensions are 400 ´ 600 ´ 250 cm (indoors) and 550 ´ 700 ´ 400 cm (outdoors). The
outdoor aviary is heavily planted, while the indoor aviary is furnished with
wooden perches and a nest-box of 80 ´ 72 ´ 90 cm with a 23-cm entrance hole
on the front side. The female arrived from a small collection near
The female and her new
partner got along with each other extremely well from the day they were
introduced. The female entered the nest-box just a few months later, on
Despite this long-awaited and encouraging success, many more efforts are necessary to establish a self-sustaining EEP population of this charismatic bird.
Gunther Schleussner in EAZA News No. 44 (October–December 2003)
News in brief
A Bolivian gray titi
monkey (Callicebus donacophilus) was born on 28 March at Dallas Zoo,
Communiqué (American Zoo and Aquarium Association), October 2003
* * * * *
The oldest Indian rhino
at Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde died on
Dr Bernhard Blaszkiewitz
* * * * *
* * * * *
A nine-strong troop of hamadryas baboons have joined four white rhinos and six giraffes in the African paddock at South Lakes Wild Animal Park, Dalton-in-Furness, U.K. It is thought to be the first time this combination of species has been placed in a mixed exhibit in any zoo.
* * * * *
Two (1.1) red panda cubs
were born at
Communiqué (American Zoo and Aquarium Association), October 2003
* * *
Index to Contributors, International Zoo News Volume 50 (2003)
Abelló, M.T., see Velasco, M.
Adams, John, 1, 61–62
Azúa, John, 7, 434
Bahir, Mohommed, 5, 304
Baier, Jeff, see Kenny, David E.
Balzer, Jörg, see Hammer, Sven
Banks, Chris, 2, 101–102; 4, 251–252
Bar-David, Shirli, see Handrus, Elliot
Barnes, Karen, see Mehrdadfar, Farshid
Ben-David, Na'ama Y., 7, 408–417
Bicca-Marques, Júlio César, see Gomes, Daniela Fichtner
Bidaux, Stéphanie, see Delord, Françoise
Bilbaut, Marianne, 3, 182–183
Bircher, Sue, 5, 309–310
Blaszkiewitz, Bernhard, 1, 64; 4, 255; 8, 509–510
Bolton, Duncan, 4, 247–248
Bolton, Duncan, & Carlsen, Frands, 4, 233–234
Boyen, Elke, see King, Tony
Brandstätter, Frank, 7, 418–422
Britt, Adam, Welch, Charlie, & Katz, Andrea, 1, 47–48
Brueggen, John, 4, 234–235
Bruins, Eugene, 4, 246
Carlsen, Frands, see
Carroll, J. Bryan, Gage, Melanie, Hurst, Louise, & Maddison, Neil, 1, 21–26
Casavant, Kelly, see Mehrdadfar, Farshid
Challis, Mark, 4, 246–247; 8, 498–499
Chitty, John, 7, 444
Chuven, Justin, see Mehrdadfar, Farshid
Cimino, Ray, 5, 306–308
Corder, John, 5, 306
Craig, Jamie, & Reed, Clare, 1, 16–20
Creak, Miranda, 7, 446–447
Cuadrado, Mariano, 2, 121
da Cunha, Margarida Barão, Ruivo, Eric Bairrão, & Matias, Sónia, 4, 250–251
Damen, Marc, 1, 53–55
de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini, Lima, Michele Badaró, Faggioli, Ângela Bernadete, & Menegazzi, Cristiane Speziali, 1, 27–37
de Wit, Pierre, 1, 58–59
Delord, Françoise, & Bidaux, Stéphanie, 1, 57–58
Dematteo, Karen, 3, 183–184
Diaz, Maria Pilar, 4, 231
Dunce, Ilze, 1, 62–63
Durrant, Barbara S., see Lindburg, Donald G.
Edwards, John, 1, 38
Ellerton, Nick, 8, 503
Ellis, Malcolm, 1, 45
Faggioli, Ângela Bernadete, see de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini
Fainstein, Vladimir, & Miljutina, Tatjana, 2, 123–124
Fejk, Petr, 2, 122–123
Fiby, Monika, 8, 502
Freiheit, Clayton F., 2, 119–120
Furnweger, Karen, 3, 178
Gage, Melanie, see Carroll, J. Bryan
Gamba, Marco, Giacoma, Cristina, & Zaborra, Cesare Avesani, 6, 376
Gardiner, Linda, 3, 174–175
Gerlach, Justin, 1, 45–46
Gerritsen, Marga, 1, 62
Giacoma, Cristina, see Gamba, Marco
Gilbert, Tania, see Woodfine, Tim
Gippoliti, Spartaco, 2, 102, 112–114
Gomes, Daniela Fichtner, & Bicca-Marques, Júlio César, 8, 487–488
Gould, Nicholas, 1, 2–3; 2, 70–71, 107; 3, 37, 171–173, 186; 4, 198, 227–228; 5, 264, 298–301; 6, 351–352; 7, 392–394; 8, 493–494
Guldenschuh, Gerry, 7, 438–441
Haeffner, Rick, 7, 435
Hammer, Sven, Jensen, Simon, Balzer, Jörg, & Sandow, Dieter, 3, 156–159; see also Jensen, Simon Bruslund
Handrus, Elliot, Saltz, David, & Bar-David, Shirli, 3, 142–146
Hannocks, Chris, 2, 122
Hayes, Tracey, 7, 442–443
Heckel, Jens-Ove, see Lernould, Jean-Marc
Hilsberg, Sabine, 6, 369–370
Hogg, Carolyn, 7, 447
Holst, Bengt, 8, 497
Holtorf, Cornelius, & Van Reybrouck, David, 4, 207–215
Hurst, Louise, see Carroll, J. Bryan
Janecek, Josef, 8, 503–504
Jensen, Simon Bruslund, & Hammer, Catrin, 5, 305–306; see also Hammer, Sven
Jensen, Simon Bruslund, & Hammer, Sven, 5, 276–279
Johann, Achim, 2, 114–116; 6, 360–362
Jones, Marvin L., 2, 105
Jørgensen, Bent, 8, 458
Katz, Andrea, see Britt, Adam
Kawata, Ken, 5, 262, 265–275
Keeling, C.H., 1, 38–39; 3, 170
Kenny, David E., Baier, Jeff, & Knightly, Felicia, 7, 435–436
King, Cathy, 4, 253–254
King, Tony, Boyen, Elke, & Muilerman, Sander, 5, 288–297
Kisling, Vernon, 6, 355; 7, 426; 8, 492–493
Klenova, Anna V., see Volodin, Ilya A.
Knightly, Felicia, see Kenny, David E.
Knowles, John, 6, 374–375
Lange, Jürgen, 7, 390–392
Lernould, Jean-Marc, Heckel, Jens-Ove, & Wirth, Roland, 6, 357–358
Lima, Michele Badaró, see de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini
Lindburg, Donald G., Durrant, Barbara S., Penny, Carmi, & McKeever, Michael, 5, 312–314
Lukas, Kristen E., see McCarthy, Sean T.
McCaffree, Ken, see Mehrdadfar, Farshid
McCarthy, Sean T., Lukas, Kristen E., Sironen, Alan L., & Winkler, David, 7, 396–406
McKeever, Michael, see Lindburg, Donald G.
Maddison, Neil, see Carroll, J. Bryan
Marcordes, Bernd, see Rinke, Dieter
Martin, Esmond, see Vigne, Lucy
Maschka, Rhonda, 6, 377–378
Matias, Sónia, see da Cunha, Margarida Barão
Menegazzi, Cristiane Speziali, see de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini
Mehrdadfar, Farshid, Chuven, Justin, Casavant, Kelly, & Barnes, Karen, 8, 462–466
Mehrdadfar, Farshid, Shuler, Joe, & McCaffree, Ken, 4, 216–221
Miljutina, Tatjana, see Fainstein, Vladimir
Miller, Brian J., see
Miller, R. Eric, & Parker, Patricia, 1, 46–47
Muilerman, Sander, see King, Tony
Müller, Martina, see Rinke, Dieter
Nagase, Ken, 3, 182
Nakazawa, A., see Yamaguchi, K.
Namaisawa, H., see Yamaguchi, K.
Nikitina, Alla, see Orlov, Konstantin
O'Lear, Matt, 5, 311–312
Orlov, Konstantin, & Nikitina, Alla, 6, 372–373
Otsuka, K., see Yamaguchi, K.
Owen, Raymond, 4, 225–226
Owens, Thomas C., 8, 507–509
Parker, Patricia, see Miller, R. Eric
Pé, Frank, 5, 280–286
Penny, Carmi, see Lindburg, Donald G.
Pfeiffer, Fran, 8, 505
Phillips, John A., 8, 496–497
Pratalongo, Fernando Angulo, 5, 302
Ray, John, 4, 255
Reed, Clare, see Craig, Jamie
Rees, Paul A., 2, 86–90; 4, 200–206
Reichenbach, Herman, 1, 40–41; 2, 72–85; 4, 228–229, 241–243; 6, 352–354; 8, 489–491, 495
Reinschmidt, Matthias, 1, 59–60; 2, 121–122; 3, 178–179; 4, 250; 5, 308–309; 6, 373–374; 7, 443–444; 8, 504–505
Reno, Susan, 3, 183; 4, 253; 8, 506
Rietkerk, Frank, 6, 367
Rinke, Dieter, 2, 125
Rinke, Dieter, Müller, Martina, & Marcordes, Bernd, 4, 243–245
Robstad, Gunn Holen, 6, 371–372
Romano, Guillaume, & Vermeer, Jan, 3, 138–141
Rookmaaker, Kees, 1, 50
Ruivo, Eric Bairrão, see da Cunha, Margarida Barão
Sagawa, Y., see Yamaguchi, K.
Saltz, David, see Handrus, Elliot
Salzberg, Allen, 2, 90
Sandow, Dieter, see Hammer, Sven
Schleussner, Gunther, 8, 509
Schmidt, Harald, 3, 183
Schwammer, Harald M., see Stoeger-Horwath, Angela S.
Shuler, Joe, see Mehrdadfar, Farshid
Sironen, Alan L., see McCarthy, Sean T.
Stoeger-Horwath, Angela S., & Schwammer, Harald M., 6, 330–336; 8, 468–474
Strachan, Alan, 8, 499–501
Strehlow, Harro, 7, 428–433
Sweeney, Roger, 1, 43–45; 4, 232
Tan, Chia, 4, 230–231
Tan, Vincent, 6, 379–381
Terkel, Amelia, 1, 64
Tofts, Russell, 5, 297
Tropeano, Anthony, 4, 248
Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale, 2, 97–100
Tuson, John, 1, 4–14; 2, 92–96, 105–107; 3, 148–155; 4, 222–224, 225; 6, 326–328; 8, 475–480
Underwood, Geoff, 5, 314
Valadez, Janet, 8, 506–507
van Bruggen, A.C., 2, 103–105; 6, 347–350, 355–356; 7, 427; 8, 481–486, 492
van Dam, Gerard, 8, 459–460
van den Broek, Peggy, see Veenhuizen, Rolf
van der Zanden, Rogier, see van Herk, Robert
van Herk, Robert, and van der Zanden, Rogier, 1, 57
Van Reybrouck, David, see Holtorf, Cornelius
van Vliet, Erik, 7, 423–425
Veenhuizen, Rolf, & van den Broek, Peggy, 3, 175–176
Velasco, M., & Abelló, M.T., 6, 343–346
Vercammen, Paul, 7, 426
Vermeer, Jan, see Romano, Guillaume
Vigne, Lucy, & Martin, Esmond, 6, 338–342
Visser, Gerard, 2, 123
Volodin, Ilya A., Volodina, Elena V., & Klenova, Anna V., 3, 160–167
Volodina, Elena V., see Volodin, Ilya A.
Walker, Sally, 3, 134–137
Ward, Cathy, 3, 180–181
Weigl, Richard, 1, 39
Welch, Charlie, see Britt, Adam
Whitbread, Sam, 4, 225
Wilkinson, Roger, 6, 368–369
Winkler, David, see McCarthy, Sean T.
Wirth, Roland, see Lernould, Jean-Marc
Woodfine, Tim, & Gilbert, Tania, 6, 358–359
Wortman, John, 7, 433
Yamaguchi, K., Nakazawa, A., Namaisawa, H., Sagawa, Y., & Otsuka, K., 5, 315
Yokota, Osamu, 2, 124–125
Zaborra, Cesare Avesani, see Gamba, Marco
Zingg, Robert, 7, 448
Zobrist, Ann, 4, 248–249
Zucconi, Dave, 2, 102
Index to Books Reviewed, International Zoo News Volume 50 (2003)
Altmann, Jeanne: Baboon Mothers and Infants. 2, 107.
Cocks, Leif: Orangutans and
Coops, T.: Het Bos van Blaauw. Gooilust en het Corversbos. Biografie van een 's-Gravelandse Buitenplaats. 6, 355–356.
Daszkiewicz, Piotr, & Aikhenbaum, Jean: Aurochs, le Retour . . . d'une Supercherie Nazie. 6, 352–354.
Fisher, Clemency Thorne (ed.): A
Passion for Natural History: the Life and Legacy of the 13th Earl of
Gray, Randall L.: Desert Lizards: Captive Husbandry and Propagation. 5, 301.
Hahn, Daniel: The Tower Menagerie. 5, 298–299.
Jahn, Ilse, & Schmitt, Michael: Darwin & Co. – eine Geschichte der Biologie in Portraits. 1, 40–41.
Jones, Marvin L. (ed. Mark Rosenthal and Ken Kawata): A Conversation with Marvin Jones. 5, 299–301.
Keeling, C.H.: Skyscrapers and Sealions. 4, 228–229.
Kiefer, M.: Chasing the Panda: How an Unlikely Pair of Adventurers Won the Race to Capture the Mythical `White Bear'. 7, 427.
Olney, P.J.S., Fisken, Fiona A., & Morris, Catherine (eds.): International Zoo Yearbook 38. 6, 351–352.
Larson, Peggy P.: Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, A Scrapbook. 2, 105.
Martel, Yann: Life of Pi. 2, 105–107.
Rieck, Werner, Hallmann, Gerhard, & Bischoff, Wolfgang: Die Geschichte der Herpetologie und Terrarienkunde im deutschsprachigen Raum. 1, 40–41.
Scheier, Joan: The
Sunquist, Mel & Fiona: Wild Cats of the World. 4, 227–228.
Sunquist, Fiona & Mel: Tiger
Moon: Tracking the Great Cats in
Weniger, Gerd-Christian (ed.): Archäologie und Biologie des Auerochsen/Archaeology and Biology of the Aurochs. 6, 352–354.
Wrigley, Robert E.: Polar Bear Encounters at Churchill. 3, 173.
Young, Peter: Tortoise. 8, 493–494.
Subject Index, International Zoo News Volume 50 (2003)
[Primary references to
species and genera are under scientific names, with cross-references from
common English names. The name of a single species is normally given in the
singular, even where the reference is to a number of individuals of that
species: thus, e.g., `Cercopithecus neglectus, mixed exhibit with
gorilla, Melbourne Zoo' does not imply that the exhibit contains only a single
gorilla; but `Hornbills, captive breeding' will refer to an item about more
than one species of hornbill. The terms `Zoological Gardens' and `
Aceros undulatus, breeding,
behavioural and reproductive study,
blood transfusion, National
breeding and conservation, De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Trust, 8, 499–501
breeding, Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife, 4, 247
breeding by artificial insemination, Columbus Zoo, 7, 441–442
cubs, chronobiological study, Schönbrunn Zoo, 6, 330–336
cubs, vocalization study, Schönbrunn Zoo, 8, 468–474
computer software for mate
early collectors from wild, book review, 7, 427
mating, San Diego Zoo, 5, 312–314
Schönbrunn Zoo, 6, 378–379
training, Zoo Atlanta, 7, 449–450
Ailurus fulgens, breeding,
Al Wabra Wildlife Conservation,
breeding, birds of paradise, 5, 276–279
breeding, flame bowerbird, 5, 305
breeding, sand cat, 5, 305–306
DNA sexing, birds of paradise and bowerbirds, 3, 156–159
Somali wild ass, 5, 305
Alcelaphus buselaphus jacksoni, breeding, San Antonio Zoo, 8, 506–507
Alces alces, wasting syndrome complex, 1, 65
Alouatta caraya, breeding (including
Amazona guildingii, conservation, in
and ex situ,
Amblonyx cinereus, new exhibit, Edinburgh Zoo, 8, 502
Amersfoort Zoo, the
Ammotragus lervia, behavioural study, 2, 127
Amphibians, management, European zoos, 1, 49
aquarium, history, 8, 481–486
breeding, Japanese giant salamander, 8, 483–484
herring, 8, 483
parthenogenesis, Burmese python, 4, 246
Andrias japonicus, breeding, Amsterdam Zoo, 8, 483–484
Anole, green, see Anolis carolinensis
Anolis carolinensis, nutrient composition, 1, 65–66
Antelope, sable, see Hippotragus
aggression control, 1, 68
fever study, Lichtenburg Game Breeding Centre, 4, 235
Sahelo-Saharan, conservation, 6, 358–359
Anthracoceros a. albirostris, breeding, Vogelpark Heppenheim, 4, 255
Aoudad, see Ammotragus lervia
breeding (including twins), black howler monkey, 6, 367
tool use, bonobo, 2, 128
Apistogramma spp., research in aquaria, 5, 317
breeding without artificial incubation, Cincinnati Zoo, 8, 510
in situ conservation in
Aquarium of Western Australia, Sorrento, Western Australia, visitor's report, 2, 80–81
Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus, acoustic research, Taronga Zoo, 7, 447
Art and zoos, 5, 264; 7, 426
koala, Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary, 6, 385
Pacific white-sided dolphin, John G. Shedd Aquarium, 4, 249–250
red-crowned crane, Fort Worth Zoo, 5, 308
white rhino, Berlin Institute for Zoo and Wild Animal Research, 4, 234
Ass, Somali wild, see Equus africanus somalicus
Atelopus spp., zoo breeding programmes, 5, 317
annual report 2001–2002, 1, 51–53
enrichment, Asian elephant, 3, 174–175
twin birth and hand-rearing, siamang, 7, 438
Audubon Aquarium of the
Aurochs, see Bos primigenius
Avocet, see Recurvirostra avosetta
Aye-aye, see Daubentonia madagascariensis
Baboon, hamadryas, see Papio hamadryas
breeding, Indian flapshell turtle, 6, 368
financial cuts, 8, 498
Banteng, see Bos javanicus
Bat, Livingstone's fruit, see Pteropus livingstonii
Bear, Amur brown, see U. arctos
Beauval Zoo, St Aignan sur Cher, France, tropical Australian exhibit, 1, 57–58
breeding, colobine monkeys, 8, 498–499
breeding, Malayan tapir, 4, 246–247
Belo Horizonte Zoo,
Berlin Institute for Zoo and Wild Animal Research, artificial insemination, white rhino, 4, 234
Bird of paradise, red, see Paradisaea rubra
breeding, Japanese passerines, Ueno Zoo, 5, 315
Galápagos, health monitoring programme, 1, 46–47
sexing methods, 3, 137, 156–167
visitor responses, Belo Horizonte Zoo, 1, 27–37
Birds of paradise,
breeding, Al Wabra Wildlife Conservation, 5, 276–279
DNA sexing, Al Wabra Wildlife Conservation, 3, 156–159
Bongo, see Tragelaphus eurycerus
Bonobo, see Pan paniscus
Bos javanicus, breeding by cloning,
Bos primigenius, book review, 6, 352–354
Bowerbird, flame, see Sericulus
Breeding Centre for Endangered
breeding, Arabian leopard, 1, 43
breeding, cheetah, 4, 247
albino African penguin, 4, 247–248
funding primate conservation,
Broadbill, long-tailed, see Psarisomus dalhousiae
Bubo ascalaphus, sent from Wadi Al Safa Wildlife Centre to World Owl Trust, 5, 315
breeding, Wilhelma Zoo, 8, 509
reproductive assessment by fecal hormone analysis, 4, 257
Buceros rhinoceros, artificial rainfall and nest activity, Cincinnati Zoo, 7, 453
Bucorvus leadbeateri, hand-rearing and release,
Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi, Liberec Zoo, 8, 503
Bustard breeding programme, computerized record system, 6, 382
Butterflies, swallowtail, see Papilio spp.
Caiman, brown, see Caiman crocodilus fuscus
Caiman crocodilus fuscus, seasonal reproductive activity, 4, 258
Callicebus donacophilus, breeding, Dallas Zoo, 8, 509
Callithrix jacchus, pairing unfamiliar females, 6, 386
Callitrichids, environmental enrichment, Drusillas Zoo, 1, 16–20
Calvin Nicholls Wildlife Complex, Kingstown, St Vincent, St Vincent amazon parrot, 1, 43–45; 4, 232
behaviour and welfare in zoos, 3, 190–191
behavioural study, Salzburg Zoo, 4, 259
faecal hormone analysis, Point Defiance Zoo, 7, 446
fostering into wild, North Carolina Zoo, 3, 181–182
Cat, jungle, see Felis chaus; sand, see Felis margarita
Cepphus columba, breeding, Oregon Coast Aquarium, 7, 445–446
artificial insemination research, Berlin Institute for Zoo and Wild Animal Research, 4, 234
import and breeding, Western Plains Zoo, 7, 447–448
mixed exhibit with hamadryas baboon
Monarto Zoo, 2, 122
social structure and reproduction,
Cervus alfredi, European zoo population, 6, 357–358
Chameleon, panther, see Furcifer pardalis
Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus, eggs rescued and hatched, Monterey Bay Aquarium, 7, 444–445
Charadrius melodus, rescue and hand-rearing, John Ball Zoo, 6, 371
Cheetah, see Acinonyx jubatus
Chelonia mydas, breeding, Sea World,
conservation plan, 4, 226
in Japanese zoos, 5, 265–275
breeding, red bird of paradise, 6, 368–369
early sexual experience, Asian elephant, 4, 200–206
takes over sponsorship of IZN, 1, 2
visitor's report, 1, 4–14
Cheyenne Mountain Zoo, Colorado, U.S.A., breeding, mountain tapir, 7, 441
Children's zoos, 2, 97–100
Chiloscyllium plagiosum, possible parthenogenesis, Belle Isle Aquarium, 1, 49–50
Chiloscyllium punctatum, breeding, Leipzig Zoo, 5, 323
Chimpanzee, see Pan troglodytes; pygmy (bonobo), see Pan paniscus
Chiropotes satanas, seasonality of breeding, Brazilian zoos, 8, 487–488
Choloepus hoffmanni, breeding (1876), London Zoo, 1, 38
Cichlids, dwarf, see Apistogramma spp.
Cincinnati Zoo, Ohio, U.S.A.,
artificial rainfall and nest activity, rhinoceros hornbill, 7, 453
breeding without artificial incubation, king penguin, 8, 510
pregnancy, Sumatran rhino, 5, 306
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, Ohio, U.S.A., behavioural study, fossa, 7, 396–406
Clupea harengus, Amsterdam Zoo, 8, 483
Cobra, Nubian, see Naja nubiae
Colchester Zoo, U.K., breeding by artificial insemination, African elephant, 4, 248
Cologne (Köln) Zoo, Germany,
diet, giraffe and okapi, 5, 319
food intake and preferences, douc langurs, 7, 449
management and contraception, hamadryas baboon, 1, 66–67
Columbus Zoo, Ohio, U.S.A.,
breeding by artificial insemination, cheetah, 7, 441–442
freshwater mussels, 2, 119
Condor, California, see Gymnogyps californianus
Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark, annual report 2002, 4, 236–239
Corney, Jack (1924–2003), obituary, 7, 392
Crane, red-crowned, see Grus japonensis
Cricket St Thomas Wildlife Park, Chard, U.K., Reeves's pheasant feathers donated to Beijing opera, 5, 306
Crocodile, Philippine, see Crocodylus mindorensis
Crocodilians, swallowing under water, St Augustine Alligator Farm, 4, 234–235
breeding, Fort Worth Zoo, 6, 369
Melbourne Zoo, 4, 251–252
Crocuta crocuta, Beekse Bergen Safari Park, 3, 175–176
Cryptoprocta ferox, behavioural study, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, 7, 396–406
Cuon alpinus, husbandry, San Diego Wild Animal Park, 8, 462–466
Cyanopica cyana, split into two species suggested, 5, 304
Cyclura nubila lewisi, breeding, Indianapolis Zoo, 3, 177
Cyprinodon longidorsalis, breeding, London Zoo, 7, 455
Dallas Zoo, Texas, U.S.A., breeding, Bolivian gray titi monkey, 8, 509
Dama dama mesopotamica, reintroduction, Israel, 3, 142–146
Daubentonia madagascariensis, breeding, Ueno Zoo, 7, 448
De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Trust, South Africa, breeding and conservation, cheetah, 8, 499–501
Deer, Mesopotamian (Persian) fallow, see Dama dama mesopotamica; Philippine spotted, see Cervus alfredi
Dendrocygna viduata, call-based sex identification, Moscow Zoo, 3, 160–167
Denver Zoo, Colorado, U.S.A.,
annual report 2002, 7, 433–437
breeding, African wild dog, 3, 187
breeding, Komodo dragon, 3, 186
mandrill, 2, 119–120
new Congo Basin exhibit, 2, 119–120
southern tamandua, 4, 248–249
Derby, 13th Earl of, book review, 3, 171–173
Dhole, see Cuon alpinus
Dicerorhinus sumatrensis, pregnancy, Cincinnati Zoo, 5, 306
Diceros bicornis, temporarily exhibited in England, 1877, 1, 50
Dipsochelys spp., breeding, Seychelles Giant Tortoise Conservation Project, 1, 45–46
Disney's Animal Kingdom, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, U.S.A., hand-rearing, long-tailed broadbill, 3, 177
Dog, African wild, see Lycaon pictus; bush, see Speothos venaticus
Dolphin, bottle-nosed, see Tursiops truncatus; Pacific white-sided, see Lagenorhynchus obliquidens
Dortmund Zoo, Germany, 7, 418–422
Dragon, bearded, see Pogona vitticeps; Komodo, see Varanus komodoensis
Drusillas Zoo, Alfriston, U.K., environmental enrichment, callitrichids, 1, 16–20
visitor services, 6, 327
Dryococelus australis, breeding, Melbourne Zoo, 5, 310; 7, 448
Duck, white-faced whistling, see Dendrocygna viduata
Duikers, book review, 2, 103–105
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust (Jersey Zoo), Channel Islands,
new `flight tunnel', Livingstone's fruit bat, 8, 501
possible conservation programme, Cuba, 2, 120
visitor's report, 5, 306–308
Eagle, bald, see Haliaeetus leucocephalus
Edinburgh Zoo, U.K., new exhibit, oriental small-clawed otter, 8, 502
Elephant, African, see Loxodonta africana; Asian, see Elephas maximus
Elephants in zoos, welfare and breeding, 2, 70–71, 86–90; 3, 170; 3, 193
breeding, Ramat-Gan Zoological Center, 1, 64
death of male at 57, Ringling Bros and Barnum & Bailey, 2, 126
death of male at 86 (?), Taipei Zoo, 3, 186
early sexual experience, Chester Zoo, 4, 200–206
enrichment, Auckland Zoo, 3, 174–175
new exhibit, Singapore Zoo, 6, 379–380
Emmen Zoo, the Netherlands, new exhibit, Humboldt penguin, 1, 58–59
Endangered Primate Rescue Center, Cuc Phuong National Park, Vietnam, food intake and preferences, douc langurs, 7, 449
Environmental enrichment, callitrichids, Drusillas Zoo, 1, 16–20
Equus africanus somalicus,
Al Wabra Wildlife Conservation, 5, 305
breeding, Liberec Zoo, 8, 503
Eriophora transmarinus, sent on space shuttle, Melbourne Zoo, 5, 310
Falculea palliata, breeding, Walsrode Bird Park, 2, 125
Felis chaus, breeding, Ostrava Zoo, 6, 388
breeding, Al Wabra Wildlife Conservation, 5, 305–306
Marwell Zoo, 1, 61–62
Ferret, black-footed, see Mustela nigripes
Flamingo Park Wildlife Encounter, Isle of Wight, U.K., visitor's report, 4, 223–224
Foot-and-mouth disease, implications for zoos, 3, 193–194
Fort Worth Zoo, Texas, U.S.A.,
breeding, Asian brown mountain tortoise, 7, 442
breeding by artificial insemination, red-crowned crane, 5, 308
breeding, Philippine crocodile, 6, 369
Fossa, see Cryptoprocta ferox
Fox, swift, see Vulpes velox
Frädrich, Hans (1937–2003), obituary, 7, 390–392
Frankfurt Zoo, Germany, infra-red thermography, 6, 369–370
Frog, Vietnamese (no English name), see Rhacophorus verrucosus
Frogs, `direct developing', conservation, Sri Lanka, 5, 304
Furcifer pardalis, ultraviolet light and reproduction, 2, 128
Garda Zoo, Italy, see Parco Natura Viva
Garrulax galbanus, conservation and research, China, 1, 45
Geochelone gigantea, breeding, Tulsa Zoo, 5, 315–316
breeding and conservation, San Diego Zoo, 8, 507–509
breeding, Zürich Zoo, 7, 448
hand-rearing, Konrad Lorenz Research Station, 1, 68
new aviary, Alpenzoo, 2, 117–118
Gibbon, lar, see Hylobates lar; white-cheeked, see H. leucogenys
Gila monster, see Heloderma suspectum
Ginglymostoma cirratum, reproductive study, Sea World, Orlando, 4, 256–257
diet, Cologne Zoo, 5, 319
mixed exhibit with hamadryas baboon and white rhino, South Lakes Wild Animal Park, 8, 510
twin birth, Marwell Zoo, 6, 374
Giraffe, see Giraffa camelopardalis
Gorilla, western lowland, see Gorilla g. gorilla
Gorilla g. gorilla,
echocardiogram, Melbourne Zoo, 3, 180–181
mating, male and female from different groups, Barcelona Zoo, 6, 343–346
reintroduced, behavioural study, 5, 288–297
Graeme Hall Nature Sanctuary, Barbados, St Vincent amazon parrot, 1, 43–45; 4, 232
Graptemys barbouri, breeding, John G. Shedd Aquarium, 3, 178
beak repair, Marwell Zoo, 7, 444
breeding by artificial insemination, Fort Worth Zoo, 5, 308
Guan, white-winged, see Penelope albipennis
Guillemot, pigeon, see Cepphus columba
new breeding facility, Oregon Zoo, 8, 505–506
reintroduced birds threatened by lead poisoning, 5, 302–303
Hagenbeck, Carl, book review, 8, 489–491
Haliaeetus leucocephalus, new exhibit, U.S. National Zoo, 5, 311–312
long-tailed broadbill, Disney's Animal Kingdom, 3, 177
piping plover, John Ball Zoo, 6, 371
siamang, Auckland Zoo, 7, 438
southern ground hornbill, National Zoo, South Africa, 3, 186
waldrapp, Konrad Lorenz Research Station, 1, 68
Harderwijk Dolphinarium (Marine Mammal Park), the Netherlands,
breeding, walrus, 8, 502–503
food consumption and growth, walrus, 6, 385–386
Hartebeest, Jackson's, see Alcelaphus buselaphus jacksoni
Healesville Sanctuary, Victoria, Australia, visitor's report, 2, 81–83
Heidelberg Zoo, Germany, visitor's report, 8, 475–480
Heloderma horridum, breeding, Los Angeles Zoo, 3, 179–180
breeding, Rotterdam Zoo, 2, 123
breeding, Los Angeles Zoo, 3, 179–180
Henry Doorly Zoo, Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.A., possible parthenogenesis, bonnethead shark, 1, 49–50
Rotterdam Zoo, 3, 183
social behaviour, Krefeld Zoo, 1, 66
Herring, see Clupea harengus
Hippotragus niger, sent to South Africa from Marwell Zoo, 6, 374–375
Hornbill, Asian pied, see Anthracoceros c. albirostris; great Indian, see Buceros bicornis; rhinoceros, see B. rhinoceros; southern ground, see Bucorvus leadbeateri; wreathed, see Aceros undulatus
Howletts Wild Animal Park, U.K., annual report 2001–2002, 2, 108–112
Hyaena hyaena, breeding, Tallinn Zoo, 2, 123–124
Hyena, spotted, see Crocuta crocuta; striped, see Hyaena hyaena
Hylobates lar, Réserve Africaine de Sigean, 3, 182–183
Hylobates leucogenys, reproductive research, Lincoln Park Zoo, 1, 67
mixed exhibit with orang-utan, San Diego Zoo, 5, 316
twin birth and hand-rearing, Auckland Zoo, 7, 438
Hypogeomys antimena, population and habitat viability assessment, 3, 194
Ibis, bald (waldrapp), see Geronticus eremita
Iguana, Grand Cayman Island blue, see Cyclura nubila lewisi
Indianapolis Zoo, Indiana, U.S.A., breeding, Grand Cayman Island blue iguana, 3, 177
Insects, enhancing nutritional value as reptile food, 4, 257–258; 6, 384
International Zoo News,
errors, 1, 2–3
history, 8, 459–460
sponsorship taken over by Chester Zoo, 1, 2
Isle of Wight Zoo, U.K., visitor's report, 4, 222–223
Jaguarundi, see Herpailurus yaguarondi
Jelly, spotted comb, see Leucothea pulchra
Jerez Zoo, Spain, rescue and rehabilitation, avocet, 2, 121
Johannesburg Zoo, South Africa, visitor's report, 6, 347–350
John Ball Zoo, Grand Rapids, Michigan, U.S.A., rescue and hand-rearing, piping plover 6, 371
John G. Shedd Aquarium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.,
artificial insemination, Pacific white-sided dolphin, 4, 249–250
breeding, Barbour's map turtle, 3, 178
Kerbert, Coenraad, director (1890–1927), Amsterdam Zoo, 8, 481–486
Knowsley, 19th-century animal collection, book review, 3, 171–173
Knowsley Safari Park, Prescot, U.K.,
breeding, African elephant, 3, 178; 8, 503
Knoxville Zoo, Tennessee, U.S.A., breeding, red panda, 8, 510
Koala, see Phascolarctos cinereus
Konrad Lorenz Research Station, Grünau, Austria, hand-rearing, waldrapp, 1, 68
Krefeld Zoo, Germany, social behaviour, jaguarundi, 1, 66
Kristiansand Zoo, Norway, new tiger exhibit, 6, 371–372
Kuranda Koala Gardens, Queensland, Australia, enclosure design and enrichment, wombat, 7, 442–443
Kyiv (Kiev) Zoo, Ukraine, new exhibit, Amur brown bear, 6, 372–373
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, artificial insemination, John G. Shedd Aquarium, 4, 249–250
Lagothrix lagotricha, seasonality of breeding, Brazilian zoos, 8, 487–488
Langurs, douc, see Pygathrix spp.
Leipzig Zoo, breeding, brown-banded bamboo shark, 5, 323
Lemur, ruffed, see Varecia variegata
Leontopithecus chrysomelas, group composition, contraception and aggression, 4, 257
Leopard, see Panthera pardus; Arabian, see P. p. nimr; clouded, see Neofelis nebulosa
Leptoptilos javanicus, breeding, Bronx Zoo, 7, 441
Leucothea pulchra, Monterey Bay Aquarium, 3, 181
Liberec Zoo, Czech Republic,
breeding, blue sheep, 8, 503–504
breeding, Somali wild ass, 8, 503
golden takin, 8, 503
Lichtenburg Game Breeding Centre, South Africa, fever study, antelopes, 4, 235
Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.,
book review, 8, 492–493
reproductive research, white-cheeked gibbon, 1, 67
Lion, see Panthera leo
Lisbon Zoo, Portugal, artificial incubation and hand-rearing, toucan (Ramphastos sp.), 4, 250–251
Lissemys punctata andersoni, breeding, Baltimore Zoo, 6, 368
Living Coasts, Torquay, U.K., 7, 443
Lizard, beaded, see Heloderma horridum; Chinese crocodile, see Shinisaurus crocodilurus
London Zoo, U.K.,
annual report 2002, 6, 362–366
breeding (1876), Hoffmann's sloth, 1, 38
breeding, Charco Palma pupfish, 7, 455
new cobra species discovered, 8, 504
Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, breeding by artificial insemination, koala, 6, 385
Asian elephant (57), Ringling Bros and Barnum & Bailey, 2, 126
Asian elephant (86?), Taipei Zoo, 3, 186
chimpanzee (53), Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zoo, 3, 182
Indian rhino (36), Tierpark Berlin, 8, 509–510
Lories and lorikeets, new exhibit, Oklahoma City Zoo, 6, 375
Loris, pygmy slow, see Nycticebus pygmaeus
Loro Parque, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, 1, 59–60; 2, 121–122; 3, 178–179; 4, 251; 5, 308–309; 6, 373–374; 7, 443–444; 8, 504–505
infra-red thermography, penguins and parrots, 6, 369–370
Los Angeles Zoo, California, U.S.A.,
botanical collection, 1, 60–61
breeding, Gila monster and beaded lizard, 3, 179–180
Louisville Zoo, Kentucky, U.S.A., rotating animals between different exhibits, 3, 187
breeding by artificial insemination, Colchester Zoo, 4, 248
breeding, Knowsley Safari Park, 3, 178; 8, 503
shade in enclosure, Zoo Atlanta, 5, 320
Lycaon pictus, breeding, Denver Zoo, 3, 187
Macaca nigra, computer in enclosure, Paignton Zoo, 4, 198
Macaque, Sulawesi crested, see M. nigra
Macropus parma, sent to U.S. zoos, 5, 316
Magpie, azure-winged, see Cyanopica cyana
Mandrill, see Mandrillus sphinx
Mandrillus sphinx, Denver Zoo, 2, 119–120
Manouria emys, breeding, Fort Worth Zoo, 7, 442
Marmoset, common, see Callithrix jacchus
Marwell Zoo, U.K.,
beak repair, red-crowned crane, 7, 444
history, 3, 148–155
sable antelope sent to South Africa, 6, 374–375
sand cat, 1, 61–62
twin birth, giraffe, 6, 374
zoo-grown plants as animal food, 5, 309–310
Melbourne Zoo, Victoria, Australia,
breeding, Lord Howe Island stick insect, 5, 310; 7, 448
diet, koals, 8, 505
echocardiogram, gorilla, 3, 180–181
sends garden orbweaver spiders on space shuttle, 5, 310
Philippine crocodile, 4, 251–252
Miami Metrozoo, Florida, U.S.A., new `Wings of Asia' aviary, 5, 310–311
hamadryas baboon, white rhino and giraffe, South Lakes Wild Animal Park, 8, 510
siamang and orang-utan, San Diego Zoo, 5, 316
Monarto Zoo, South Australia,
annual report 2001/2002, 4, 240
white rhino, 2, 122
Monkey, bearded saki, see Chiropotes satanas; black howler, see Alouatta caraya; Bolivian gray titi, see Callicebus donacophilus; golden, see Rhinopithecus roxellana; woolly, see Lagothrix lagotricha
Monkey World, Dorset, U.K., rescue, Spanish beach photographer's chimpanzee, 4, 252–253
Monkeys, colobine, breeding, Belfast Zoo, 8, 498–499
Monterey Bay Aquarium, California, U.S.A.,
eggs rescued and hatched, western snowy plover, 7, 444–445
Pacific bluefin tuna, 3, 181
spotted comb jelly, 3, 181
Moose, see Alces alces
Moscow Zoo, Russia, call-based sex identification, white-faced whistling duck, 3, 160–167
Mountfort, Guy (1905–2003), death, 5, 316
Mussels, freshwater, Columbus Zoo, 2, 119
Mustela eversmanni, M. nigripes, photoperiod manipulation and reproduction, 3, 189
Naja nubiae, new species, discovered at London Zoo, 8, 504
National Zoo, Pretoria, South Africa,
blood transfusion, cheetah, 4, 253
hand-rearing and release, southern ground hornbill, 3, 186
National Zoo, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., new exhibit, bald eagle, 5, 311–312
Naturzoo Rheine, see Rheine Zoo
Neofelis nebulosa, breeding, Point Defiance Zoo, 5, 312
Newquay Zoo, U.K., purchased by Paignton Zoo, 7, 445
North Carolina Zoo, Asheboro, North Carolina, U.S.A., fostering into wild, red wolf, 3, 181–182
Nycticebus pygmaeus, reproductive research, San Diego Zoo, 3, 190
O'Connor, Patricia (1915–2003), obituary, 5, 262
Ocean Journey (aquarium), Denver, Colorado, U.S.A., purchased by seafood restaurant chain, 3, 186
breeding, Harderwijk Dolphinarium, 8, 502–503
food consumption and growth, Harderwijk Dolphinarium, 6, 385–386
Okapi, see Okapia johnstoni
diet, Cologne Zoo, 5, 319
restraint box, San Diego Wild Animal Park, 4, 216–221
Oklahoma City Zoo, Oklahoma, U.S.A., new lorikeet and lory exhibit, 6, 375
Omega Parque, Monchique, Portugal, visitor's report, 2, 92–96; 4, 225
Orana Wildlife Park, Christchurch, New Zealand, breeding, tuatara, 6, 375–376
Orang-utan, see Pongo pygmaeus
Oregon Coast Aquarium, Newport, Oregon, U.S.A., breeding, pigeon guillemot, 7, 445–446
Oregon Zoo, Portland, Oregon, U.S.A., new breeding facility, California condor, 8, 505–506
breeding (twins), Taronga Zoo, 3, 186–187
death on voyage to England (c. 1942), 4, 225–226; 5, 297
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zoo, Japan, death at 53, chimpanzee, 3, 182
Ostrava Zoo, Czech Republic, breeding, jungle cat, 6, 388
Otter, oriental small-clawed, see Amblonyx cinereus
Ouwehands Zoo, Rhenen, the Netherlands, transport of pregnant polar bear, 1, 62
Owl, pharaoh eagle, see Bubo ascalaphus
Paignton Zoo (Whitley Wildlife Conservation Trust), U.K.,
computer in enclosure, Sulawesi macaque, 4, 198
purchases Newquay Zoo, 7, 445
breeding, Twycross Zoo, 4, 255
tool use, Apenheul Primate Park, 2, 128
death at 53, Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zoo, 3, 182
recovery of socially deprived individuals, 2, 129
rescue from Spanish beach photographer, Monkey World, 4, 252–253
responses to novel foods, 2, 131–132
Panda, giant, see Ailuropoda melanoleuca; red, see Ailurus fulgens
Panthera leo, feeding enrichment study, Zoo Atlanta, 4, 256
Panthera pardus, stereotypy study, Indian zoos, 2, 129
Panthera pardus nimr, breeding, Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife, 1, 43
Panthera tigris, feeding enrichment study, Zoo Atlanta, 4, 256
Panthera tigris altaica,
new exhibit, Kristiansand Zoo, 6, 371–372
stereotyping study, Zürich Zoo, 2, 128–129
Panthera tigris amoyensis, training for reintroduction, South Africa, 4, 231–232
Papilio spp., breeding, Tama Zoo, 2, 124–125
book review, 2, 107
management and contraception, Cologne Zoo, 1, 66–67
mixed exhibit with white rhino and giraffe, South Lakes Wild Animal Park, 8, 510
Paradisaea rubra, breeding, Chester Zoo, 6, 368–369
Parco Natura Viva (Garda Zoological Park), Bussolengo, Italy, vocalisation research, ruffed lemur, 6, 376
dietary protein requirements of nectarivorous, frugivorous and granivorous species, 4, 260
infra-red thermography, Loro Parque, 6, 369–370
Peltophryne lemur, captive breeding and release, 8, 497
Penelope albipennis, reintroduction, Peru, 5, 302
Penguin, black-footed (African), see Spheniscus demersus; Humboldt's, see S. humboldti; king, see Aptenodytes patagonicus
Penguins, infra-red thermography, Loro Parque, 6, 369–370
Perth Zoo, Western Australia, visitor's report, 2, 76–80
breeding by artificial insemination, Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary, 6, 385
diet, Melbourne Zoo, 8, 505
Pheasant, Reeves's, see Syrmaticus reevesii
Pistoia Zoo, Italy, annual report 2002, 2, 112–114
Platypus, see Ornithorhynchus anatinus
Plover, piping, see Charadrius melodus; western snowy, see C. alexandrinus nivosus
Pogona vitticeps, nutrient composition, 1, 65–66
Point Defiance Zoo, Tacoma, Washington, U.S.A.,
breeding, clouded leopard, 5, 312
faecal hormone analysis, red wolf, 7, 446
rotating animals between different exhibits, 3, 187
Polecat, Siberian, see Mustela eversmanni
Pondicherry, India, zoo planned in response to novel, 4, 255
book review, 3, 171
environmental enrichment, San Diego Zoo, 3, 184–185
mixed exhibit with siamang, San Diego Zoo, 5, 316
Port Lympne Wild Animal Park, U.K., annual report 2001–2002, 2, 108–112
Potamotrygon spp., breeding, Audubon Aquarium of the Americas, 6, 367
Prague Zoo, Czech Republic, flood damage, 2, 122–123
Psarisomus dalhousiae, hand-rearing, Disney's Animal Kingdom, 3, 177
Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis, breeding, Liberec Zoo, 8, 503–504
Pteropus livingstonii, new `flight tunnel', Jersey Zoo, 8, 501
Pupfish, Charco Palma, see Cyprinodon longidorsalis
Pygathrix spp., food intake and preferences, Endangered Primate Rescue Center and Cologne Zoo, 7, 449
Python, Burmese, see Python molurus bivittatus
Python molurus bivittatus, parthenogenesis, Amsterdam Zoo, 4, 246
Qalqiliya Zoo, West Bank, 5, 316
Ramat-Gan Zoological Center, Tel Aviv, Israel,
breeding, Asian elephant, 1, 64
social structure and reproduction, white rhino, 2, 130–131
Ramphastos sp., artificial incubation and hand-rearing, Lisbon Zoo, 4, 250–251
Rat, giant jumping, see Hypogeomys antimena
Recurvirostra avosetta, rescue and rehabilitation, Jerez Zoo, 2, 121
Reintroduction or release (actual or proposed),
black-and-white ruffed lemur, Madagascar, 1, 47–48
bongo, Kenya, 5, 303
California condor, U.S.A., 5, 302–303
gorilla, Republic of Congo, 5, 288–297
Persian fallow deer, Israel, 3, 142–146
Puerto Rican crested toad, Puerto Rico, 8, 497
red wolf, U.S.A., 3, 181–182
South China tiger, China, 4, 231–232
southern ground hornbill, South Africa, 3, 186
swift fox, Canada, 7, 452
white-winged guan, Peru, 5, 302
enhancing nutritional value of insects as food, 4, 257–258
management, European zoos, 1, 49
Rescue and rehabilitation,
avocet, Jerez Zoo, 2, 121
piping plover, John Ball Zoo, 6, 371
toucan, Lisbon Zoo, 4, 250–251
Réserve Africaine de Sigean, France, new exhibit, lar gibbon, 3, 182–183
Rhacophorus verrucosus, breeding, Riga Zoo, 1, 62–63
Rheine Zoo (Naturzoo Rheine), Germany, annual report 2001, 2, 114–116; 2002, 6, 360–362
Rhinoceros, black, see Diceros bicornis; Indian, see Rhinoceros unicornis; Sumatran, see Dicerorhinus sumatrensis; white, see Ceratotherium simum
Rhinoceros spp., information resource centre, 1, 3
Rhinoceros unicornis, death at 36, Tierpark Berlin, 8, 509–510
Rhinopithecus roxellana, in situ study, San Diego Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species, 4, 230–231
Riga Zoo, Latvia, breeding, Vietnamese frog Rhacophorus verrucosus, 1, 62–63
Ringling Bros and Barnum & Bailey, Florida, U.S.A., death of male Asian elephant at 57, 2, 126
Riverbanks Zoo, Columbia, South Carolina, U.S.A., 3, 183; 4, 253; 8, 506
Roller, long-tailed ground, see Uratelornis chimaera
Rotterdam Zoo, the Netherlands,
breeding, Gila monster, 2, 123
in situ conservation, king penguin. Falkland Islands, 4, 253–254
jaguarundi, 3, 183
St Augustine Alligator Farm, Florida, U.S.A., crocodilians, swallowing under water, 4, 234–235
St Louis Zoo, Missouri, U.S.A.,
new marine bird exhibit, 4, 254–255
reproductive research, bush dog, 3, 183–184
Saki, bearded, see Chiropotes satanas
Salamander, Japanese giant, see Andrias japonicus
Salzburg Zoo, Austria, behavioural study, wolf, 4, 259
San Antonio Zoo, Texas, U.S.A., breeding, Jackson's hartebeest, 8, 506–507
San Diego Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species (CRES),
breeding by cloning, banteng, 3, 187
in situ study, golden monkey, 4, 230–231
San Diego Wild Animal Park, California, U.S.A.,
enrichment creation as educational exercise, 6, 377–378
husbandry, dhole, 8, 462–466
restraint box, okapi, 4, 216–221
San Diego Zoo, California, U.S.A.,
breeding and conservation, Galápagos tortoise, 8, 507–509
environmental enrichment, orang-utan, 3, 184–185
mating, giant panda, 5, 312–314
mixed exhibit, siamang and orang-utan, 5, 316
reproductive research, pygmy slow loris, 3, 190
San Diego, Zoological Society of, in situ study, Komodo dragon, 8, 498–497
Sanaa Zoo, Yemen, visitors' report, 6, 338–342
Schönbrunn Zoo, Vienna, Austria, chronobiological study, cheetah cubs, 6, 330–336
giant panda, 6, 378–379
vocalization study, cheetah cubs, 8, 468–474
Sea World, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A., reproductive study, nurse shark, 4, 256–257
Sea World, San Diego, California, U.S.A., breeding, green sea turtle, 7, 446
Sea World, Surfers Paradise, Queensland, Australia,
new shark exhibit, 7, 446–447
visitor interaction, bottle-nosed dolphin, 3, 185–186
Seal, Australian fur, see Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus
Seal, Ulysses S. (1929–2003), obituary, 3, 134–137
Sericulus aureus ardens,
breeding, Al Wabra Wildlife Conservation, 5, 305
DNA sexing, Al Wabra Wildlife Conservation, 3, 156–159
Shanghai Zoo, China, visitor's report, 5, 280–283
Shark, bonnethead, see Sphyrna tiburo; brown-banded bamboo, see Chiloscyllium punctatum; nurse, see Ginglymostoma cirratum; white-spotted bamboo, see Chiloscyllium plagiosum
colour aberrations, 2, 127
diet, 5, 319
new exhibit, Sea World, Surfers Paradise, 7, 446–447
Sheep, blue, see Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis
Shinisaurus crocodilurus, behavioural study, Brookfield Zoo, 3, 192–193
Siamang, see Hylobates syndactylus
acupuncture treatment, Komodo dragon, 6, 380–381
new exhibit, Asian elephant, 6, 379–380
Skansen Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden, first captive breeding (c. 1890), polar bear, 1, 38
Sloth, Hoffmann's, see Choloepus hoffmanni
South Lakes Wild Animal Park, Dalton-in-Furness, U.K., mixed exhibit, hamadryas baboon, white rhino and giraffe, 8, 510
Southport Zoo, U.K., 1, 63–64
Speothos venaticus, reproductive research, St Louis Zoo, 3, 183–184
Spheniscus demersus, albino, Bristol Zoo, 4, 247–248
Spheniscus humboldti, new exhibit, Emmen Zoo, 1, 58–59
Sphenodon punctatus, breeding, Orana Wildlife Park, 6, 375–376
Sphyrna tiburo, possible parthenogenesis, Henry Doorly Zoo, 1, 49–50
Spider, garden orbweaver, see Eriophora transmarinus
Staten Island Zoo, New York, U.S.A., book review, 6, 355
Stick insect, Lord Howe Island, see Dryococelus australis
Stingray, freshwater, see Potamotrygon spp.
Stork, lesser adjutant, see Leptoptilos javanicus
Sydney Aquarium, New South Wales, Australia, visitor's report, 2, 76
Syrmaticus reevesii, feathers donated to Beijing opera, Cricket St Thomas Wildlife Park, 5, 306
Taipei Zoo, Taiwan, death at 86 (?), male Asian elephant, 3, 186
Takin, golden, see Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi
Tallinn Zoo, Estonia, breeding, striped hyena, 2, 123–124
Tama Zoo, Tokyo, Japan, breeding, swallowtail butterflies, 2, 124–125
Tamandua, southern, see Tamandua tetradactyla
Tamandua tetradactyla, Denver Zoo, 4, 248–249
Tamarin, golden-headed lion, see Leontopithecus chrysomelas
Tapir, Malayan, see Tapirus indicus; mountain, see T. pinchaque
Tapirus indicus, breeding, Belfast Zoo, 4, 246–247
Tapirus pinchaque, breeding, Cheyenne Mountain Zoo, 7, 441
Taronga Zoo, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia,
acoustic research, Australian fur seal, 7, 447
breeding, twin platypus, 3, 186–187
visitor's report, 2, 73–76
Thrush, yellow-throated laughing, see Garrulax galbanus
Thunnus orientalis, Monterey Bay Aquarium, 3, 181
Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve, Tharwa, Australian Capital Territory, Australia, aftermath of fire, 5, 314
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde, Germany, 1, 64; 4, 255
annual report 2001–2002, 7, 428–433
death at 36, Indian rhino, 8, 509–510
Tierpark Hagenbeck, Hamburg, Germany, annual report 2002, 4, 241–243
Tiger, see Panthera tigris; Siberian (Amur), see P. t. altaica; South China (Amoy), see P. t. amoyensis
Tisch Family Zoo (Biblical Zoo), Jerusalem, Israel, travelling zoo programme, 7, 408–417
Toad, Puerto Rican crested, see Peltophryne lemur
Toads, stub-footed, see Atelopus spp.
Tortoise, Aldabra giant, see Geochelone gigantea; Asian brown mountain, see Manouria emys; Galápagos giant, see Geochelone nigra; Seychelles giant, see Dipsochelys spp.
Tortoises, book review, 8, 493–494
Toucan, see Ramphastos sp.
Tower of London menagerie, book review, 5, 298–299
Tragelaphus eurycerus, reintroduction, Kenya, 5, 303
Tsimbazaza Zoo, Antananarivo, Madagascar, breeding, long-tailed ground roller, 2, 125
Tuatara, see Sphenodon punctatus
Tulsa Zoo, Oklahoma, U.S.A., breeding, Aldabra tortoise, 5, 315–316
Tuna, Pacific bluefin, see Thunnus orientalis
Tursiops truncatus, visitor interaction, Sea World, Surfers Paradise, 3, 185–186
Turtle, Barbour's map, see Graptemys barbouri; green sea, see Chelonia mydas; Indian flapshell, see Lissemys punctata andersoni
black howler monkey, Apenheul Primate Park, 6, 367
giraffe, Marwell Zoo, 6, 374
platypus, Taronga Zoo, 3, 186–187
siamang, Auckland Zoo, 7, 438
Twycross Zoo, U.K., breeding, bonobo, 4, 255
Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan,
breeding, aye-aye, 7, 448
breeding, native passerine birds, 5, 315
Uratelornis chimaera, breeding, Tsimbazaza Zoo, 2, 125
Ursus arctos lasiotus, new exhibit, Kyiv Zoo, 6, 372–373
first captive breeding (c. 1890), Skansen Foundation, 1, 38
Churchill, Hudson Bay, book review, 3, 173
transport of pregnant female, Ouwehands Zoo, 1, 62
Vallée des Singes, Romagne, France, bachelor group, ruffed lemur, 3, 138–141
van Dam, Gerard (1927–2003),
editorship of International Zoo News, 8, 459–460
obituary, 8, 458
Vanga, sickle-billed, see Falculea palliata
acupuncture treatment, Singapore Zoo, 6, 380–381
breeding, Denver Zoo, 3, 186
in situ study, Zoological Society of San Diego, 8, 496–497
bachelor group, ruffed lemur, 3, 138–141
release, Madagascar, 1, 47–48
vocalisation research, Parco Natura Viva, 6, 376
Vogelpark Heppenheim, Germany, breeding, Asian pied hornbill, 4, 255
Vombatus ursinus, enclosure design and enrichment, Kuranda Koala Gardens, 7, 442–443
VORTEX population simulation programme, 8, 497
Vulpes velox, reintroduction, Canada, 7, 452
Wadi Al Safa Wildlife Centre, Dubai, sends pharaoh eagle owls to World Owl Trust, 5, 315
Waldrapp, see Geronticus eremita
Wallabies, survival of very small pouch young after short-term removal, 3, 195
Wallaby, parma, see Macropus parma
Walrus, see Odobenus rosmarus
Walsrode Bird Park, Germany,
annual report 2002, 4, 243–245
breeding, sickle-billed vanga, 2, 125
Western Plains Zoo, Dubbo, New South Wales, Australia, import and breeding, white rhino, 7, 447–448
Whipsnade Wild Animal Park, annual report 2002, 6, 362–366
White Oak Conservation Center, Yulee, Florida, U.S.A., behavioural and reproductive study, cheetah, 3, 195–196
Wide-ranging species, suitability for zoos questioned, 7, 393–394
Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust, Slimbridge, U.K., educational website, 2, 126
Wilhelma Zoo, Stuttgart, Germany, breeding, great Indian hornbill, 8, 509
Wolf, see Canis lupus; red, see C. rufus
Wombat, common, see Vombatus ursinus
World Owl Trust, Muncaster Castle, Cumbria, U.K., receives pharaoh eagle owls from Wadi Al Safa Wildlife Centre to World Owl Trust, 5, 315
Wuppertal Zoo, Germany, annual report 2002, 7, 437
Zoo Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A.,
feeding enrichment study, lion and tiger, 4, 256
shade in enclosure, African elephant, 5, 320
training, giant panda, 7, 449–450
Zoological Information Management System (ZIMS), 4, 233–234
Zoological Society of London, U.K. (London Zoo & Whipsnade Wild Animal Park), annual report 2002, 6, 362–366
archaeology of, 4, 207–215
art and, 5, 264
Australian, 2, 72–85
catering, 6, 326–328
children's, 2, 97–100
history and tradition, 2, 101–102; 4, 207–215
Japanese, memorial services for dead animals, 1, 50
Japanese, chelonians in, 5, 265–275
publications, inaccuracy, 1, 38–39
visitor services, 6, 326–328
Zürich Zoo, Switzerland,
breeding, Galápagos tortoise, 7, 448
death of animals in transit from Madagascar, 2, 126
stereotyping study, Siberian tiger, 2, 128–129