International Zoo News Vol. 49/4 (No. 317) June 2002
Zoo museums an idea whose time has come?
|Vernon N. Kisling|
|OBITUARY Atsushi Komori|
|Lost Menageries Why and How Zoos Disappear (Part 2)||Herman Reichenbach|
|Natural Plant Foods Utilized by Gorillas in the Former Brazzaville Orphanage and the Lesio-Louna Reserve||Don Cousins|
|New Facilities for Aquatic Mammals and Penguins at Nuremberg Zoo||Benjamin Ibler|
|Letters to the Editor|
|International Zoo News|
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Zoo museums: an idea whose time has come?
Zoos, like botanical gardens, natural history museums and circuses, are cultural institutions, and have been throughout history, throughout the world. The history of our zoos is long, rich and diverse, but not well known. Extant zoos represent only a small portion of that history, and when a zoo closes its documentation is eventually lost and its existence fades from our memories. Every time this happens the cultural history of zoos is eroded a little more. But how can we stem this erosion if we have no way of preserving employees' stories, or a place to keep the zoo's written records, guidebooks, photographs, and artifacts?
While there is some improvement in recording zoo history, there is still very little improvement in its preservation. A focal point (or several international focal points) for doing this is needed. There are focal points for related cultural institutions, such as the Museum of Garden History in London and several circus museums (for example: Circus World Museum in Baraboo, Wisconsin; International Circus Hall of Fame in Peru, Indiana; Ringling Museum of the Circus in Sarasota, Florida; Hertzberg Circus Collection and Museum in San Antonio, Texas; Erstes Circus-Museum in Preetz, Germany, etc.), as well as museums for every other cultural endeavor. These museums express the importance of these endeavors to society, they represent the value of these endeavors, and are educational efforts that insure these endeavors will not be lost to future generations. Are zoos any less important? Is someone's batting average more important than the breeding record of an endangered species?
For some time the idea of a zoo museum has been discussed informally among individuals interested in zoo history. It would be a place for oral histories, written histories, records, personal papers and memorabilia, guidebooks, photographs, and artifacts, along with exhibit space, research space and a library. It would be a place to save historical materials that have been, and continue to be, discarded because retiring zoo professionals and closing zoos have nowhere to send their materials.
A zoo museum is not an unrealistic idea, provided the profession has an historical perspective which values the individuals and institutions that built the foundation upon which the profession now rests. But it seems doubtful that this is the case. Discussions about zoo history and a zoo museum should not be confined to a handful of folks interested in zoo history. It should be a part of each zoo's commitment to its own cultural heritage and to that of the profession. It is time we discontinue what I call the `Pharaoh syndrome' erasing or ignoring the past and acting as if the current generation of directors, curators and keepers have done it all. Our predecessors are responsible for building the collections we now care for, and have saved several species from extinction in the process (and did so without conservation fanfare or marketing gimmicks). Despite all of our efforts and bragging, how many have we saved? We have done a great job of caring for our animals, helping conserve species and designing fantastic exhibits, but no more so than our predecessors, taking into account the state of knowledge during each time period. We need to both congratulate ourselves and honor our predecessors.
Practical considerations exist, however, as they do in any new effort. Where would a museum be located, how could it be funded, who would manage it, and how could it be maintained into the future? These questions are important and could be debated forever, but how long are we going to wait to answer them, and how much more of our history is to be lost before they are answered? Shall we remain a profession without a publicly recognized history? Admittedly it is difficult to answer these questions without a zoo or patron to step forward and contribute the resources needed to get things started. Perhaps several, since one museum would find it difficult to represent cultural differences for a proper international perspective. We are at a point where the compiling and recording of zoo history is catching up with botanical garden, natural history museum and circus histories. Isn't it finally time to go beyond this recording effort and to start preserving the historical record upon which this effort is based?
Vernon N. Kisling, Jr.*
* University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A. Formerly Curator at the Atlanta Zoo and Crandon Park Zoo (Miami Metrozoo), and Chair, AZA History Committee. Editor of Zoo and Aquarium History: Ancient Animal Collections to Zoological Gardens (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 2000).
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Atsushi Komori, 19282002
The international zoo fraternity has lost a dear friend, who for decades had struggled to upgrade the profession in Japan. Affectionately known to friends and colleagues as `Pen' (because of his talent in writing), Atsushi Komori was born in Bombay, India, in 1928, and later moved to Japan with his family. He began his zoo life at Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, as a `handy man' in 1947. A life-long student, he not only studied zoology but also taught himself languages, including Greek and Latin, while in a sanatorium with tuberculosis as a young man. Mentored by Ueno Zoo director Dr Tadamichi Koga, he developed an insight into international zoo and wildlife issues, which later helped him to be active in the CBSG. Without a college degree, Pen never advanced beyond the middle management level at both Ueno and Tama Zoos. However, he was the brain behind the scenes, with unparalleled knowledge in zoology and organizing skills. He was peerless in the zoo field in his country. He helped to form the basis of the Japanese Association of Zoological Gardens and Aquariums (JAZGA) and, additionally, to organize the Japanese Association of Museums. He retired as general curator of Ueno Zoo in 1984 to devote more time to JAZGA as its executive director. Pen was in semi-retirement when he was diagnosed with lymphosarcoma in the spring of 2001. Despite intensive chemotherapy at the University of Tokyo Medical Center, he died on 3 April 2002.
Ken Kawata, Staten Island Zoo
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LOST MENAGERIES WHY AND HOW ZOOS DISAPPEAR (Part 2)
BY HERMAN REICHENBACH
The Low Countries: Brussels and The Hague
The first zoos, in the modern sense of the term, of Belgium and the Netherlands were established in their major ports. The capitals would follow in their wake, only to lose their zoos decades later, always in the shadow of Antwerp, Amsterdam and Rotterdam.
The first attempt to establish a zoological garden in Brussels, the old capital of the young Kingdom of Belgium, came with the formation of a society with royal patronage in 1847. That was six years after the establishment of the Société royale de zoologie à Anvers, the organization that had opened Belgium's first modern zoo in Antwerp in 1843. [Belgium became an officially bilingual state only in 1898. Until then, French was the language of the bureaucracy, finance and commerce even in the predominantly Dutch-speaking areas of Flanders. See, for example, the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edn, 1986, Vol. 23, pp 349355.] A pamphlet indicated that a wooded estate belonging to Jean-Jacques Dubois de Bianco, a local chevalier, in the Quartier Léopold, an eastern suburb of the capital laid out some ten years earlier, had been selected as the site for a zoological garden, tropical conservatory and museum of natural history. Brussels that year had 124,000 inhabitants. The initial run-up failed, but four years later, on 1 September 1851, the Société royale de zoologie, d'horticulture et d'agrément de Bruxelles was incorporated with Leopold I, king of the Belgians, the Duke of Brabant, the Count of Flanders and the burgomaster of Brussels as patrons. A zoo, it would have seemed, could hardly have asked for more promising backers. The society was a stockholding company, and Dubois de Bianco provided six and a half hectares (16 acres) in the Quartier Léopold in exchange for 812 of the 1,400 shares at a nominal exchange rate of 500 Belgian francs. One of the eight founding members, Emile Leboeuf, was made managing director; the botanist Jean-Jules Linden of Luxemburg was appointed scientific director. A year later, the German Johann Wilhelm von Müller was hired as zoological director; Linden remained head of botany. Müller was thought to be a good catch; he had just established a European reputation for himself as leader of a scientific expedition through north-eastern Africa in the years 1847 to 1852. He was fired after only four years, however, having lost 140 of his 570 charges in his first year, with little improvement thereafter. Linden again became scientific director, a post he held until 1861, when he went into commercial horticulture.
The new zoological and botanical gardens were designed by the Belgian architect Alphonse Balat and the German garden architect Louis Fuchs as the first landscaped public park in Brussels. Their new gardens featured an aquarium housed in an artificial cave, a small `castle' for bears, animal houses in mock Egyptian and Indian style and others resembling country cottages, and a glass-house for Amazon water-lilies, the pride of the botanical section. The Quartier Léopold was incorporated into Brussels in 1853, and in 1855 the railway line from Brussels central was extended to the gardens.
The zoo and botanical garden never really took off, however. Inflation in the mid-1850s led to cost-cutting at the expense of the animals' food (and their life expectancy that was the real cause of Müller's losses). Most members of Brussels' moneyed society regarded the gardens as a just another salon public, and other parks and new amusements such as ice-skating rinks soon drew their attention. The unmoneyed were not welcome in the first place. In 1860, the society took a municipal credit with its property as security, and acquired an adjacent former monastery that the architect Henri Beyaert transformed into a restaurant with a lecture theatre and ballroom, and a zoological museum that is, a gallery of the stuffed remains of the zoo's many deceased animals. The gardens now encompassed nine hectares (22 acres), but at the end of the decade, a hundred of the 1,200 shares still remained unsold. A new main entrance built in 1871 was the first real investment in the gardens since 1860. A project in 1870, for example, to transform the glass-house for water-lilies into a reptile house and free-flight aviary for birds could not be financed.
Costs and obligations continued to outpace income. The society was given a new credit from the corporation of Brussels in 1874 after turning over its books to the government, but zoology was discouraged and money rather spent on items such as a skating rink subsequently leased to a British investor. On 4 June 1876 the society met for the last time, dissolving itself, and on 30 March 1877 the city of Brussels took over the gardens from the liquidator. Three hectares (seven and a half acres) around the former monastery were passed on to the state of Belgium as the site of a national museum of natural history. The area around the glass-house was incorporated into a small municipal botanical garden. Efforts were undertaken to establish a company to manage the zoological sections of the gardens, but the subscription was cancelled in July 1878, after it failed to attract any capital. The corporation of Brussels closed down the zoo the next year, and in 1880 all surviving animals were sold at public auction, most of them going to the menageries of Gent and Amsterdam. [The Flemish zoological garden of Gent is another lost zoo, established in 1851 by the Société dhistoire naturelle à Gand, and shut down permanently in 1905.] The site of Brussels' first and only zoo was soon incorporated into the new public Parc Léopold.
The Hague, the seat of government and royal residence of the Netherlands and capital of South Holland province, was the third Dutch city to acquire a modern zoo, after the seaports Amsterdam and Rotterdam. [The Hague is for all practical purposes the capital of the Netherlands, but officially Amsterdam has carried the title since 1814.] It would survive for 80 years, from 1863 until 1943, one of only two zoos in Europe to have literally disappeared under the rubble of World War II. But as the `Cinderella of Dutch zoos' (van Bruggen, 1988: 228), it was never to really flourish, in the shadow even of a relatively new zoo in the suburb of Wassenaar by the time of the outbreak of war.
The history of The Hague's zoo is that of the Koninklijk Zoölogisch-Botanisch Genootschap van Acclimatatie. The model for this was not the Zoological Society of London, but rather the Paris Société zoologique d'acclimatation, founded in 1854 and the institutor of the Jardin zoologique d'acclimatation in 1859. The initiative to establish a Dutch acclimatization society was taken up by the physician L.H. Verweij, author of De acclimatatie van Nederlanders in Indië en van Indiërs in Nederland, published in 1863. Those familiar with the climate of Indonesia and Suriname may wonder what `Indian' animals and plants Verweij had hoped to introduce to Holland, but finding like-minded backers in The Hague's military and colonial circles, he distributed the prospectus Ontwerp van eenen zoölogisch-botanisch tuin te 's-Gravenhage early in 1860, inviting anyone interested to attend a charter meeting on 5 April. It was not, however, until 14 November 1861 that the society was formally incorporated by royal charter, with a starting capital of fl 150,000 issued in 3,000 shares. Six hectares (15 acres) of marshland on a road towards the coast was leased, initially for 30 years, from the corporation of The Hague and a family in Leerdam. The demand for shares was disappointing, however, and as a local newspaper soon complained, The Hague just could not compete with Amsterdam and Rotterdam for the patronage of wealthy merchants. The zoo would always be weak on animals, dependent largely on donations. Construction was begun with only 900 shares sold, and fl 5,000 worth of animals bought in Antwerp had to be paid for with a shareholder's loan.
The zoological and botanical gardens were inaugurated with a few birds and mammals on 15 June 1863. One large building, the Hoofdgebouw (`main building'), dominated the site, with an aquarium, restaurant and meeting rooms; it would be succeeded by a new Main Building in 1893. Most of the first director's, Verweij's, initial energy went into planting the new property. By 1865, the collection had grown to 235 animals representing 103 species. Visitors from The Hague itself had to be shareholders to enter the gardens; strangers could buy a ticket. Beginning in May 1869, burghers of The Hague who did not own shares could visit the gardens on Sundays and public holidays; the entrance fee was scaled, with full citizens (stadgenooten) paying 50 cents and tradesmen, maids and the like, and later soldiers without rank, ten cents.
Verweij soon quit, replaced by R.T. Maitland, a zoologist from Amsterdam Zoo who was initially prepared to work for less pay and no secretary nor authorization to buy animals. Maitland soon left as well, although he was persuaded to return in 1871. The rider `van Acclimatatie' was struck from the society's name in 1870, only seven years after the gardens' inauguration, and replaced with `te 's-Gravenhage' (`at The Hague'). That same year, the society decided to suspend paying dividends, which gave it breathing space but obviously made it unattractive for those investors who might still have considered buying shares. In 1875, the year The Hague's population hit the 100,000 mark, the first elephant was acquired as a gift, and a mock mosque complete with minaret was built as an elephant house. The gardens' first orang-utan, also a gift from Sumatra, lived for over two years, considered good longevity at the time. It was apparently the first zoo in Europe to keep birds of paradise for any length of time. In 1876, King Willem III donated a one-wattled cassowary from Dutch New Guinea, but although patron he was never as generous to The Hague's zoo as he was to Amsterdam's. Throughout the century, the gardens refused to keep big cats as too dangerous, with the exception of a leopard in 1878.
The last scientific director The Hague would have was A.C. Oudemans, who took over the gardens shortly after receiving his doctorate in 1885. He wrote his dissertation on flatworms, but most of his free time thereafter he spent on researching for, and writing, the first scientific monograph ever published on the giant sea-serpent. After analysing all known reported sightings to date, he came to the conclusion in The Great Sea-Serpent, published in English instead of Dutch in 1892 to insure a wide readership, that a hitherto unknown giant marine mammal, Megophias megophias, a sort of long-necked seal, was behind the legends of marine monsters. The reception of his book was cold, however; The Times of London described it as a `cumbrous and elaborate, albeit quite unconscious joke'. [Quoted from The Times, 4 January 1893, by Heuvelmans (1968: 331). In 1933 Oudemans published a booklet entitled The Loch Ness Monster, in which he suggested that this newly reported monster was a stray specimen of Megophias megophias. The scientific name for `the' sea-serpent was coined, incidentally, in 1817 by the naturalist C.S. Rafinesque.] The `joke' did The Hague's reputation no good, although Oudemans was earlier (1890) able to describe scientifically a new primate species `discovered' in his zoo: the black mangabey (Cercopithecus [Lophocebus] aterrimus). The type specimen had been donated to the gardens by a Dutch trader living in Banana on the lower Congo. It had originally been captured far inland near Stanley (now Boyoma) Falls. Surviving captivity only a short while, its remains were given to the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie in Leiden.
Oudemans left The Hague in 1895 to become a biology teacher at the Latin school (gymnasium) of Sneek and later of his home town, Arnhem. The strategy of the society changed under the new director, D.N. Dietz: exhibitions and concerts were to bring in money, with animals and exotic plants treated as decoration. Charles Peel visited The Hague at the turn of the century, to report (1903: 47) that `taken as a whole, these gardens are neither pretty nor rich in animals, and are, in consequence, perhaps scarcely worth a visit.' Yet he was pleasantly surprised to learn that some of the parrots in the aviary spoke English as well as Dutch, an indication that English was already being established as a world language a century ago, even among parrots.
Neglected, the collection dropped from 1,069 animals representing 269 species in 1900 to 710 specimens and 217 species by 1905. The income from paying visitors, perhaps as a result, declined during the same period from fl 8,065.55 to fl 2,666.05. In 1918, due in good part to the British war blockades that affected even neutral Holland, only 46 mammals of 17 species and 322 birds of 115 species still lived in the gardens. In 1922, all the mammals with the exception of the monkeys were sold to Johan Burgers' private menagerie in 's-Heerenberg, the predecessor of Arnhem Zoo. Although the society continued to exist and even issue new shares during the 1920s and into the 1930s, the gardens were taken over by the municipality, and a turn-around attempted. Beginning in 1928, lions, tigers, zebras and other large animals were brought into the zoo, and a sea lion show introduced.
The outbreak of World War II and the German invasion of the Netherlands in May 1940 had no immediate impact on the physical substance of Holland's zoos, but it would soon doom The Hague's. The seaside suburb of Scheveningen was built into a fortress by the Wehrmacht in anticipation of an Allied invasion, and in 1943 the zoological and botanical gardens of The Hague were closed down and emptied, and the grounds incorporated into the enlarged fortifications. The surviving animals were divided largely among the zoos of Rotterdam and Wassenaar. After the war the grounds were acquired by the Heineken brewery, and the old Hoofdgebouw of 1893 survived, put to various different uses, until it was torn down in 1968. The local authorities repurchased a tract in the 1960s as the site of the new government building of the province of South Holland, and all that is now left of the old zoological and botanical gardens of The Hague is a tree or two if that.
Germany: Düsseldorf and Hamburg
It was perhaps poetic justice that the only zoo in Europe to have disappeared in World War II under a torrent of bombs was a German one, but for the people committed to it not to mention the animals killed it remained a tragedy that many would try to rectify. Few lost zoos have enjoyed such ardent support even decades after their disappearance, and seldom if ever was so much money spent just in the courts to bring a zoo back. Düsseldorf is the capital of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany's most populous province, and the wealthy `front office' of the Ruhr industrial district. Within less than an hour's drive (traffic permitting), anyone living there has the choice of at least seven decent zoos in the region (Bochum, Cologne, Dortmund, Duisburg, Gelsenkirchen, Krefeld, Wuppertal). That is what the city council pointed out to the judges back in the late 1970s, when a friends-of-the-nonexistent-zoo society took Düsseldorf to court. The society reminded city and court that in 1905 the corporation had accepted a donation of 500,000 gold marks, the equivalent in purchasing power of perhaps 20 million euros today, to take over and maintain the Düsseldorf Zoological Garden in perpetuity.
The zoo being fought over in court was inaugurated at Whitsuntide 1876, one of several established in Germany during the last quarter of the 19th century by shareholding companies founded and supported by natural history, bird-watching or like-minded societies. The zoo, which would grow by 1908 to 16 hectares (40 acres) in a fashionable north-eastern suburb, attracted 50,000 visitors in its first six months, that is (statistically), every second Düsseldorfer. Like other zoos established during the Wilhelmian era, the emphasis was initially on a beautiful layout, not the zoological collection. It did, however, offer its visitors 800 birds and mammals representing 200 species for a start. Charles Peel (1903: 85) thought it `quite one of the most picturesque of the many beautiful Gardens on the Continent.' Stanley Flower in his report (1906: 21) to the Government of Egypt remarked that the `Düsseldorf Zoological Gardens are distinguished for the very large size of the paddocks for the ruminants, which are on a grander scale than I have seen attempted in any other of the public gardens of Europe.'
The attendance dropped, however, after the initial curiosity had worn off, not least, apparently, because the zoo lacked spectacular animals. (It did have elephants, however.) By the turn of the century only 100,000 to 130,000 visitors were counted annually (even though Düsseldorf's population had meanwhile grown much larger. Close to bankruptcy, the shareholding company that ran the zoo was saved by Gustav Adolf Scheidt, a local industrialist. His Scheidt-Keim-Stiftung (foundation), after which the garden was renamed, stipulated that the corporation of Düsseldorf acquire not more than a quarter of the zoo's shares; in its turn it financed the zoo's renovation and expansion. Obviously with good success; by 1913 the annual attendance had grown to half a million.
All came to nought during a single 50-minute air-raid on 2 November 1944. The zoo had been damaged during previous attacks, but now hardly a wall remained standing. Director Rudolf Weber counted 200 bomb craters. The animals that survived the air-raid were distributed among other zoos and game parks that had suffered less. With the war's end, the corporation of Düsseldorf considered its obligations to the Scheidt-Keim-Stiftung invalidated; the reconstruction of the zoo was at the bottom of its priorities. The foundation itself obviously disagreed, but initially waited for better times. In 1957, the conservation agency of the Soviet Union donated two polar bears to the zoo, only to learn that there was still no zoo to give animals to. When there was still not one even after another 18 years, but instead a stadium for a professional ice-hockey team on the site, the Gesellschaft der Freunde des Zoologischen Gartens (Society of Friends of the Zoological Garden), with a war chest of DM 700,000 and empowered by the foundation, took the corporation of Düsseldorf to court in 1975. It lost the first round with the value in dispute set at DM 30m, and immediately found itself saddled with DM 400,000 in legal costs. The second round, lost, would have sent the society into bankruptcy; the municipal authorities, even if they had won, would still have had to pay costs they could no longer retrieve from an insolvent organization. Thus spurred on to compromise, the corporation and the society agreed to a settlement: Düsseldorf would build a new aquarium, the successor to one set up in a former bunker near the old zoo after the war, and it would call the aquarium a `zoo'. On 10 July 1987, the 34-million-DM Aqua-Zoo opened its doors to the public in the city's Nordpark for the first time. The polar bears that had been donated to the non-existent Düsseldorf Zoo back in 1957 have since passed away in Duisburg Zoo a half-hour's drive to the north.
Hamburg, as the major port and third-largest city, after Berlin and Vienna, of the German Confederation, could have been considered an obvious choice for the site of a zoological garden early on in the 19th century. It had a flourishing wild-animal trade by the 1820s, and at least one road-house menagerie, of which we are aware, in the 1840s, but it was not until 1863 that a real zoological garden would be inaugurated there, only the sixth in German-speaking central Europe. Although the idea of establishing a zoo in Hamburg had been bandied about throughout the 1850s, it was not until the merchant baron Ernst von Merck took up the initiative that the project came to fruition. Merck was a remarkable personality, a member of parliament and minister of finance and the navy in the short-lived democratic (but powerless) German government centred at Frankfurt am Main in 1848 and 1849, and consul general of Austria in Hamburg. He travelled widely, visiting zoos where he could, and enjoyed excellent connections. At the charter assembly of the Zoologische Gesellschaft in Hamburg (Zoological Society of Hamburg) on 10 July 1860, Merck was the obvious candidate for president. Like other zoological societies established in Germany in the 1860s and 1870s the heyday of new zoos in central Europe the one in Hamburg was a shareholding company. All stocks were soon sold, and a 13-hectare (32-acre) site just outside the former city walls adjacent to the old municipal cemetery was leased from the corporation of Hamburg in August 1861, initially for 50 years (later renewed every ten years). By November 1862 most of the infrastructure and the animal houses had been completed. To finance additional buildings and especially an aquarium, the board applied for and received permission from a meeting of shareholders on 20 November to issue more shares. They were sold out within 24 hours.
The Hamburg Zoological Garden was opened to the general public on 17 May 1863. Fifty-four thousand visitors came to see the zoo during the first five days (when Hamburg had a population of 300,000). During the next ten years annual attendance would sway between 225,000 and 355,000. A director had only been appointed once most of the construction had been completed: Alfred Edmund Brehm took up his post in January 1863. He had accompanied Johann Wilhelm von Müller, zoological superintendent in Brussels a decade earlier, on his expedition to north-east Africa, and had subsequently gained a national reputation as a writer and explorer. He had also studied architecture in addition to zoology, which obviously made him appear doubly qualified as director of a zoo, even if most of the original animal houses had already been built without him. Brehm was given a free hand to build up the collection, however, and into the early 1870s Hamburg Zoo would be the best stocked in Germany, later surpassed only by Berlin Zoo after that institution's relaunch, to use a modern expression, in 1869. The breeding record, too, was impressive: it was the first zoo in the world, for example, to breed both the Brazilian and the Malayan tapir (in 1868 and 1879 respectively), as well as the now extinct Schomburgk's deer (1870). The zoo (and the neighbouring botanical garden) got their own railway station in July 1866, and an additional hectare (two and a half acres) was then added to the grounds.
Although Hamburg got its first zoological garden in 1863, the new zoo was not the only place to see wild animals in the city. That same year, the animal dealer Carl Hagenbeck, Snr, purchased the menagerie of the late Gotthold Jamrach from his son, the London dealer Charles Jamrach. Hagenbeck kept the menagerie open to the public, and it was the first zoo-like institution in Europe to exhibit both the Sumatran and the African black rhinoceros. (The Sumatran rhinoceros was subsequently sold to Hamburg Zoo, the black to London Zoo.) In 1874, Hagenbeck's eldest son and successor, Carl Hagenbeck, Jnr, opened his new `Carl Hagenbeck's Thierpark' a mere 20 minutes' walk from the zoological garden. Although small, even tiny at only two acres, less than a hectare, the constant flow of new and unusual animals on their way through to `real' zoos made the Thierpark competitive. Hagenbeck, Jnr, was also very skilful at self-promotion. Hamburg seemed big enough at the time for two zoos so unlike each other, but in 1907, Hagenbeck opened his new, revolutionary zoological park in the suburb of Stellingen. The new Tierpark (now spelled without the h after the T) was the first zoo in the world to exhibit animals, including carnivores, in panoramas, enclosures set one behind the other, secured with moats rather than bars or fences, and landscaped with artificial rock-work to create the illusion of a natural environment. It also had many conventional paddocks and cages, to be sure, but at a stroke it made the Hamburg Zoological Garden look outdated, counting in some early years over a million visitors annually almost double what Hamburg Zoo had been able to attract in its best years.
The First World War, particularly the blockades, brought both zoos to the verge of bankruptcy. Hagenbeck's import and export business collapsed, obviously, but a circus would keep the enterprise solvent, touring the neutral countries of Europe. Hamburg Zoo allowed itself the luxury of building the world's largest primate house up to that time, inaugurated on 22 December 1915, with 22 outdoor and 69 indoor cages. Unfortunately, most of the zoo's monkeys would starve to death by the war's end, as did most animals dependent on either fresh fish or exotic fruits. It was the only zoo in Germany, however, to get anthropoid apes two chimpanzees through the war, though it lost both when a keeper with influenza infected them shortly after the armistice.
Whereas Hagenbeck's owned and managed since 1913 by the younger Carl Hagenbeck's two sons, Heinrich and Lorenz was slowly able to rebuild its animal trade and restock the Tierpark, the economic collapse of Germany following the lost war brought ruin to the old Hamburg Zoo. The zoological society was liquidated on 30 December 1920, and the zoo closed on 21 January 1921. A year later, however, patrons and benefactors established a new Aktiengesellschaft Zoologischer Garten in Hamburg (Hamburg Zoological Garden Corporation), taking over the lease from the receiver and thus saving the zoo initially. Julius Vosseler, in office since 1909 and only the third director, stayed on until his retirement in 1926. To stock empty enclosures, the garden became a showcase for animal dealers other than Hagenbeck, who deposited their charges there until they could be sold. The breeding pair of hippopotamus brought in vital foreign exchange. Germany's economic recovery towards the end of the decade made the future look bright at Hamburg Zoo too, but with the stock-market crashes of 1929 and the onset of the Great Depression, the zoo corporation was teetering towards bankruptcy.
In the spring of 1930, the Aktiengesellschaft closed down the zoo and divided its lease into an amusement park and a bird park. The larger, western half of the zoo, where the bird and ostrich houses and most of the aviaries already were, became the bird park. The bear dens were renovated to house birds of prey; the sea lion pond now harboured penguins. The Hamburger Vogelpark (Hamburg Bird Park) opened its gates, a back entrance of the old zoo, on 7 July 1930. It did not work. A year later the Hamburg Zoo Corporation declared bankruptcy, and the bird and amusement parks were dissolved. The liquidator sold the birds to the dealer Otto Fockelmann, who a few years earlier had rented the small carnivore house of the zoo, using it as a pet shop. The zoo's lease was returned to the city of Hamburg, and the site is now a public park. The suburb of Stellingen with Carl Hagenbeck's Tierpark was incorporated into Hamburg in 1937. The councillors of Hamburg are glad that the burden of running the local zoo is still none of their concern.
The Hamburg Zoological Garden, in its last annual inventory on 31 December 1929, counted 882 species and subspecies, including 274 of mammals. With that collection today, it would be among the top ten in the world; no zoo anywhere now exhibits such a variety of mammals. Although feeding and housing a large collection obviously entails large costs, both in manpower and, of course, in food itself, it was apparently not the quality of its stock that brought it down. Looking through the biennial reports of zoos in Germany in the International Zoo Yearbook suggests that even today those zoos get the most visitors that offer the greatest variety of species. Despite its 1.7 million population, Hamburg 70 years ago was, perhaps, not really big enough to permit two large zoos to flourish, certainly not during a depression. As a centre of the international wild-animal trade in addition to its modern enclosures, Hagenbeck's Tierpark put up almost unbeatable competition.
Belle Vue Zoo Park in Manchester survived for 140 years in what is now Britain's third largest conurbation, a record for lost zoos. But despite the fun-fair atmosphere that accompanied it throughout its history, it too failed in the end. Looking back at the development, and failures, of zoos in Europe, and observing those that do well today, it becomes obvious that, in general, successful that is, popular zoos in Germany are those in large cities with large collections, but with the exception of Hagenbeck's Tierpark, all are locally subsidized as important cultural institutions. In Britain, many popular zoos appear to be in or near small towns within excursion distance of big cities, but, according to Watts (1992), on average they rely on gate receipts for only 30 to 40 per cent of their revenue. Trusts are an important factor in maintaining several zoos in Britain. One of London Zoo's problems a decade ago, apparently, was that it depended on visitors at the gate to pay for 85 per cent of costs. With attendance down, costs up, the crisis was foreseeable.
In the Netherlands, both traditional urban zoos in the two largest cities and innovative gardens in small towns near the German border and within excursion distance of German concentrations of population do well. Belgium now has only two zoos with a European reputation, and both are operated by the Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp: Antwerp Zoo itself and Planckendael Zoo near Mechelen halfway between Antwerp and Brussels.
No generalization satisfactorily explains why some zoos in Europe fail, whereas others under superficially similar circumstances continue to flourish. Even small Poznan can support two zoos. Keeling's observation (1984, p. 15) that individuals make or break zoos is certainly valid to an extent: if it is not the incompetence or indifference of the director or managers or proprietors that leads to the closure (or almost-closure) of a zoo (or, as in the cases of Düsseldorf and The Hague, makes efforts at reconstruction unsuccessful), than it is usually the lack of interest and enthusiasm within the bureaucracy that fails the local zoo. If a powerful mayor happens to like ice-hockey more than zoos, priorities can be difficult to reverse.
At the height of the London Zoo crisis, Nature suggested in an editorial that `the London Zoological Society should either run its zoo with enthusiasm or hand over to others who would.' London Zoo now has a new director (again), and he's enjoyed early praise. But the jury is still out on whether the Zoological Society of London offers the zoo it begat the best perspective for the future. Not only individuals, however, but society in general the paying, the voting public is vital for the success of a zoo. Berlin is currently facing a financial crisis of Weimar proportions, but to even think of shutting down one of its two great zoos would be political suicide for any politician who dared to do so out loud. The people of Berlin, of San Diego, of Singapore, of New York are proud of their zoos but they have zoos of which they really can be proud. London?
It is admittedly a platitude, but zoological gardens succeed or fail for the most obvious of reasons: they succeed where they are wanted, and fail where they are not, or no longer, appreciated. Appreciation is subjective, individually and culturally. In the end, Europe's lost zoos were victims of `bad' environments, or they simply came to be perceived as `bad' themselves. Many were. What was or went bad, was a different story in each city that lost its zoo.
`Lost menageries' was originally read, in an abbreviated form, at the 13th international conference of the Society for the History of Natural History in Leiden, May 2001. For reading the manuscript and constructive criticism, may I thank, in alphabetical order, Dr David Barnaby, Dr Joe Cain, John Edwards, Dr Clemency Fisher, Marvin L. Jones, Tim May, Harry Schram and Dr A.C. van Bruggen. Any errors that may have slipped through the net are, needless to say, mine.
References and sources
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Anon. (1992): Keeping zoos alive. Nature 358: p. 94.
Baetens, R. (1993): The Chant of Paradise The Antwerp Zoo: 150 Years of History. A. Belien-Colen, transl. Lannoo, Tielt.
Bauermeister, G. (n.d.): Der alte Zoologische Garten zu Hamburg (18631930/31) ein Beitrag zur Stadtgeschichte. Unpublished manuscript.
Bewer, L. (1975): Kein Platz für Tiere an der Düssel. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 18 November, pp. 78.
Brauman, A., and Demanet, M. (1985): Le parc Léopold, 18501950: Le zoo, la cité scientifique et la ville. Archives d'architecture moderne, Brussels.
Brehm, A.E. (1866): Führer durch den Zoologischen Garten zu Hamburg, 10th edn. Zoologische Gesellschaft, Hamburg.
Dittrich, L., and Rieke-Müller, A. (1998): Carl Hagenbeck (18441913) Tierhandel und Schaustellungen im deutschen Kaiserreich. Peter Lang, Frankfurt (Main).
Flower, S.S. (1906): Report on Mission to Europe, 1905. Government of Egypt, Public Works Department, Cairo.
Fockenberg, K. (1987): Fossilien und lebende Tiere unter einem Dach. VDI Nachrichten (Düsseldorf), 10 July, p. 24.
Heck, L. (1938): Heiter-ernste Lebensbeichte Erinnerungen eines alten Tiergärtners. Deutscher Verlag, Berlin.
Heuvelmans, B. (1968): In the Wake of the Sea-Serpents. R. Garnett, transl. Rupert Hart-Davis, London.
Keeling, C.H. (1984): Where the Lion Trod A Study of Forgotten Zoological Gardens. Clam, Shalford (Surrey), U.K.
Knauer, F. (1914): Der zoologische Garten Entwicklungsgang, Anlage und Betrieb unserer Tiergärten. Theodor Thomas, Leipzig.
Kourist, W. (1969): Aus dem Tierbestand des Zoologischen Gartens Hamburg. Published by the author, Berlin.
Lever, C. (1992): They Dined on Eland The Story of the Acclimatisation Societies. Quiller, London.
Loisel, G. (1912): Histoire des ménageries de l'antiquité à nos jours. Doin/Laurens, Paris.
Oudemans, A.C. (1890): Über zwei seltene und eine neue Art Affen des Zoologischen Gartens im Haag. Der Zoologische Garten, A.F. 31: 266269.
Oudemans, A.C. (1892): The Great Sea-Serpent An Historical and Critical Treatise. Brill, Leiden.
Peel, C.V.A. (1903): The Zoological Gardens of Europe Their History and Chief Features. F.E. Robinson, London.
Reichenbach, H. (1996): A tale of two zoos The Hamburg Zoological Garden and Carl Hagenbeck's Tierpark. In New Worlds, New Animals From Menagerie to Zoological Park in the Nineteenth Century (eds. R.J. Hoage and W.A. Deiss), pp. 5162. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
Rieke-Müller, A., and Dittrich, L. (1998): Der Löwe brüllt nebenan Die Gründung zoologischer Gärten im deutschsprachigen Raum 18331869. Böhlau, Cologne.
Schlawe, L. (1972): Aus der Geschichte des Hamburger Tiergartens. Der Zoologische Garten, N.F. 41: 168186.
Schmitz, A., and Metzger, A. (2000): Zoologische Gärten als Kapitalgesellschaften Geschichtliche Entwicklung und Finanzierung. Antik Effekten, Frankfurt (Main).
van Baarsel, G.J.M. (1988): De Haagse Dierentuin. Holland 20: 238250.
van Bruggen, A.C. (1988): Van Z.M. den Koning, een casuaris voor de diergaarde Aantekenigen over aanwisten van de Hollandse dierentuinen in de 19e eeuw. Holland 20: 223237.
Watts, S. (1992): Zoological Society `faced with no choice'. The Independent (London), 18 June, p. 3.
Zimmermann, H. (1978): Prozesskosten in Millionenhöhe. Der Tagesspiegel (Berlin), 25 January, p. 3.
Zimmermann, V. (1992): Kein Platz für junge Eisbären. Rheinische Post (Düsseldorf), 11 November, unpaginated.
Herman Reichenbach, Paul-Sorge-Strasse 74, 22459 Hamburg, Germany (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
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NATURAL PLANT FOODS UTILIZED BY GORILLAS IN THE FORMER BRAZZAVILLE ORPHANAGE AND THE LESIO-LOUNA RESERVE
BY DON COUSINS
Introduction and background
In 1987 the late John Aspinall, the wild animal park owner and conservationist, signed an agreement with the government of the Republic of the Congo to establish a facility for confiscated orphaned gorillas in the grounds of Brazzaville Zoo. The eventual goal was to reintroduce these apes into the wild.
Congo (Brazzaville) is within the distributional range of the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla g. gorilla), and from 1987 until 1997 about fifty infant gorillas from all over the Congo found their way into the orphanage. Stress and diseases caused high mortality rates. Most infections came from humans, and the apes were afflicted with such ailments as shigellosis, amoebic dysentery, hepatitis A, ascariasis, candidiasis, tapeworm, toxoplasmosis, alpha herpes virus, polio, yellow fever and river blindness. Added to these were a number of disease epidemics of unknown aetiology that swept the human population of Brazzaville (Furley, 1996; Attwater, 1999).
In September 1994 six of the orphan gorillas were transported overland to the Lesio-Louna Reserve, which borders the Lefini Reserve about 200 km north of Brazzaville. Here they were housed in a holding cage prior to release. Unfortunately, three of the animals died, one from amoebic dysentery and two from coxsackie virus, presumably triggered by stress (Furley, 1996). The remaining three were successfully released. Replacements for the gorillas that had succumbed were flown from Brazzaville to Lesio-Louna in September 1995. By June 1997, however, civil unrest in the Congo and the devastation of Brazzaville necessitated the evacuation of the gorillas from the orphanage. A total of 13 apes were airlifted to Jane Goodall's Tchimpounga Reserve north of Pointe-Noire, south-west Congo, but two of these animals later died.
In 1998 the gorilla orphanage in Brazzaville was closed and the rescue operations relocated to the Lesio-Louna Sanctuary. Since 1996 a further seven gorillas have been released into the sanctuary, and a third group of ten animals are ready to take the next step to reintroduction. The gorillas already released are surviving without supplementary feeding and are in good health (Courage et al., 2001).
Feeding at Brazzaville
Confiscated gorillas at the Brazzaville orphanage were provisioned with fresh fruit from local markets. In addition, they were allowed to forage freely each day in a remnant patch of rainforest, the Forêt de la Patte d'Oie (Goose's Foot Forest) in the grounds of Brazzaville Zoo (Attwater, 1999). This forest covered an area of approximately 16 ha. Although the gorillas were aged only between a few weeks and five years, they confidently and purposefully selected preferred food items, with the younger animals following the example of the older ones (Mark Attwater, pers. comm.).
In 1991 Abel M'passi, a Congolese botany student from Brazzaville University, spent five months documenting all the plants consumed by the gorillas, eventually identifying 57 plant species, representing 31 families (Table 1). The majority of these plants have not yet been documented in the diets of lowland gorillas in other study sites (Sabater Pi, 1977; Calvert, 1985; Tutin and Fernandez, 1985; Rogers et al., 1990; Yamigawa et al., 1994; Nishihara, 1995), and this may, in part at least, be a reflection of the fact that the orphaned gorillas originated from widely separated areas in the Congo.
The Brazzaville gorillas were also observed to feed on unidentified species of ants and termites. Weaver ants, which make nests in folded leaves and have a painful bite, were eaten by snatching the entire leaf and thrusting it into the mouth as quickly as possible, while with the same motion wiping the face free of any remaining ants. One two-year-old male named Sid would smash termite mounds with his fists and grab handfuls of termites, cramming them into his mouth in a fever of gluttony, apparently unbothered by the insects that crawled over his face and hands, biting fiercely (Attwater, 1999; Mark Attwater, pers. comm.).
Twenty-two of the 57 plant species recorded in Brazzaville were among the 417 plant species (comprising 86 families) identified by Moutsamboté et al. (1994) in the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park, about 900 km north of the capital. Nishihara (1995) identified 152 species, representing 36 families, utilized by gorillas in the 400,000-km2 Ndoki forest, ten of these being shared by the orphaned gorillas at Brazzaville. Dowsett-Lemaire (1991) recorded over 400 plant species belonging to 78 families in the Kouilou basin, 300400 km south-west of the city. Fourteen of these species were exploited by the Brazzaville orphans, nine of them not catalogued in the Ndoki.
Feeding in the Lesio-Louna Sanctuary
Botanical surveys conducted in the Lefini Reserve have revealed a number of plant species that are also recorded as sources of food for gorillas in other study sites (Table 2). Although the Lefini as a whole encompasses an area of 6,300 km2, the reintroduced gorillas are restricted to a core area of forest, the Lesio-Louna Sanctuary, covering 50,000 ha. The entire Lefini region is composed of a sandstone plateau at about 650700 metres elevation dissected by deep river valleys at approximately 310380 m elevation. The reserve is a mosaic of forest and savannah, the plateau supporting mainly tall grasses, Loudetia simplex and the dominant Hyparrhenia diplandra, and with a sparse canopy of shrubby Hymenocardia acida trees. Forest `islands' on the plateau are dominated by Parinari excelsa and Pentaclethra eetveldeana. The well-drained sandy soils of the valley bottoms support Dialium corbisieri and Millettia laurentii (Descoings, 1975; Dowsett-Lemaire, 1997; Fay et al., n.d.).
As would be expected, the reintroduced gorillas have greatly extended their diet in their much larger new environment, but many of their new plant foods are as original as in the Forêt de la Patte d'Oie, and unrecorded in other gorilla study sites. Between 1994 and 1998 Mbani Akangala Mankarika (1998) observed the gorillas' feeding habits. He catalogued 84 plant species, representing 40 families, exploited by the apes (Table 3). Additionally, three cultivated plants mango (Mangifera sp.), passion flower (Passiflora sp.) and manioc (Manihot esculenta) were eaten by the gorillas. A further 18 plants utilized by the animals were not identified for various reasons.
As in Brazzaville, the orphaned gorillas in the Lesio-Louna fed on unidentified species of ants, and these insects appear to play an important role in the diet of gorillas generally. In Lopé, central Gabon, gorillas eat three or more species of small ants, the most often consumed being weaver ants (Oecophylla longinoda). Tutin and Fernandez (1983) found evidence of gorillas in Gabon preying on termites Cubitermes sulcifrons, the apes apparently breaking open the earthen termite mounds with their hands to feed on the insects. Termites and other insects form a large part of the diet of gorillas living in the Dzanga-Sangha region of the Central African Republic (Carroll, 1988). As early as 1954 gorillas in West Africa were reported to turn over and tear apart termite nests (Mathis, quoted by Schaller, 1963).
At least 15 species of plant foods exploited by gorillas in the Lesio-Louna Sanctuary were also eaten by them in the Brazzaville forest. The Lesio-Louna shared some 21 plant species with the Ndoki forest, although only nine of these were eaten by gorillas in both regions. A total of 18 plant species utilized by gorillas in the sanctuary are also found in the Kouilou basin.
In the Brazzaville forest 41 species of plants, belonging to 22 families, utilized by the gorillas are unfamiliar in the diets of the apes in other study areas. Similarly, 43 species, in 27 families, in the Lesio-Louna are not recorded as being eaten elsewhere. It may be that young gorillas are more adventurous in trying out new foods, in contrast to the conservative nature of adults.
Schaller (1963) broached the subject of similarities and differences in food habits of gorillas in different areas. He noted that although some plant species were found in several gorilla areas, they were only exploited by the apes in one or two of these regions. He found that the diet of gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes was totally different from that of those living in the neighbouring Kayonza Forest (Bwindi National Park). Even in the contiguous and similar environments of Kisora and Kabara only approximately half the plant foods were shared. Also, even when gorillas from different areas use the same plant species, they do not always exploit the same parts of them.
Gorillas, like other primates, are great seed dispersers, and in the Forêt de la Patte d'Oie they successfully enriched the environment via faecal germination. No doubt they will be equally beneficial to the habitat of the Lesio-Louna Sanctuary.
Table 1. List of plant foods consumed by gorillas in the Patte d'Oie forest surrounding the Brazzaville orphanage. (Plants collected and identified by Abel Leonard M'Passi during the period January to May 1991.)
Agavaceae Dracaena reflexa
Annonaceae Uvaria brazzavillensis 1
Uvaria comperei 1
Uvaria scabrida 4
Apocynaceae Funtumia elastica 1, 4
Landolphia ligustrifolia 3, 4
Landolphia spp. 1, 2
Rauwolfia spp 1, 4
Asclepiadaceae Toxocarpus brevipes
Bignoniaceae Markhamia sessilis
Commelinaceae Palisota ambigua 1, 2, 3
Palisota hirsuta 1, 2
Connaraceae Agelaea dewevrei 1
Cnestis ferruginea 1
Manotes pruinosa 1
Cucurbitaceae Cogniauxia podolaena 4
Dichapetalaceae Dichapetalum brazzae 1
Dichapetalum gilletii 4
Dichapetalum lujae 4
Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea bulbifera 1, 4
Euphorbiaceae Hymenocardia ulmoides 3, 5
Macaranga barteri 1, 2
Flacourtiaceae Calonchoba welwitschii 1, 2, 3, 5
Hypericaceae Harungana madagascariensis
Icacinaceae Icacina mannii 4
Leguminosae Dalbergia afzeliana
Loganiaceae Anthocleista schweinfurthii 4
Marantaceae Marantochloa congensis 1, 2, 3
Meliaceae Trichilia gilleti
Menispermaceae Limaciopsis loangensis
Triclisia patens 1, 2
Moraceae Bosqueiopsis gilletii
Musaceae Musa sapientum
Ochnaceae Rhabdophyllum welwitschi 1
Olacaceae Olax viridis
Palmae Elaeis guineensis 1, 4
Pentadiplandraceae Pentadiplandra brazzeana
Rubiaceae Colletoecema dewevrei
Heinsia crinita 4
Rothmannia octomera 4
Sherbournia curvipes 4
Sapindaceae Allophylus africanus 1, 2, 4
Chytranthus atroviolaceus 1, 2
Solanaceae Solanum torvum
Ulmaceae Trema gabonensis
Vitaceae Cissus creophila
Zingiberaceae Costus afer 1, 2, 3
1identified in Ndoki Forest (Moutsamboté et al., 1994)
2identified as gorilla food in Ndoki Forest (Nishihara, 1995)
3identified in Lefini Reserve (Fay et al., n.d.)
4identified in Kouilou Basin (Dowsett-Lemaire, 1991)
5identified as gorilla food in Kouilou Basin (M.D. Gouaya, pers.comm.)
Table 2. Some plant species identified in the Lefini Reserve that have relevance to gorilla diets in other areas.
Acanthaceae Thomandersia laurentii
Anacardiaceae Pseudospondias microcarpa
Annonaceae Anonidium mannii
Apocynaceae Landolphia ligustrifolia
Burseraceae Canarium schweinfurtii
Commelinaceae Palisota ambigua
Euphorbiaceae Hymenocardia ulmoides
Flacourtiaceae Calonchoba welwitschii
Leguminosae Dialium polyanthum
Marantaceae Marantochloa congensis
Moraceae Chlorophora excelsa
Myristicaceae Pycnanthus angolensis
Olacaceae Heisteria parvifolia
Palmae Raphia sp.
Passifloraceae Barteria sp.
Rosaceae Parinari excelsa
Sapotaceae Gambeya africana
Simaroubaceae Irvingia gabonensis
Tiliaceae Duboscia macrocarpa
Ulmaceae Celtis tessmannii
Verbenaceae Vitex doniana
Zingiberaceae Aframomum giganteum
Plant sources: Descoings, 1975; Dowsett-Lemaire, 1997; Fay et al., n.d.
Gorilla diet sources: Sabater Pi, 1977; Calvert, 1985; Tutin and Fernandez, 1985; Rogers et al., 1990; Yamigawa et al., 1994; Nishihara, 1995.
Table 3. Some plant foods utilized by gorillas reintroduced into the Lesio-Louna sanctuary (from observations and collections by Mbani Akangala Mankarika, 19941998).
Family Species Parts consumed
Agavaceae Dracaena sp. Bark, twigs
Anacardiaceae Sorindeia sp. Leaves, twigs
Annonaceae Annona arenaria Bark, leaves, fruit
Uvaria brazzavillensis 1, 2 Leaves, fruit
Uvaria sp. ?
Apocynaceae Ancylobothrys pyriformis Fruit
Landolphia jumellei 2 Fruit
Landolphia lanceoalata Fruit
Landolphia owariensis 2 Leaves, fruit
Landolphia spp. 1, 2, 3 Leaves, fruit
Landolphia sp. 4 Stem, fruit
Asclepiadaceae Rhynchostigma racemosum Bark
Bromeliaceae Ananas comosus Leaves, fruit
Burseraceae Santiria trimera 2, 3, 4 Fruit
Combretaceae Combretum marginatum Leaves
Combretum sp. 1 Flowers
Combretum sp. 2 Leaves
Commelianaceae Palisota ambigua 1, 2, 3, 4 Stem, leaves
Palisota sp. Stem, leaves
Connaraceae Byrsocarpus poggeanus 1 Leaves, fruit
Cnestis ferruginea 1, 2 Leaves
Cnestis iomalla 1 Leaves
Manotes pruinosa 1, 2 Leaves, fruit, seeds
Roureopsis obliquifoliolata 2, 3 Leaves
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea involucrata Leaves, flowers
Cucurbitaceae Cogniauxia podolaena 1, 2, 3, 4 Bark
Dichapetalaceae Dichapetalum brazzae 1, 2 Bark, leaves, fruit, seeds,
Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea smilacifolia 1, 3 Leaves
Euphorbiaceae Alchornea cordifolia 2, 3 Stem, twigs
Bridelia ferruginea Fruit
Chaetocarpus africanus 3 Leaves, fruit
Hymenocardia acida Leaves
Hymenocardia ulmoides 1 Leaves
Maesobotrya barteri Fruit
Uapaca guineensis 2, 4 Bark, leaves, fruit, flowers
Flacourtiaceae Caloncoba welwitschii 1, 2, 3, 4 Stem, fruit, seeds, twigs
Gnetaceae Gnetum africanum 2, 4 Leaves
Gramineae Hyparrhenia diplandra Stem
Guttiferae Garcinia huillensis Fruit
Hypericaceae Psorospermum febrifugum Fruit
Leguminosae Dalbergia saxatilis 2, 3 Leaves
Griffonia physocarpa Fruit
Leptorris spp. 1, 2, 3 Leaves
Leptorris sp. 4 Leaves, flowers, twigs
Linaceae Hugonia platysepala Leaves
Loganiaceae Strychnos cocculoides Fruit
Strychnos pungens Fruit
Marantaceae Hypselodelphys sp. Root, stem
Marantochloa sp. Stem, leaves
Megaphrynium macrostachyum 2, 4 Root, leaves
Melastomataceae Tristemma mauritianum Flowers
Menispermaceae Triclisia louisii Leaves, fruit
Moraceae Boscia angolensis Leaves, fruit
Ficus sp. Leaves
Musanga cecropioides 2, 3, 4 Leaves, fruit
Myrtaceae Syzygium guineense Fruit
Ochnaceae Rhabdophyllum welwitschi 1, 2 Leaves
Olacaceae Olax gambecola 2, 3 Leaves, fruit
Olax subscorpioides Fruit
Palmae Ancistrophyllum secundiflorum Fruit
Eremospatha hookeri Leaves
Elaeis guineensis Leaves
Raphia sp. Stem, leaves
Passifloraceae Adenia lobata Stems
Paropsia brazzaeana Fruit
Periplocaceae Cryptolepis macrophylla Leaves
Rubiaceae Colletoecema dewevrei 1 Fruit
Craterispermum laurinum 2 Leaves
Gaertnera paniculata 2 Fruit
Nauclea latifolia Fruit
Rothmannia octomera 1, 2 Bark, leaves, fruit
Sabicea venosa Fruit
Stipularia africana 2 Fruit
Smilacaceae Smilax kraussiana 2, 3 Leaves, fruit, twigs
Sterculiaceae Cola hispida Fruit
Tiliaceae Grewia coriacea 2, 3, 4 Fruit
Verbenaceae Vitex sp. Fruit
Zingiberaceae Aframomum giganteum 2 Fruit, stem
Aframomum stipulatum 3 Root, stem, leaves, fruit
Costus afer 1, 4 Root, stem, leaves, fruit,
1identified as gorilla food plants in Forêt de la Patte d'Oie (M'passi, 1991)
2identified in Ndoki Forest (Moutsamboté et al., 1991)
3identified in Kouilou Basin (Dowsett-Lemaire, 1991)
4identified as gorilla food in Ndoki Forest (Nishihara, 1995)
Sincere thanks to Abel M'passi (in his absence), Mark Attwater and Maurice Gouaya; also to Ian Henderson, John Watkins and the John Aspinall Foundation.
Attwater, H. (1999): My Gorilla Journey. Sidgwick and Jackson, London.
Calvert, J.J. (1985): Food selection by western gorillas (G. g. gorilla) in relation to food chemistry. Oecologia 65: 236246.
Carroll, R.W. (1988): Relative density, range extension and conservation potential of the lowland gorilla (Gorilla g. gorilla) in the Dzanga-Sangha region of south-western Central African Republic. Mammalia 52: 310323.
Courage, A., Henderson, I., and Watkins, J. (2001): Orphan gorilla reintroduction: Lesio-Louna and Mpassa. Gorilla Journal 22: 3335.
Descoings, B. (1975): Les grandes régions naturelles du Congo. Candollea 30: 91120.
Dowsett-Lemaire, F. (1991): The vegetation of the Kouilou basin in Congo. In Flora and Fauna of the Kouilou Basin (Congo) and their Exploitation (eds. R.J. Dowsett and F. Dowsett-Lemaire), pp. 1751. Tauraco Research Report No. 4, Liège, Belgium.
Dowsett-Lemaire, F. (1997): The avifauna of the Lefini Reserve, Téké Plateau (Congo). In Flora and Fauna of the Odzala National Park, Congo (eds. R.J. Dowsett and F. Dowsett-Lemaire), pp. 125134. Tauraco Research Report No. 6, Liège, Belgium.
Fay, J.M., Harris, D., Moutsamboté, J.-M., and Thomas, D. (n.d.): Draft report on the Réserve de la Lefini, Republic of Congo. Global Environment Facility, Republic of Congo.
Furley, C. (1996): The Gorilla Rescue Project, Brazzaville, Congo. International Zoo News 43 (5): 299300.
Mankarika, M.A. (1998): Aliments du Gorille dans le Sanctuaire Lesio-Louna. Ministère de l'Économie Forestière, Brazzaville.
Moutsamboté, J.-M., Yumo, T., Mitani, M., Nishihara, T., Suzuki, S., and Kuroda, S. (1994): Vegetation and list of plant species identified in the Nouabalé-Ndoki Forest, Congo. Tropics 3 (3/4): 277293.
Nishihara, T. (1995): Feeding ecology of western lowland gorillas in the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park, Congo. Primates 36 (2): 151168.
Rogers, M.E., Maisels, F., Williamson, E.A., Fernandez, M., and Tutin, C.E.G. (1990): The diet of gorillas in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon: a nutritional analysis. Oecologia 84: 326339.
Sabater Pi, J.S. (1977): Contribution to the study of alimentation of lowland gorillas in the natural state in Rio Muni, Republic of Equatorial Guinea (West Africa). Primates 18: 183204.
Schaller, G.B. (1963): The Mountain Gorilla: Ecology and Behaviour. Chicago University Press.
Tutin, C.E.G., and Fernandez, M. (1983): Gorillas feeding on termites in Gabon, West Africa. Journal of Mammalogy 64 (3): 530531.
Tutin, C.E.G., and Fernandez, M. (1985): Foods consumed by sympatric populations of Gorilla g. gorilla and Pan troglodytes in Gabon: some preliminary data. International Journal of Primatology 6 (1): 2743.
Yamagiwa, J., Mwanza, N., Yumoto, T., and Muruhashi, T. (1994): Seasonal change in the composition of the diet of eastern lowland gorillas. Primates 35: 114.
Don Cousins, Flat 3, 45 Silverdale Road, Lower Meads, Eastbourne, East Sussex BN20 7AT, U.K.
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NEW FACILITIES FOR AQUATIC MAMMALS AND PENGUINS AT NUREMBERG ZOO
BY BENJAMIN IBLER
For years Nuremberg (Nürnberg) Zoological Garden, Germany, has been known for its successful keeping and breeding of aquatic and semi-aquatic mammals. In the zoo's long history over 50 pinnipeds (of three species), 16 manatees, over ten bottle-nosed dolphins, 15 Malayan tapirs, ten South American tapirs and 24 common hippopotamuses have been born, and most of them were reared.
The old facilities in Nuremberg and short breeding history
Pinnipeds have been kept at Nuremberg Zoo from 1939 up to 1941 and since 1955. The original pool, built in 1939, had approximately the same measurements as the new one, but after its destruction in the war, it was replaced by a smaller one. Keeping pinnipeds has long been a tradition at the zoo: our breeding of Californian sea lions was the first to be regular and successful in Germany after World War II, and for years we have maintained the biggest group of this species in any zoo in Europe.
Eurasian beavers were only kept until the 1960s. Before World War II they lived in a little pool near the zoo restaurant, `Waldschänke'. From 1949 on they inhabited the moat of the monkey hill, being maintained together with baboons. Our new beaver pair, approximately three or four years old at the beginning of 2001, were captured in the Bavarian `Oberpfalz' near Wiesau (about 40 km east of Bayreuth). Since the 1960s, beavers have been reintroduced to wilderness areas of Bavaria, and the population has flourished and grown. But because of the local fishermen's and farmers' conflicts with this largest of European rodents, some individuals like our pair have had to be recaptured.
Penguins, the only birds in the `aqua-park', have been kept at Nuremberg Zoo from 1939 to 1942 and since 1955. At various times Humboldt's, magellanic, black-footed and rockhopper penguins have been maintained, but today, the stock consists only of the Humboldt's and black-footed species. Our penguins have always been kept on the same site, but their former pool was not as big as the new one.
Humboldt's penguins have been kept since 1955. Breeding has occurred from time to time since then, but a large number of chicks was not produced until 1990, when several specimens were purchased from Rheine Zoo. As some of our birds, including some old penguins imported in 1974, died during their time in the zoo's quarantine area, where they lived in 1999 and 2000 during construction of the new exhibit, we had to acquire some new ones. On the recommendation of the EEP coordinator we got 0.0.3 from Cottbus first, followed by 0.0.7 from Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde and 0.0.3 from Liberec Zoo (Czech Republic).
Black-footed penguins have also been kept since 1955, with the first breeding success in 1958, early in comparison to most other German zoos. Following the arrival of 0.0.8 new individuals from Artis Zoo, Amsterdam, in November 2001, we hope to be able to continue our successful breeding.
At the beginning of March 2001, in coordination with the EEP, we received two (1.1) young European otters from Dutch zoos. Our female arrived from Aqualutra, Leeuwarden, where she was born on 7 May 1999. Our male was born at Rotterdam Zoo on 3 June 1999. The pair live together in harmony, and we hope to have a breeding success quite soon. Their active diurnal lifestyle makes them very popular with visitors.
Description of the new aqua-park
The so-called `aqua-park' opened on 6 April 2001. This area consists of five exhibits: two for beavers, one for otters, one (with an indoor pool) for penguins and the last the biggest one for sea lions.
Beavers and otters. This complex consists of three exhibits. The first beaver enclosure comprises 75 m2 of water and approximately an equal area of natural ground. In the second beaver enclosure the water area amounts to 105 m2. The largest exhibit is the one for otters. To match their natural habitat, it is formed like a bank with islets, a small brook and waterfalls. The water flows from the otter pool at the highest level down to the second and then the first beaver pool. After circulating, the water is filtered and then pumped back to the otter pool.
Penguins. This enclosure consists of a big pool and a large area of ground. As in the other enclosures, any concrete was, where possible, faced with sandstone to ensure a natural appearance. The pool has a surface area of 252 m2 with a maximum depth of 3.5 m, resulting in a volume of 600,000 litres. The land part is 275 m2 in area.
Sea lions. Here the 896-m2, 3.5-metre-deep pool has a capacity of 1.5 million litres. In view of this exhibit's huge dimensions, we intend to keep a group of more than 15 individuals, but at the time of writing (end of 2001) it is occupied by only seven (2.5) Californian sea lions. The use of sandstone gives the enclosure a naturalistic style; of course, it contains numerous items for the comfort of the animals. Because of sea lions' adaptation to both aquatic and coastal life, a large land area here, 393 m2 is a necessity of their husbandry. The upper parts of the land area are covered with grass.
Visitors can go through a tunnel where they are able to view the penguins and sea lions under water through four-metre-long, 2.5-metre-high panoramic panes of 12-mm-thick glass. Pictures on the tunnel wall represent the natural life of penguins and pinnipeds.
The aqua-park as a whole comprises some of the biggest enclosures for these species in Europe.
The visitors' experience
Visitors normally enter the aqua-park, following the normal circular route recommended in our zoo guidebook, at the Beaver 1 enclosure. This is situated near the elephant enclosure, the most important `visitor-magnet' in this middle part of the zoo. From here they have two possible ways to go while exploring this aquatic feature: either to take the route leading straight to the underwater views, first to the beavers and otters and then through the tunnel to the penguins and sea lions, or to go along past the beavers' and otters' large land areas. A third approach is on the recommended circular route, coming from the big cats. But whichever route visitors take, the landscape of the five facilities is conspicuous and should catch their eyes thanks to its natural appearance. We did not want to create an exhibit where we tried to imitate the traditional buildings of other continents' native peoples; we wanted a naturalistic style, where all attention is given to the animal and its behaviour.
Our educational approach is based on the belief that an interesting enclosure provides detailed information about natural habitats even better than displays ever could! All in all, the concept of the aqua-park is to show animals with similar ecological adaptations to the same element, water, but without only focusing on a geographical mode of presentation. For each species a display with general information is provided. But more attention has been paid to showing the animals' social life, distribution, etc., by means of artistic elements, eye-catching pictures and sculptures, which people can touch. Visitors should learn `by the way'.
But greater attractions than these artefacts or displays are the `feeding shows', especially with the sea lions. Now, unlike in the past, our sea lion group is conditioned and trained. Also, the otters are fed with crayfish from time to time, to demonstrate their natural abilities in hunting and eating.
Alongside the new aqua-park stand the ruins of an old polar bear enclosure. (Nuremberg used to be one of the most successful breeding institutions in the world with this species.) So our next plan is to reconstruct this enclosure and thus complete our new aquatic animal complex as soon as possible.
Benjamin Ibler, Adalbert-Stifter-Weg 1, 92245 Kümmersbruck, Germany.
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
I would like to comment on an interesting item placed in your News in Brief section in the March 2002 issue [I.Z.N. 49 (2), p. 120]. It stated that Tombi, a white rhinoceros at Memphis Zoo in Tennessee, is believed to be `the world's most prolific rhino,' having recently given birth to her tenth calf. In fact, at Edinburgh Zoo we believe we hold one of the most if not the most prolific of all white rhino females. Umfolozi is approximately 30 years old, and since arriving in Edinburgh in 1974 has given birth to twelve calves. Not only is she very prolific, but she lives in a pair with just her long-time mate Kruger. This reproductive prowess is unusual in white rhino pairs, as normally the male needs the stimulation of a herd of females to encourage him to breed. I would be interested to know of any more zoos with such prolific pairs.
EH12 6TS, U.K.
I was rather surprised to read in I.Z.N. 49 (1), pp. 3637, the report `Cannibalism documented in lammergeiers' about observations in the Pyrenees by Spanish researchers. The study made evident by placing a video camera inside a nest that cainism seems to be obligatory between lammergeier siblings.
However, this fact has been well known for more than 20 years. The first documented observations of cainism in the lammergeier undertaken at the Alpenzoo, Innsbruck, were published in 19791981 (Thaler and Pechlaner, 1979, 1980; Thaler, 1981). The elder chick pecks the younger one mainly on the neck and head till it is itself nearly exhausted. The younger one tries to fight back, but after some minutes stays quiet and does not dare to move any more. The studies document that hunger is not the reason why the older chick pecks the younger one. On the contrary, when the older chick is hungry the aggression decreases, and when it is well fed it is much more aggressive. When two chicks were hand-reared, separated by a barrier of glass, it became obvious that the aggression declined after 33 days and disappeared at the age of 90 days. The aggressive behaviour of the chicks is obligatory the second egg plays only the role of a substitute if the first egg fails to hatch. It is not comparable to sibling aggression in some birds of prey, e.g. the golden eagle, where shortage of food causes the aggression between nestlings.
The knowledge of this behaviour is considered of great importance in the WWF's reintroduction project for the lammergeier in the Alps, which was initiated in the late 1970s and started with the first release in 1986.
Thaler, E., and Pechlaner, H. (1979): Volierenbrut und Handaufzucht beim Bartgeier (Gypaetus barbatus aureus): Beobachtungen aus dem Alpenzoo Innsbruck. Gefiederte Welt 103 (2): 2125.
Thaler, E., and Pechlaner, H. (1980): Cainism in the lammergeier or bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus aureus. Int. Zoo Yearbook 20: 278280.
Thaler, E. (1981): Der Bartgeier (Gypaetus barbatus) im Alpenzoo Innsbruck: Methoden zur Verbesserung des Zuchterfolges. Forschungsbericht 3, Nationalpark Berchtesgaden.
Having an especial interest in the history of zoological gardens, and particularly in the reasons behind the eventual closure of certain establishments, I found Herman Reichenbach's article (`Lost menageries why and how zoos disappear', I.Z.N. 316:3, 151163) extremely interesting. In a country that gave the world the concept of the modern zoological garden, it is lamentable that `of Britain's nine cities with at least 400,000 population, only London, Glasgow and Edinburgh now have zoos. Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds and Liverpool have lost theirs; Sheffield and Bradford apparently never had one.'
It was obviously very important in the days before private car ownership for zoos to be located somewhere central and preferably urban, but, since the 1950s, this is no longer true. It is a myth that zoos based in or near major conurbations can be expected to do well simply because there is a large population based nearby. When I worked in zoos, I noticed, whenever I walked through the car park, the large number of cars in which a road atlas was lying open on the passenger seat or on the dashboard. It occurred to me then that the majority of visitors were not local but had come from further afield. I now realise that, whenever people are planning a day out, whether it is to a zoo or to any other visitor attraction, the journey there the anticipation of getting there, if you like is an integral part of the enjoyment. In the main, people do not patronise an attraction that happens to be, to use a colloquial expression, `right on their doorstep'.
Near to where I live there is a well-known war museum which attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors each year (I'm not the slightest bit interested in war memorabilia, but there are plenty of people who are), and yet I know very few local people who have visited it recently. And I am no different whenever I choose to go anywhere, subconsciously eschewing local places in favour of more distant ones. Only a few miles down the road from where I live is the excellent Linton Zoological Garden. It takes me less than fifteen minutes to drive there, and I always enjoy myself whenever I do go there, and yet, paradoxically, I have probably visited Colchester Zoo (over an hour away) more times in the last few years.
I calculate that the optimum distance for a zoo (or any other visitor attraction) is about one and a half hours' drive away from where one lives.
10 Royston Road,
Cambridge CB2 4NW, U.K.
Errors of fact in I.Z.N. are about as common as the proverbial hen's teeth, so No. 316 was notable in its way not unlike a misprinted postage stamp in that it contained one. Incredibly, and most uncharacteristically, it appeared in the excellent and superbly researched article by Herman Reichenbach, who stated (p. 153) `. . . Sheffield and Bradford apparently never had one.'
There was indeed a zoological garden, albeit a small one, at Shipley Glen, a public park in the north of the City of Bradford, which operated for a decade or so in the 1940s/50s. By all accounts it was stocked almost entirely with what I call `Noah's Ark' specimens, plus some domestic varieties, and certainly never pursued any scientific or educational activities; it claimed to be nothing other than a pleasure ground, but let us hope the presence of its animals enlightened at least some of its visitors and broadened their horizons.
The place closed in 1955 and the animals were purchased, en bloc, by E. Forrest-Gilmour, who was about to open the (again) short-lived but far better Doncaster Zoological Garden.
13 Pound Place,
Surrey GU4 8HH, U.K.
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AMPHIBIAN MEDICINE AND CAPTIVE HUSBANDRY edited by Kevin M. Wright and Brent R. Whitaker. Krieger Publishing Company (Malabar, Florida), 2001. xxv + 499 pp., 44 pages of colour plates, hardback. ISBN 0894649175. $140.00.
During the past 25 years, there have been ever-increasing numbers of textbooks on various aspects of zoo and exotic animal medicine. During this time, however, the amphibians have missed out, and at best have been covered in a single chapter in an appendix at the back of a reptile medicine text. This has all changed with the publication of the excellent Amphibian Medicine and Captive Husbandry, a multi-author text edited by Kevin Wright and Brent Whitaker.
This textbook has been written to be practical, informative and user-friendly. Chapters cover the range of subjects from evolution and taxonomy through anatomy for the clinician and applied physiology to all aspects of medicine and surgery, e.g. restraint, clinical microbiology, haematology, diagnostic imaging, surgical techniques, pharmacotherapeutics and pathology.
It is difficult to cover such an enormous subject in one text, but excellent use is made of summaries and tables for example, the chapter on taxonomy covers many of the common species held in captivity, with a summary including the common name, scientific name, mode of reproduction, vivarium design and suggested diets. These summaries are then backed up with a list of identification guides, as well as references. The chapter on pharmacotherapeutics is particularly useful, in that the text covers details of the drugs, and tables have been used to provide quick and easy reference.
It is obvious that this text is more than just a literature review of amphibian medicine and husbandry. There are practical tips throughout the book, which make clear that the authors have personal experience of working with these animals. These tips range from the use of bubble wrap as a liner for an anaesthetic chamber to prevent damage to the delicate skin of an amphibian to the fact that oral fluid therapy is not the method of choice, since there is little fluid uptake via the gastrointestinal tract.
The standard of black-and-white diagrams and photographs throughout the book is excellent, and there are 40 pages of superb colour plates. Perhaps a small criticism, however, would be that some of the photographs would benefit from the addition of arrows or identification marks to clarify the message.
Admittedly, this textbook is aimed at the North American market, and as such there are some terms used which are unclear to the international reader e.g. `a sweater-box sized thriving colony of springtails should be available for each newly metamorphosed small anuran or salamander.'
A recurring theme throughout the book is the plea for more to be published about amphibian medicine and husbandry. Amphibians have been widely used in research, but unfortunately there are still major gaps in our knowledge of nutrition, pharmacokinetics and many diseases and syndromes. The publication of this book will, I am sure, lead to an increased interest in these animals, and as a result hopefully stimulate the publication of case reports and other work which will further improve our ability to care for and treat amphibians.
Amphibian Medicine and Captive Husbandry will undoubtedly become the bible of amphibian medicine for veterinarians, veterinary students and keepers of amphibians alike, and as more information is discovered and veterinary interest in these wonderful creatures increases, I look forward to future updates of this text. In the mean time this book provides the most comprehensive coverage of amphibian medicine and captive husbandry available and is well worth the price.
Miss S. M. Thornton, BSc, BVetMed, MRCVS (International Zoo Veterinary Group, Keighley Business Centre, South Street, Keighley, West Yorkshire BD21 1AG, U.K.)
SCIENCE IN THE SERVICE OF ANIMAL WELFARE: A CHRONICLE OF SEVENTY-FIVE YEARS OF UFAW compiled and edited by S.M. Wickens. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, 2001. v + 80 pp., paperback. ISBN 190063001X. Available from the publishers (UFAW, The Old School, Brewhouse Hill, Wheathampstead, Hertfordshire AL4 8AN, U.K.), price £5.00.
UFAW has always been one of my favourite charities. Its promotion of higher standards in zoos will be familiar to most readers of I.Z.N. from our reports on its annual zoo animal welfare awards and the summaries, in our Recent Articles section, of papers published in its journal Animal Welfare (see, e.g., pp. 249 and 253, below). But UFAW's concern with zoos is only one small aspect almost a sideline of its activities as a whole. Working in the words of its founder Major Charles Hume with `a maximum of sympathy but a minimum of sentimentality', it has promoted rigorous, scientifically-based investigations into all aspects of animal welfare, and has maintained a steady influence for improved conditions wherever human activities impinge on the lives of animals in the laboratory and on the farm, in our homes and in the wild.
Science in the Service of Animal Welfare consists principally of a decade-by-decade chronicle from the charity's founding (originally as the University of London Animal Welfare Society) in 1926 to the present day. It is almost a history of British animal welfare legislation as well, for this has often followed UFAW's recommendations. The process, though, is often a depressingly long one for example, a campaign begun in 1929 against the use of the gin (steel jaw) trap for controlling wild rabbits eventually led to the outlawing of these hideous contraptions, but not until 1958 (in England and Wales) and 1973 (in Scotland). UFAW's concern with the conditions under which farm animals are transported dates back to 1948; there has been some improvement since then, but there's still a long way to go.
It was an eye-opener to me to read just how varied UFAW's interests have been, from the painless killing of crabs and lobsters to the prevention of foot-rot in sheep, from the care of animals kept in school biology departments to the humane control of feral cat populations. Its activities have not been confined to Britain recent examples of overseas work include a grant for construction of suspended bridges to enable colobus monkeys in Kenya to cross busy roads in safety, and a study of the welfare aspects of the sustainable use of wild vicuñas in Chile.
Zoo-related items are scattered through Science in the Service of Animal Welfare. As early as 1970, the charity became an official advisor to the National Zoo Association (a forerunner of the Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland). In 1980 it contributed to the preparation of the City and Guilds correspondence course on zoo animal management, which has since played an important part in the training of a generation of British keepers, and it was closely involved in preparing the government's Standards of Modern Zoo Practice, issued in 1981, and their revision in 1999. In 1986 UFAW supported and coordinated a study in Sri Lanka into the reproductive cycles of Asian elephants, with a view to improving the breeding success of the species in captivity (see T.B. Poole et al., Int. Zoo Yearbook 35, 297310), in 1987 it funded a programme of research into environmental enrichment under Dr David Shepherdson at the Zoological Society of London, and in 1989 it promoted research by Alison Ames into the welfare of polar bears in zoos, which ultimately led to her book The Management and Behaviour of Captive Polar Bears (reviewed in I.Z.N. 48:5, pp. 3134).
I must close by briefly mentioning the clever little line drawings which have been a running motif of UFAW publications for many years. These were the work of Kenneth Bird, who was closely involved with the charity, latterly as its chairman, for more than 30 years. His amazingly economical and witty cartoons, published under the name `Fougasse', were a familiar feature of British life, especially in the pages of Punch, before, during and after World War II. UFAW is lucky to own many of these sketches, and wise to continue to use them.
THE FIRST HUNDRED YEARS. NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS OF SOUTH AFRICA by P. and I. Van den Berg and P. Hopkins. Zoroaster, Centurion (South Africa), 2000. 196 pp., size 33.5 ´ 24.5 cm, hardback. ISBN 0620266708. Price c. euros 26.
The National Zoological Gardens of South Africa in Pretoria was one hundred years old in 1999. This book by Philip and Ingrid Van den Berg (photographers) and Pat Hopkins (a professional writer) has now become available, and it looks magnificent. The photographs in colour are superb in all respects. Admittedly photographic opportunities in zoological gardens are endless, but in this case the Van den Berg couple have indeed shown their professionalism. Their pictures are the backbone of the book and there are some choice ones here. It is difficult to select examples and everyone will have his or her favourite. I was particularly struck by the black lemurs (Eulemur macaco) on a black background on p. 102, a very clever picture; there is also a particularly good photo of Geoffroys cat (Oncifelis geoffroyi) on p. 92. There are so many photographic highlights in the book that the few blatant omissions seem insignificant. There is not a single photo of a fish, only one of an aquatic amphibian (an albino axolotl), while aquarium scenes as such are conspicuous by their absence odd indeed, because the Pretoria establishment has a comprehensive aquarium. The limited number of historical photos (a total of 25) are very appropriately printed in sepia. So much for the illustrations.
Unfortunately the text of the book falls short of expectations. This appears not to be a historical treatise and, indeed does not claim to be. However, the title of the book leads one to expect at least some historical data. Alas, a mere 40 pages are devoted to the history of this particular zoo, reflected as the periods of tenure of the five directors, i.e. Dr. J.W.B. Gunning (18991913), Dr. A.K. Haagner (19141926), Dr. R. Bigalke (19271962), Dr. F. Brand (19621984), and W. Labuschagne (1985 to date). Fortunately there are portraits of all the directors, but the accompanying text is extremely limited because of, again, the liberal use of photo illustration. The number of pages of text on the history of the zoo (with space for illustrations subtracted) finally amounts to about 15.
After the eight introductory/historical chapters, the present zoo is described following eleven trails, each encompassing different parts of the large grounds this is the part where the colour plates come to the fore. Finally, limited attention is paid to the two separate breeding centres in Potgietersrus and Lichtenburg.
There is a tiny bibliography at the bottom of the second page, which, however, omits the one relevant title: R. Bigalke, 1954, The National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, 117 pp., illus., plan, Central News Agency (Johannesburg). This is a valuable and detailed treatise on the history of Pretoria Zoo up to the early 1950s by its at that time most influential director. I also happen to be the happy possessor of a well-illustrated thesis for the degree of M.A. (History) at Pretoria University: J.M.M. Oberholster, 1992, `Die geskiedenis van die Nasionale Dieretuin van Suid-Afrika, Pretoria, 1899-1984.' Unfortunately Mrs Johett Oberholster's thesis is written in Afrikaans (the summary in English barely amounts to two pages) and officially unpublished (a limited edition of perhaps at most ten copies).
I was a frequent visitor to Pretoria Zoo in the period 19581966, and since then have continued to visit it every few years. This particular zoological garden is very dear to my heart and I feel that up to a point the present book does not fully do justice to this important establishment with its long and sometimes turbulent history. Nevertheless, I treasure this treatise because of its stunning colour plates. At its price (about £16 or $24) it is certainly far from expensive.
A.C. van Bruggen
COLLINS TRAVELLER'S GUIDE: WILDLIFE OF INDIA by Mark F. Tritsch. HarperCollins, 2001. 192 pp., paperback. ISBN 0007110626. £14.99.
Even today, India is home to a remarkable variety of animal and plant species, and it is an increasingly popular destination for tourists, for many of whom the wildlife provides the main or only object of their visit. Mark Tritsch's compact little volume would be an ideal pocket guide for any intelligent but non-specialist visitor to the country.
Introductory sections set the scene by outlining the geography, climate and natural vegetation types, followed by descriptions of the various biogeographical regions. A useful essay on `Nature and the Indian way of life' fills in the human side of the picture, with notes on such topics as Indian attitudes to wildlife, the place of animals in the Hindu religion, the tribal peoples and domestic livestock.
Species descriptions follow, of trees and shrubs, butterflies, reptiles, birds and mammals. These are, inevitably, limited in number, and hence selected largely on the criterion of being the ones which `an observant visitor has a good chance of seeing.' A few rare or endangered animals are added, however, principally those which can be seen in one or other of the major national parks for example, lion, dhole, rhino, blackbuck, arni or wild water buffalo, and chinkara gazelle (Gazella bennetti in the Red Book listing, but here described as G. gazella). The birds show a bias towards the larger, more conspicuous species; the plants include some which are not native to India, but which are so widespread that visitors can hardly miss seeing them, such as tamarind and jacaranda. The photos, though small, are well-chosen and clear, and the species information goes into more detail than is usual in guidebooks. It's interesting to read, for example, that rhesus macaques sometimes `assault human beings to steal their spectacles, only returning them in exchange for food.'
To complete the book, there are accounts, with maps, of 12 of the best-known national parks or sanctuaries, and a list of 35 more giving locations and species of special interest.
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Egg produced by released California condors
A California condor egg was found on 18 February in the Ventura County backcountry, southern California, by biologists investigating nest caves in a remote canyon. It was the first wild egg of the 2002 breeding season and only the third confirmed egg-laying by California condors raised in captivity and released into the wild. The egg was produced by a pair released seven years ago when they were both a year old. The same pair were part of a trio that laid two eggs last year in Santa Barbara County. One egg died; the other hatched but the chick died.
Experts initially intended to improve the egg's chances by removing it for incubation at a zoo and then returning it for hatching, but the male bird defended the nest and refused to give way, which was viewed as a sign that he was committed to caring for his offspring.
There are now 64 condors living in the wild in California and Arizona, 18 in field pens awaiting release and 100 in captivity at Los Angeles Zoo, San Diego Wild Animal Park and the Peregrine Fund's World Center for Birds of Prey in Boise, Idaho.
Associated Press (4 March 2002)
Adopting wild hornbills
As part of its plan to become more involved in conservation and research, the Avicultural Society has adopted a pair of bushy-crested hornbills (Anorrhinus galeritus) in Thailand. It has done so through the Hornbill Research Foundation (HRF) in Bangkok, which administers this very successful project in and around Budo-Sungai Padi National Park in the south of the country.
Local villagers, some of whom may have been poachers who sold hornbill chicks in the past, receive payment for protecting the nests and collecting valuable data for HRF researchers. Following the breeding season, the nesting results are sent to each individual donor. They also receive photos of their hornbill or hornbills at the nest, a photo of the villager who observed their particular family and photos of some of the food items that the male hornbill brought to the nest. One hundred per cent of the money donated goes into a special fund to pay the villagers for their assistance.
Further information about the HRF and its nest adoption programme can be found by visiting the Coraciiformes TAG website (www.coraciiformestag.com) and clicking on to the link to the HRF.
Kakapo breeding breakthrough
The world's rarest parrot, the kakapo (Strigops habroptilus), is experiencing a breeding boom. The New Zealand Department of Conservation (DoC) announced on 18 February that 18 females were incubating 52 eggs more than half of them thought to be fertile on Whenua Hou, a small island off the coast of South Island. Within the next two weeks seven chicks hatched, a major boost for a species whose total population had previously been only 62. Rats were eradicated on Whenua Hou in 1999, making the island one of the safest environments for the birds.
The kakapos are also thriving this year because the rimu trees on the island are bearing abundant fruit. The rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum) is an important food source for young kakapos, but it has had only three good seasons in the last decade. Even so, the DoC is taking no chances. Each kakapo is fitted with a radio transmitter, and their nests will be monitored by infra-red cameras throughout the breeding season. While the females forage, warming pads are placed over the eggs and nestlings; and any chicks which are neglected or become ill will be removed from the nests and hand-reared by DoC staff.
European zoos help to house confiscated turtles
Following last December's seizure of thousands of Asian turtles in Hong Kong (see I.Z.N. 49:2, pp. 9899), 988 of the animals were flown to the Netherlands on 17 January 2002 to be placed in European zoos. The species and numbers involved were as follows: 285 Amboina box turtle (Cuora amboinensis), 126 giant river turtle (Orlitia borneensis), 283 spiny turtle (Heosemys spinosa), 90 giant Asian pond turtle (Heosemys grandis), and 204 black marsh turtle (Siebenrockiella crassicollis).
On arrival, most of the turtles were in sufficiently good condition to travel onwards to their various destinations. However, the giant river turtles were in too bad a condition to do so, and it had been decided that all 126 of them would initially stay in Rotterdam Zoo and Burgers' Zoo, where they could be provided with intensive veterinary treatment and nursed back to good health before travelling on. Both zoos had prepared large quarantine facilities for these big animals. Several days were spent weighing, measuring and X-raying all individuals. This procedure showed that many of them had fish hooks in their bodies; some of these could be surgically removed, but others could not be reached (a turtle is not an easy animal to operate on, as one can imagine!) and had to be left inside, with the hope that they would not cause too much damage to the animals.
All zoos that received turtles from this shipment have had to provide substantial veterinary treatment to coax the animals to eat and survive the first few weeks. As expected, there have been losses, but not excessive. The zoos involved are in regular contact, sharing experiences and providing each other with tips on husbandry and medical care.
These populations must of course be optimally managed, and the EAZA Amphibian and Reptile TAG has proposed the setting up of European studbooks for the species involved. EAZA zoos now have, at least for these five species, populations that are sufficiently large to become self-sustaining and serve as a genetic reservoir if any of the species become extinct in the wild (a quite likely scenario for many Asian turtles). Also, these animals can be used as compelling ambassadors for their species in telling the story of the Asian turtle crisis to zoo visitors. Effective means to do this are being explored.
What have been the results of all the effort, time and money invested by so many zoos and individuals involved in this rescue operation? We have shown that we are willing and able to organise a large-scale and complex rescue operation for a large number of animals. And we have given an important signal of support to the authorities in Hong Kong, by aiding them in what has been one of the first large confiscations of illegal animal shipments. Media attention has been extremely good, and has allowed us to broadcast our conservation and education goals. It has been, and still is, an operation that was very demanding in many ways. But it has also been a very rewarding experience for all involved, and has shown us what can be achieved through close cooperation and lots of goodwill.
Abridged from Bart Hiddinga in EAZA News No. 38 (AprilJune 2002)
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Zoos sell endangered species products
Marine souvenirs are still being sold in the gift shops of European zoos and aquaria, including corals, shells, dried starfish and seahorses. Members of EAZA, committed to conservation and education, need to become more responsible and consistent. We cannot present a strong conservation message with the endangered species in our collections if we are still prepared to sell endangered species in our gift shops.
Most marine souvenirs come from coral reefs in developing countries, where the collection and export of corals and shells provide a significant income for some coastal communities. However, the growth and reproductive rates of many species in this trade are poorly understood, few management practices are in place, and trade in many marine curios is carried out on an unsustainable basis. The souvenir trade adds yet another pressure to coral reef systems.
As a result of a growing awareness of conservation issues, the sale of marine curios has come under increasing scrutiny from a more discerning buying public. People are more likely to question the derivation of curio items, and many are reluctant to buy things that they feel might be environmentally unacceptable. Ironically, it seems that as a direct response to these increased concerns about the trade, dealers are beginning to promote the `eco-friendliness' of their stock by putting on labels such as: `These beautiful seashells have been sourced as a by-product from the shellfish industry in the country of origin, where the supply is taken from a carefully monitored sustainable resource.' However, it seems that many of these messages may be misleading, and many traders admit that in most cases insufficient is known about populations and rates of exploitation to substantiate the claims.
The Marine Conservation Society (www.mcsuk.mcmail.com) published a booklet entitled The Marine Curio Trade: Conservation Guidelines and Legislation (1991). It lists the species (turtles, giant clams, queen conch) which can be traded only with a licence because they are listed in CITES, and discusses a range of other items that are sold, from stuffed fish to dried sponges. This booklet is now being updated, in conjunction with a survey on the use of marine curios in the U.K.
Heather Hall, Zoological Society of London, and Elizabeth Wood, Marine Conservation Society, in EAZA News No. 38 (AprilJune 2002)
Effects of foot-and-mouth disease on Dutch zoos
A press release earlier this year showed that zoos in the Netherlands (total population c. 16 million) had a total of 9.85 million visitors in 2001. This was 3% fewer than in 2000. Many zoos suffered the effects of the foot-and-mouth epidemic. Some were closed for a shorter or longer period, although fortunately in only one case (Wissel Zoo, Epe) a very limited number of cloven-hoofed ungulates had to be destroyed. Surprisingly, three establishments (among them Rotterdam Zoo) drew more visitors than in the year before, which was probably due to the opening of new features (e.g. Rotterdam's Oceanium).
A.C. van Bruggen
Sloth bears in European zoos
The majority of the 25 captive sloth bears in the EEP belong to the Indian subspecies (Melursus u. ursinus); only five are of the Sri Lankan subspecies (M. u. inornatus). When the EAZA Bear TAG discussed the future of the Sloth Bear EEP last September, particular points of attention were:
the high inbreeding coefficient and the fact that few founder animals exist in the European population;
overcrowding of sloth bears in European zoos according to the TAG's minimum standards of living space;
the fact that reportedly the Sloth Bear SSP has decided to manage the two subspecies in the North American captive population as one.
In view of these bleak prospects the suggestion was made at a subsequent Sloth Bear EEP meeting to follow the Bear TAG recommendation to downgrade the EEP to an ESB (European studbook), and to consider the two sloth bear subspecies present in the EEP as one population. The resulting ESB population could serve educational and research purposes, particularly by establishing close links with in situ projects.
Most participants at the meeting, however, favoured continuing EEP management at subspecies level. The main reasons for this were:
without an `EEP signature', prospective and even current holders might abandon sloth bears in their future collection plans altogether. Non-EEP species are considered less interesting for zoos for obvious reasons, but also vis-à-vis the anti-zoo lobby;
relinquishing the subspecies concept would for ever forfeit the chances for reintroduction, however remote these may be.
For the Sloth Bear EEP to be continued as such, several steps need to be taken. Breeding needs to be suspended and additional imports into the EEP should be halted until more space is available. Good-quality bear enclosures are described in the 1998 EAZA Bear TAG husbandry guidelines. Prospective holders may not be aware of the possibilities of non-traditional enclosures (electric or chain-link fencing) that are relatively easy and inexpensive to construct, making appropriate holding conditions for this species possible.
Sloth bears are fun! They are inquisitive and very active. The way the mother carries her cubs on her back is endearing to all visitors. Despite their tropical origins, sloth bears can be seen almost all year round in their outside enclosure, at least in Amsterdam.
More zoos than the present six (Amsterdam, Frankfurt, Berlin Zoo, Leipzig, London and Moscow) need to be found that are willing to include this highly attractive species in their collections. Only then can necessary imports from other zoos or range countries take place to make the population genetically healthy again, under acceptable living conditions. European zoos looking for an attractive bear to add to their collection should contact Artis Zoo (email@example.com) or the EAZA Bear TAG (firstname.lastname@example.org), who will be happy to provide all necessary information.
Abridged from Hans van Weerd (Artis Zoo, Amsterdam) in EAZA News No. 38 (AprilJune 2002)
The Asian ivory trade investigated
The charity Save the Elephants has published an in-depth survey, The South and South East Asian Ivory Markets by Esmond Bradley Martin and Daniel Stiles (88 pp., paperback. ISBN 9966968326). Based on fieldwork carried out in 20002001, the report reveals a catastrophic decline in wild elephant numbers in this area, largely due to the trade in ivory. None of the governments concerned exercises proper legal control of the trade, and officials take bribes to allow ivory to enter and leave their countries. I.Z.N. readers may obtain copies of the report at no cost on request from: Esmond Bradley Martin, P.O. Box 54667, Nairobi, Kenya.
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INTERNATIONAL ZOO NEWS
Belfast Zoo, Northern Ireland, U.K.
Very few EAZA zoos have bred Malayan tapirs in recent years, so the population of this EEP-managed species is declining in Europe. Belfast Zoo's pair has been relatively successful. The breeding female was born at Toronto Zoo and arrived in Belfast in October 1994 at two years of age. The male, born at Milwaukee Zoo in 1990, arrived from Mulhouse Zoo in 1995. Their first calf was a premature male infant born in September 1995. Their second, a female, was born in December 1996; she was successfully parent-reared and was sent to Toronto in December 1998. Their third calf, also a female, was born in March 2000. Due to poor weather, mother and calf spent some time shut indoors in heated stables when the calf was about two weeks old. The calf died suddenly, aged 29 days, from pneumonia and septicaemia, without having shown any apparent signs of ill health.
The fourth calf, another female, was born on 4 June 2001. We adopted a more robust approach to the early management of the mother and calf, and they were never shut indoors. While they still had access to a heated stable, we allowed for constant circulation of fresh air via open doors to ensure adequate ventilation. Regular health checks by our consultant veterinary surgeon also ensured we were able to closely monitor the calf's health. She was separated from her mother for short periods each day from September to allow the adult pair to be mixed, and mating was observed in October. The calf continues to enjoy good health and will shortly be transferred to another zoo in accordance with EEP recommendations.
Abridged from Mark Challis in EAZA News No. 38 (AprilJune 2002)
Blackpool Zoo, U.K.
The zoo has won a Zoo Animal Welfare Award in the annual competition run by the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW). The prize was awarded for the `Gorilla Mountain' exhibit [see I.Z.N. 47 (6), pp. 3967], which was judged to have best promoted natural behaviour, high standards of animal welfare and public understanding of animal needs. In the new exhibit, the zoo has provided its gorillas with more space, better views, and greater opportunities for exploration. This has been achieved by linking an island to their existing gorilla enclosure by means of a causeway with externally-operated gates. Small glades among the dense bushes and thickets on the island provide the animals with opportunities for seclusion; the indoor accommodation is also designed to provide some escape from the constant gaze of the public. In addition to these benefits for the animals, the zoo has provided good information about gorillas and their conservation for their visitors; this can be found in the huts from which Gorilla Mountain can be viewed.
Blackpool Zoo press release, 18 April 2002
Brevard Zoo, Melbourne, Florida, U.S.A.
A female Baird's tapir was born at the zoo on 3 March to nine-year-old mother Josephine, on loan from Virginia Zoological Park, and ten-year-old father Pee Wee, on loan from Miami MetroZoo. She weighed 26 pounds at birth and is the fourth offspring of this pair since their arrival at Brevard in 1995. Contessa, as she has been named by keepers, is one of very few female Baird's tapirs born in captivity in recent years, making her an important addition to the cooperative breeding program. Both mother and infant are doing well.
This is the second endangered species to be born at Brevard Zoo since it opened in 1994; last year seven red wolves were successfully reared.
AZA Communiqué (May 2002), with additional material from Florida Today (6 March 2002)
Calgary Zoo, Canada
The zoo recently announced the birth of a pygmy slow loris, the culmination of breeding efforts by the Crystal Garden Conservation Center in Victoria, British Columbia, and the Kadoorie Farm and Botanical Garden Wild Animal Rescue Center near Hong Kong. Three pairs were imported into Canada after being confiscated from the local market by the Hong Kong Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department and the Hong Kong SPCA. Lorises are commonly hunted in their native habitat of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and southern China, then sold as food or pets in both local and distant markets. Because of the unknown capture locations of the wild-caught animals and the consequent threat of genetic `pollution', they could not be released back into the wild. Both Calgary and Quebec Zoos agreed to participate in the SSP for the species, each accepting one pair of the confiscated specimens. These animals add a valuable new bloodline to the North American zoo population and are considered genetic founders.
AZA Communiqué (May 2002)
Deep Sea World, North Queensferry, Scotland, U.K.
Deep Sea World's `Outreach' programme has been so successful around the local Fife area that the team are now embarking on a nationwide tour of schools around Scotland. Outreach takes a `slice of life' out to groups to create living classrooms and has been phenomenally successful, visiting over 500 schools since the programme started in 2000. The team will take live animals, including small sharks, to schools in Dumfries, Aberdeen, Fort William, Stranraer and Inverness. Children will be able to hold a starfish, touch a spider crab and feel the weight of a shark's jaw. They will also be able to touch a reptile, such as Edna, Deep Sea World's grey rat snake. Education manager Paul Nixon comments: `We are delighted to bring Deep Sea World to schools who otherwise couldn't afford to come to the aquarium. We hope our interactive sessions with live animals such as hermit crabs, sea urchins and starfish will make school more enjoyable for pupils. The outreach team will be covering over 4,000 miles and bringing the programme to thousands of school children.'
Abridged from a Deep Sea World press release
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, Jersey, Channel Islands, U.K.
The Menabe region in western Madagascar is my home away from home. For 16 years I have visited this area and been spellbound by the rich biological bounty of the Kirindy Forest. But times have changed. Where there were trees, there is bare earth. Where there were giant jumping rats, there are empty burrows. Very few flat-tailed tortoises now awake to munch on mushrooms when the wet season come. Our efforts at Jersey Zoo to breed and understand these Menabe animals are critical to the species' survival.
In 1990 we brought five giant jumping rats (Hypogeomys antimena) to Jersey to develop a `recipe' for breeding them. When we successfully bred them in captivity in 1991 we were the first in the world to do so. Many of the precious animals bred in Jersey have been exported to zoos elsewhere, so that all our eggs are not kept in one basket, and the genetics of the population can be carefully managed to prevent inbreeding. With wild rat numbers greatly reduced and predicted to fall by a further 80% in the next ten years, a healthy captive population is essential.
Some species are far more difficult to work with in captivity than others. We have kept flat-tailed tortoises or `kapidolo' (Pyxis planicauda) in Ampijoroa since 1989 and in Jersey since 1990, when six tortoises were brought to the zoo. We are able to learn much more about many aspects of this secretive species' biology from these two captive populations than would ever be possible from field studies.
Thanks to support from the British Chelonia Group we were able to create a purpose-built kapidolo breeding room in the zoo. The first baby to be hatched outside Madagascar emerged in 1995, but sadly died. Now, after six years of painstaking research, another baby was hatched in 2001 and is growing well. Five more eggs are now in the incubator, so for the next few months we shall wait with bated breath. . .
Our most exciting development for this year is the conversion of our walled-garden area into a Malagasy centre, where we need to fund specially designed outdoor enclosures. One of these will accommodate some newcomers narrow-striped mongooses (Mungotictis decemlineata), known locally as `boky boky'. Berlin Zoo have the only captive boky boky outside Madagascar, and have recently succeeded in breeding them. We are delighted that Jersey Zoo was their first choice to receive an unrelated pair from their group to breed and study. Like the giant jumping rat and the flat-tailed tortoise, this mongoose is found only in the Menabe forests an area of just 1,000 km2. We will research the behaviour and reproductive strategy of boky boky in the zoo alongside our first field research, to start in the autumn. As always, close comparison of captive and wild information will allow us to develop the most effective conservation methods for this endangered carnivore.
Quentin Bloxam, Zoo Programme Director, in On the Edge No. 92 (May 2002)
Kyiv (Kiev) Zoo, Ukraine
A ground-breaking promotional agreement between the zoo and Nestlé is resulting in increased zoo attendance and additional operating funds, while promoting Nestlé's Nesquik brand milk flavoring. As part of the joint marketing project, the company printed zoo admission tickets, remodelled advertising boards and sponsored five special events during the season, each coinciding with a public holiday. Samples of Nesquik are distributed during the events. Nestlé's advertising for the events resulted in increased attendance, zoo officials said.
The zoo's partnership with Nestlé has led to other corporate partnerships. Coca Cola now sponsors a pair of polar bears, and Kodak a pair of black bears. Sponsoring an animal essentially means footing its annual food bill. Bears can be an expensive proposition at about Hr 25,000 [c. £3,200] each. Less voracious animals, like birds, cost about Hr 5,000 [c. £640] to sponsor. In return, sponsors can place a sign on the cage and may advertise on zoo property. One new sponsor is Nivea, which manufactures cosmetics and skin-care products; the zoo will use its donation to purchase a zebra. Ideally, the zoo would like to find a sponsor for each of its animals.
Kyiv Zoo is primarily financed by the city. The managers hope to transform it into a Western-style zoological park in time for its centenary in 2008. A new open-air enclosure for bears, built with city funds, will open this year.
Kyiv Post website (28 February 2002)
Los Angeles Zoo, California, U.S.A.
Back in 1998, animal keepers and veterinarians began training the zoo's four black rhinos after two of them suffered serious medical problems. It was necessary to give medications, draw blood, and provide fluids intravenously, all without further risking the animals' health by anesthetizing them for each relatively minor procedure. In addition, this training has allowed veterinarian Dr Janna Wynne to treat the animals for a condition shared by all rhinos in captivity: too much iron in the blood.
`When you have overloaded levels of iron it makes you much more prone to infection,' says Dr Wynne. In people, too much iron causes heart failure, it damages the liver, it can wipe out bone marrow. It suppresses the immune system and damages all the organs. And it can have the same effect on a rhinoceros. What causes the problem? In rhinos, diet appears to be the culprit. `In the wild, they eat hundreds of different types of browse,' says animal keeper Nancy Bunn. `They eat a little mouthful of this, a little mouthful of that, and they eat a lot of toxic plants. We can't duplicate a few bites of this and a few bites of that.'
Some zoos are doing dietary studies, and animal feed companies are trying to come up with products to feed to animals with iron overload (a number of bird and primate species suffer from the problem as well). However, it's just not possible to re-create a situation in captivity like the one in the wild. So Dr Wynne is trying another approach to the problem phlebotomy (or `bloodletting', in non-medical parlance), a technique used to treat people who have a genetic disorder that causes iron overload. When you remove blood, red blood cells are decreased and iron is physically removed. The body responds by pulling iron out of the liver, the bone marrow and all the places where it is stored all the trouble areas.
`I want us to give the phlebotomy treatment a serious try,' says Dr Wynne, `although I have some mechanical things to work out.' That means collecting as much blood as possible on a weekly basis, and monitoring red blood cell counts. `Theoretically, if you could do that on a regular basis, somewhere in the six-month range you could actually start looking at changes in iron levels. In people, that's how they correct hemachromatosis, which is the genetic iron uptake disorder they just chronically take blood from them to reduce their iron.'
Abridged from Claire O'Brien in Zoo View Vol. 36, No. 1 (Spring 2002)
Marwell Zoo, U.K.
A successful behavioural enrichment project for the jaguars made use of a hessian sack containing llama and pig faeces fixed high on the trunk of a mature oak tree in their enclosure. The intention was to stimulate the animals' natural instinct to investigate. In captivity there is a lack of information for a cat to receive each day. The smells, sights, sounds, tastes and feelings tend to be the same as a result of the routine which dictates a keeper's day. This type of enrichment offers some novel information which can be detected and analysed by the animal.
The position of the sack was important, in that it had to be in a place where it could easily be noticed by the jaguars (either by sight or smell), but not easily reached for further examination. In this way we hoped to exercise not only instinct, but muscles too.
Although use of the enrichment was dominated somewhat by one of the young males, it still served as a point of interest for the other juvenile male and their mother. Both were interested in reaching the sack themselves, but from different approaches. Jaguars are naturally arboreal and extremely skilled and agile tree climbers, but there has never been any attempt to encourage the young jaguars into the trees of the enclosure. This enrichment provided the motivation that the males needed to begin climbing, and both made a bid for the sack using the `caterpillar' technique to scale the trunk of the tree. The energy expended during this activity must have been quite substantial, and between climbing bouts the animals were seen to lie down and rest, often panting.
Eventually the young male managed to reach the sack. However, his own body mass was too much for him to hold up in this position and he had to drop back down, leaving the sack intact. By then, though, he had had the chance to investigate the scents inside the sack, albeit briefly. This did not deter his efforts; on the contrary, he seemed all the more enthusiastic in his attempts not only to reach the sack, but to be able to manipulate it. The result of this was that he began to try other routes and techniques, which in turn prompted him to use more of his enclosure.
The jaguars began to try to get to the sack using the platforms around the tree. Though this seemed impossible, they discovered that they could get into the actual branches of the tree by jumping from the platforms. They then tried to manoeuvre through the branches to reach the sack. They probably used muscle groups which had previously been under-exercised but which would be used on a day-to-day basis by their wild counterparts. This alone must be beneficial to the body condition of the animals, not to mention their general physical and psychological well-being.
Heidi Mitchell in Marwell Zoo News No. 111 (Summer 2002)
Minnesota Zoo, Apple Valley, Minnesota, U.S.A.
One of the zoo's two Komodo dragons mistook a child's stuffed toy cat, dropped into his exhibit by a young visitor, for part of his scheduled meal. Zoo vets thought the dragon would pass the toy normally with the help of mineral-oil-laced meat loaf, which included barium so that the toy could be located by radiography. After six days, the object still had not passed, so vets anesthetized the dragon and a four-inch [100-mm] PVC pipe was inserted into its throat. An endoscope was used in an attempt to snag the object and remove it. When that proved unsuccessful, head zoo veterinarian Dr Jim Rasmussen double-gloved his arm and wrapped it in duct tape to reach into the dragon's stomach; the toy, which had not been digested, was successfully removed. Both the dragon and Dr Rasmussen are doing well.
AZA Communiqué (April 2002), with additional details from the News-Journal website
Moody Gardens, Galveston, Texas, U.S.A.
Nearly 40 species of frogs will be put on display at the zoo beginning 8 March 2002. The largest frog and toad collection in the country, `Toadally Frogs' comprises 32 exhibits that teach many strange but true facts surrounding frogs and toads. An addition to the `Rainforest Pyramid', the exhibit features monkey frogs (Phyllomedusa spp.), tree frogs, tomato frogs, golden frogs and Texas toads, among others. In conjunction with Toadally Frogs, Moody Gardens will present `Epiphyte Extravaganza', an exhibit focusing on orchids, bromeliads and pitcher plants, allowing guests to experience a sensational ensemble of biodiversity as they discover how exotics have adapted to life in rainforests around the world.
AZA Communiqué (March 2002)
National Marine Aquarium, Plymouth, Devon, U.K.
In March, one of the world's biggest windows was hoisted into place in the aquarium, forming a key part of a four-million-pound extension. It took a whole morning to lower the 30-foot [9-m], four-ton acrylic pane into position at the base of a 10.5-metre tank, the deepest in Europe. Visitors will walk underneath the four-inch-thick [100-mm] window, looking up at 2.5 million litres of water on the far side of the pane.
The new window proved to be a perfect fit. Ricky Tertstra of the manufacturers, Reynolds Polymer Technology, Colorado, said: `There's only three companies in the world that can make acrylic panels to that size.' When asked how long it will last, he had a very simple answer: `Forever. It's plastic. Unless it gets damaged, then it would have to be repaired.' But there was no damage whilst the window was being put in place. Something else that went smoothly was the craning in of some exhibits that will stand alongside the new tank life-sized working models of whales. Real sea creatures will follow, and the extension to the National Marine Aquarium could be open to visitors by late May.
Oregon Zoo, Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.
The zoo's resident sea otter Thelma recently underwent surgery, receiving the world's first reversible contraceptive implant on a female southern sea otter. Dr Michael Murray, an aquatic mammal veterinarian with extensive experience operating on sea otters at the Monterey Bay Aquarium, performed the surgery. The procedure involved placing a small, time-released contraceptive between the otter's body wall and skin in the lower abdomen area. A protective fat pad near the otter's right rear leg is suitable for the surgery, and otters tend to groom their lower abdomen less actively, reducing the risk of infection. Of the surgeries Dr Murray has performed in this area, none of the otters have shown post-operative problems.
Thelma was originally found stranded on a California beach as an infant and was rehabilitated at Monterey Bay Aquarium. After she showed significant weight loss during two attempts to release her, she was deemed unable to survive in the wild and arrived at Oregon Zoo with her mate Eddie in the summer of 2000. Thelma and Eddie's first pup, Oz, was the first southern sea otter to be conceived, born and raised in a zoo or aquarium.
Oregon Zoo and Monterey Bay Aquarium are partners in a conservation program to ensure the continued survival of the southern sea otter through rehabilitation and research.
AZA Communiqué (April 2002)
Pittsburgh Zoo, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Chuckles, the oldest Amazon river dolphin to live in captivity in North America, died on 20 February; he was in his 30s. The spirited and mischievous dolphin was a natural ambassador for the zoo's new aquarium, which opened in 2000 and gave him a new, spacious habitat nearly three times the size of his former tank. Visitors were often treated to a display of more than 30 behaviors that he routinely worked on with his trainers.
One of the oldest residents of the zoo, Chuckles received visitors with an enigmatic smile, hovering playfully in the bottle-green water. He was doing well in the new exhibit until two weeks before his death. He died during a physical examination by veterinarians to help discover the cause of a general malaise and loss of appetite. `We really didn't know he was dying,' says the zoo's director, Dr Barbara Baker. `He would go on and off food for periods throughout his life, when he would eat three fish one day and 15 fish the next day. We were hoping that was the case.' Preliminary examinations by veterinarians revealed kidney problems, for which he had a history.
Chuckles, who came to the zoo from Colombia in 1970, was estimated to be between 34 and 36 years old; previously, the oldest living Amazon dolphin in captivity was 18. Chuckles gained some notoriety in 1996 when he bit a woman's hand when she reached over to pet him. He released her hand after her male companion poked him with an umbrella. Chuckles was not injured in the incident.
The zoo has no plans to obtain another specimen of this highly endangered species.
Tribune-Review (21 February 2002), with additional details from the Pittsburgh Zoo website
Randers Regnskov Tropical Zoo, Denmark
At our zoo shop visitors can purchase wooden souvenirs carved by Nyoman Viravan from Bali. He sustains his family by making these wood carvings and then selling them to tourists or exporting them to Denmark and the U.S.A. The wood is purchased at the lumberyard as whole trunks. He tells me it is expensive so he uses every bit to make the most of it.
When plant material is processed in this manner close to the place of origin, by local independent craftsmen the earnings benefit the local people and not some large corporation. To pass on this message we have invited Nyoman to Randers Regnskov, where he has practised his craft. His products are sold with a certificate in the shop. Furthermore, as he is English-speaking, visitors have had the opportunity to explore his world through talking to him.
In our rainforest domes butterflies roam. The pupae are purchased from dealers and breeders from around the world. I have visited these breeders on a couple of occasions, and found that the axis for their production is an understanding of the environment from which they harvest their breeding stock of butterflies. In Costa Rica these local butterfly farmers often work part-time as wildlife guards. The surplus pupae are hatched out and the butterflies euthanised for the trade. So as well as purchasing live pupae, we also sell the framed by-product in our shop. It is our belief that both of these activities are beneficial for local understanding and conservation initiatives.
Henrik Herold in EAZA News No. 38 (AprilJune 2002)
Riverbanks Zoological Park, Columbia, South Carolina, U.S.A.
It has been over two years since the old elephant exhibit was closed as part of the Zoo's 2002 Expansion Project. The opening of the new African elephant exhibit in `Ndoki Forest' marks the completion of that project, which included expansions and renovations of more than 50% of the zoo grounds. Two of Riverbanks' three female elephants have been together for several years, and the third joined the herd just over a year ago. The new exhibit includes a half-acre [0.2 ha] yard, a pool, and a barn designed to hold up to four elephants. The barn is also equipped to hold a bull elephant, a future consideration for the zoo.
Thanks to the efforts of South Carolina governor Jim Hodges and his Australian sister-state counterpart, premier Peter Beattie of Queensland, Riverbanks has received two male koalas, expected to be put on display in March 2002. The two came with the Australians' help from Hirakawa Zoo, Japan, who received their original koalas 16 years ago. Several other species will share the new `Koala Knockabout' complex, including parma wallabies, water dragons and bearded dragons. An Australian fishes exhibit will feature rainbowfish, forktails and freshwater gobies, while red, rainbow, dusky, green-naped and Edwards's lorikeets will fill an adjacent aviary.
Births and hatchings during the period January to April 2002 were as follows: 2 parma wallaby, 3 wart hogs (1 DNS), 5 black-necked swan, 3 blue-winged leafbird (2 DNS), 1 pink-necked fruit dove, 3 Bali mynah, 1 fairy bluebird, 1 barn owl, 3 Henkel's leaf-tailed gecko, 2 blue-crowned motmot.
In addition to the 2.0 koalas, the following were acquired during the same period: 2.2 parma wallaby, 0.2 South African lion, 1.3 African penguin, 5 red lory, 1 Swainson's lory, 1 Edwards's lory, 1.3 water dragon, 4 frilled lizard, 1.3 common agama, 3 Blue Mountain Swainson's lorikeet, 3 violet-naped lory, 1 dusky lory, 1 ornate lory, 6 green-naped lorikeet, 3 Asian leaf-nosed snake (Rhynchophis boulengeri), 1 West African green mamba, 0.1 scarlet kingsnake, 1 ocellated mountain viper.
On 10 May 2002 the Collection Manager, Alan Shoemaker, is retiring after 30 years at Riverbanks. He plans to keep busy doing more work with the Felid and other TAGS, various IUCN specialist groups and AZA committees.
AZA Communiqué (March 2002) and Alan H. Shoemaker
San Antonio Zoo, Texas, U.S.A.
The zoo's mammal keepers regularly file male hippo Tumbo's tusks to keep them from growing too long, using a very large `dental float' (the same thing that's used to file horses' teeth) on a pole. Filing a hippo's tusks isn't unheard of in a zoo environment, but it's certainly not the norm, either. About four years ago, keepers noticed that Tumbo's tusks were beginning to get too long to fit comfortably in his mouth when it closed (there is a cavity in the roof of a hippo's mouth that the tusks fit into). Our staff decided that removing the tusks was not an option, so we proceeded with the filing procedure.
After building a chute for Tumbo to stand in during the procedure, we used operant conditioning with positive reinforcement to teach him to go into the chute and respond to hand signals to open his mouth. We began to file his tusks with a tool called a rasp, but as this was not making a lot of progress on shortening the tusks, we switched to using the float in 2001. In the past eight months, we've made significant progress.
The keepers try to file a little off Tumbo's tusks a few times per week, but it is up to the hippo how long he will allow them to work. His mood and whether or not he is distracted determines the amount of time the keepers have. At certain times Tumbo will allow them to file for up to 20 minutes, but other times only for a short while.
The process of maintaining Tumbo's tusk length is continuous and one that requires a watchful eye and patience. This task has now become routine for the keepers, but it's also a time of close interaction and a form of enrichment for him.
Rhiannon Gordon in Wild Times (April 2002)
St Louis Zoo, Missouri, U.S.A.
It is a serious challenge to find food for captive orang-utans that contains as much structural fiber as the items consumed by their free-ranging counterparts. Orangs possess a voluminous colon, which houses a large number of bacteria capable of breaking down and utilizing the fiber components. In return, the bacteria secrete volatile fatty acids, which the animal absorbs and uses as a source of energy. Many herbivorous mammals obtain a significant proportion of their energy through this process.
Captive orang-utans are often fed primate biscuits and fruit and vegetable produce. The primate biscuits are limited in fiber, due to the manufacturing process. The readily available produce items fed are cultivated for human preferences and are typically lower in structural fiber and higher in sugar than food items selected by free-ranging orangs. Assisted by funding from the Missouri Soybean Merchandising Council and with the cooperation of St Louis Zoo, I started a research project to investigate ways to enhance the fiber content of the diet of captive orang-utans to near that of the wild population.
Since biscuits are low in fiber, a new format had to be implemented. Purina Mills manufacture a diet gel, which we used to hold fibrous items, such as soybean hulls and ground corncobs, in suspension. Four different gel diets were used in the orang-utan study, differing in fiber level or type. The orangs were capable of breaking down a significant proportion of the dietary fiber, comparable to fiber degradation by horses and cattle. By feeding diets higher in fiber and lower in readily available sugars, we may be able to decrease the incidences of obesity, and possibly diabetes, occurring in captive primates.
Deb Schmidt, Ph.D. student, University of Missouri Columbia, in Zudus Vol. 17, No. 2 (March/April 2002)
San Diego Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species (CRES), California, U.S.A.
On 2 October 2001, the CRES Ecology and Applied Conservation Division welcomed the hatching of four Anegada iguanas (Cyclura pinguis). Five fertile and two infertile eggs were laid on 21 July, weighing an average of 70 grams each. Average egg length and width were 6.4 and 4.2 cm. After 90 to 93 days of incubation at 30° C, the hatchlings emerged weighing an average of 51.6 g, with snoutvent lengths averaging 9.5 cm.
Anegada iguanas are considered critically endangered by IUCN, with fewer than 30 animals remaining in the wild. Introduced predators feed on hatchlings, while feral hoofed stock compete with iguanas for food. CRES and the IUCN Iguana Specialist Group have been working together with the British Virgin Islands National Parks Trust since 1997 to establish a management plan for the species in situ. Our work includes a successful headstarting program on Anegada that is currently rearing more than 80 juveniles for eventual repatriation to the wild. CRES is currently the only institution worldwide to hold the species in captivity, and this breeding in San Diego represents the first captive reproduction of Anegada iguanas in a zoological facility. Establishing a captive population of these animals provides an important safeguard against extinction in the wild and has been identified as a priority in the recovery of the species.
Jeff Lemm, Research Animal Coordinator, in CRES Report (Spring 2002)
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde, Germany
On 6 December 2001 new enclosures for birds of prey and owls were opened at the Tierpark. Six dome-shaped aviaries for birds of prey were built, each with an area of 100 m2 and a height of 5.5 m. They contain natural ground, pools, trees to perch in, and nesting places. Natural rocks (granite, porphyry, sandstone) form the back walls. On show in the aviaries are sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), bald eagles (H. leucocephalus), Steller's sea eagles (H. pelagicus), bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus), Bonelli's hawk-eagles (Hieraeetus fasciatus), and grey eagle-buzzards (Geranoaetus melanoleucus). A three-part aviary for tropical owls was also built. Rusty-barred owls (Strix hylophila), rufous-legged owls (S. rufipes) and oriental bay-owls (Phodilus badius) are the occupants.
Dr Bernhard Blaszkiewitz
Tokyo Sea Life Park, Japan
Even before it opened to the public, one of the park's goals was the cultivation of giant species of seaweed. At the time of opening, an attempt was made to cultivate small and medium species in a 65m3 tank, but not enough fresh sea water and direct sunlight were available, and so we chalked up a history of failures because of the inability to meet the three conditions of water motion, light, and nutrition.
Taking into account these past failures, the tank was rebuilt in February 2000. On the advice of Monterey Bay Aquarium, a piston-type wave machine was constructed. A total of 15.4 kW of lighting with a composition close to that of sunlight supplemented with red light, which has a tendency to be weakened underwater was provided. After construction was completed, the wave machine was adjusted so as to synchronize the waves, and at first only fish were introduced into the tank. After two weeks seaweed from close to the Japanese shore was introduced, and it grew surprisingly well. After eight months of `breaking in' the tank in this way, giant kelp from California, which can reach 50 m in length, was planted in it. It grew very well. Ten or 20 fronds can grow five cm a day, a total of 50100 cm. Thus a plant can achieve a growth of 1530 m a month. Frequent pruning is necessary to keep the fronds from becoming entangled. In nine months a total of 200 m was pruned off, an average of 22 m a month.
Kelp is large and grows fast, so that it uses up the nutrients in the tank at a prodigious rate. Sooner or later some kind of deficiency is bound to occur. This can be overcome by frequent water changes, but there is a limit to how much seawater the park can handle (we can replace no more than 25% of the tank water with fresh seawater every month). It is necessary to supply the deficient elements, but seaweed is much more sensitive to water quality than are fish, so supplementing the necessary elements by rule of thumb is not an option. As a safety measure, it was thus decided to use the pruned fronds and the pieces that fell off naturally as fertilizer. The seaweed itself contains the necessary balance of elements, so if it decays and is dissolved in the water, the elements can be recycled in the right proportions.
Gradually various sea life multiplied in the tank and continually scavenged the dead fronds, to the extent that the filter has not been cleaned in two years, but no problems have arisen. The pH, salinity. NO3-N, PO4-P, iodine, etc., were measured twice a month. In the beginning iodine and manganese were insufficient, but these were added and gradually their values stabilized. But general indicators of water quality such as NO3-N and PO4-P continued to rise even after one year, and silicon and salinity also showed a similar trend. An investigation revealed that the cause of this problem was the tap water that was added regularly to the tank to replace water lost to evaporation. We intend to install a water purifier as soon as possible.
English summary of article in Japanese by Hiroshi Arai, published in Animals and Zoos Vol. 54, No. 4 (April 2002)
Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan
A crested ibis (Nipponia nippon) chick died at the zoo on 5 March. The bird, a female, was being treated at Ueno after suffering a dislocated bone at Sado Crested Ibis Conservation Center on Sadogashima Island. The next day, two other ibis chicks, both male, were sent to China; following a month in a quarantine station, they will be housed in Beijing Zoo. The three chicks were among five born to an ibis, Mei-Mei, who was donated by China last spring. Mei-Mei's mate Yu-Yu is the first crested ibis bred artificially in Japan [see I.Z.N. 48 (3), p. 206 Ed.]. Under an agreement made between the two countries when Mei-Mei was sent to Japan in 2000, China has the right to the chicks from odd-numbered hatches, and these three were the first, third and fifth to hatch.
Xinhua News Agency (5 March 2002)
Whipsnade Wild Animal Park, U.K.
Whipsnade's latest rhino arrival, born on 10 December 2001, entered the record books for being the 50th southern white rhinoceros calf born at the park in just 30 years. She is the second calf born to 11-year-old (and youngest breeding female) Mkumi, and is also the second calf to be born at the park in 2001: a male was born on 22 November. Whipsnade holds the white rhino breeding record in Europe, and worldwide it is only surpassed by San Diego Wild Animal Park.
This birth comes at a time when the EEP is showing an encouraging improvement in the breeding record of this species, which has proved difficult in the past. Second-generation births are still rare, and even with our record we have not yet bred a full second-generation calf, all the sires having been wild-caught males. A reasonable number of Whipsnade-born rhinos have bred, and it is hoped that the latest moves to Givskud Zoo, Denmark, and Boras Zoo, Sweden, will result in a boost to the breeding record in Europe.
Abridged from Nick Lindsay in EAZA News No. 38 (AprilJune 2002)
News in brief
Duke University Primate Center, North Carolina, U.S.A., reports that 2001 was a record year there for aye-aye reproduction. In January Morticia gave birth to her fourth infant conceived in captivity, making her the current champion of the Center's aye-aye mothers. Three more babies arrived later in the year, including the first at Duke to be born to a captive-born female.
Abridged from David Haring in From the Forest (March 2002)
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In May, a female pygmy hippo was confiscated from a private owner in Escondido, California. She is believed to have been living in his backyard for about ten years. Living conditions were inadequate, with no natural shade and no pool big enough for her to bathe. Neighbours had long known she was there, but had never seen her. `I know he used the hippo manure on his garden,' one commented. `It can smell pretty dang bad.' The animal, which is thought to be 12 to 15 years old, was taken to a rehabilitation center in Ramona, before being moved in June to Peace River Wildlife Refuge in Arcadia, Florida, which has other pygmy hippos.
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In March, a 24-year-old giraffe at Taiyuan Zoo, Shanxi, China, gave birth to her ninth baby. Although she seemed exhausted after the delivery, Andan, now the mother of 3.6 offspring, was able to feed and groom the infant, who is doing well despite being born three weeks prematurely. Andan was herself bred at Beijing Zoo in 1978.
Xinhua News Service (9 March 2002)
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One of the Zoological Society of San Diego's conservation gold medals for 2002 has been awarded to Jeremy J.C. Mallinson, who recently retired as director of the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust. Previous recipients of the honour have included Jane Goodall, Sir David Attenborough, Norman Myers, E.O. Wilson and John Aspinall.
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[The April 2002 Zoo Biology (Vol. 21, No. 2) is a special issue on management of duikers in captivity, which grew out of the proceedings of the International Duiker Workshop held at the St Catherines Wildlife Center, Georgia, in March 2000. For summaries of the articles in this issue, see below under Barnes, Bowman, Dierenfeld, Molloy, Plowman, Roeder, Shipley and Willette.]
Allchurch, A.: Multidisciplinary medical management of zoo animals. Dodo Vol. 37 (2001), pp. 8895. [Involvement of professionals from other disciplines in the medical management of health and disease programmes for zoo animals has been accepted practice for many years and has increased the diversity of approaches and solutions to many clinical challenges. Historic records in the archives of Jersey Zoo reveal an increasing dependence on human medical expertise since the earliest days when Gerald Durrell's personal physician was consulted for his opinion on the health of great apes in the zoo. In recent times, access to state-of-the-art medical technologies has greatly enhanced the zoo's diagnostic capability and many major procedures have been completed successfully through the generous services of consultants in human medicine and surgery.]
Baker, W.K.: What can be done to deter or prepare for the terrorist event? (Part 3) Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 29, No. 3 (2002), pp. 102103.
Baker, W.K.: What can be done to deter or prepare for the terrorist event? (Part 4) Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 29, No. 4 (2002), pp. 176177.
Baker, W.K.: A zoo keeper is being attacked in a cat holding area, what would you do? Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 29, No. 5 (2002), pp. 205206.
Baker, W.K., and Mulnix, P.M.: Variations in veterinary record keeping. Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 29, No. 4 (2002), pp. 160165.
Barnes, R., Greene, K., Holland, J., and Lamm, M.: Management and husbandry of duikers at the Los Angeles Zoo. Zoo Biology Vol. 21, No. 2 (2002), pp. 107121. [Los Angeles Zoo has maintained and managed six different species of forest duikers (Cephalophus spp.) since 1975. Over the years they have achieved relative success with the majority of these species, and maximum life span for several of them has increased from less than five years to over eight, and in some cases over ten. However, the maintenance and breeding of these unique and delicate animals has proved to be difficult at best. The major problems that the zoo has experienced concern diet, stress-related medical conditions, neonatal mortality, and postanesthetic pneumonia. As concentrate selectors, duikers have a diet relatively low in fiber, a well-developed ability to forage selectively, a rumen bypass that is functionally important, a rapid passage and high fermentation rate for starch, and frequently encountered toxins. From an examination of the captive diet of duikers it is evident that the domestic fruits fed to duikers in captivity are not well suited for them. Duikers are highly susceptible to the slightest amount of stress. The group size in which duikers are managed has proved to be critical in the successful management of these species. In the earlier years of duiker management at Los Angeles, they often kept five or more animals together in a single exhibit. This would at times result in stress-related jaw abscesses. Group size has since been reduced to no more than three animals in any one exhibit. Since 1977, the zoo has had 92 duiker births. The survival rate past six months of age has been 61%. Of the 36 neonatal deaths, 42% were stillborn or died within a few hours of birth. Hypothermia and maternal neglect have been linked to infant mortality. Duikers are also easily prone to capture myopathy and regurgitation during anesthesia or capture, which can often lead to aspiration pneumonia. If at all possible, capture and restraint of duikers should be avoided., though there are times when capture or restraint (chemical or manual) of a duiker is required. Overall, great strides have been made in duiker management that have led to improved husbandry and maintenance, as well as to the availability of these sensitive animals. These improvements have led animal managers who once ignored these species due to their lack of availability and difficult management to consider them for their collection plans.]
Birke, L.: Effects of browse, human visitors and noise on the behaviour of captive orang utans. Animal Welfare Vol. 11, No. 2 (2002), pp. 189202. [A study of orang-utans at Chester Zoo, U.K., addressed two questions: what is the effect of the presence of fresh browse on the animals' behaviour, and what is the effect of the presence of visitors? Analysis of the animals' time budgets indicated that provision of browse led to a decrease in the time spent sitting inactive by both adults and infants, and an increase in the time spent by adults foraging for small food items in the woodchip floor-covering beneath the branches of browse. The time-budget data also showed differences in the animals' behaviour between periods when large groups of visitors arrived and other periods on the same days when visitors were fewer. Specifically, adults used available paper sacks to cover their heads more during periods of high visitor density, and infants held onto adults more. The second part of the study comprised an experiment in which visitor behaviour was manipulated. Visitor groups of similar sizes were asked to behave either quietly or noisily (making vocal noise), in order to determine whether the observed effects of visitors were attributable to group size or to the fact that larger groups tend to be noisier. The experiment indicated that the animals responded particularly to noise: when confronted with noisy groups, all animals looked more at the visitors, and infants approached and held onto adults more. The findings suggest that zoo managers may need to take visitor behaviour into account in order to promote orang-utan welfare.]
Bourou, R., Tiandray, H., Razandrimamilafiniarivo, O.C., Bekarany, E., and Durbin, J.: Comparative reproduction in wild and captive female ploughshare tortoises Geochelone yniphora. Dodo Vol. 37 (2001), pp. 7079. [The ploughshare tortoise, the most threatened endemic tortoise in Madagascar, is only found in five fragmented sites in Baly Bay National Park, north-western Madagascar. It has an estimated population of about 600 individuals, who are threatened by frequent bush fires. Field research was undertaken from 1993, and a captive-breeding centre was established at Ampijoroa Forestry Station in September 1986 through collaboration between the then Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust and the Government of Madagascar, to provide a `safety net' and to prepare for potential future reinforcement of the wild population. The present study compared reproduction in adult females from the wild and captive populations. The mean number of nests per female per year was much higher in captivity (5.6, compared with 2.1 in the wild). The mean fertility rate in the wild (68.5%) was marginally higher than at Ampijoroa (67.2%), and also slightly less variable between females and between years. In the wild mean hatchability was 77.4%, whereas in captivity it was 71.1%, with greater variability between years and females. The nesting period was longer in captivity, from December to July, whereas all wild nestings observed occurred from January to June. Fertility rate and hatching success at both sites were lower in the early months of the nesting season, suggesting that, for both wild and captive females, early nesters have lower reproductive output. Despite lower average fertility rates and hatching success, 278% more tortoises would be produced in captivity than in the wild in ten female-years due to the higher production of nests and eggs. Techniques such as bringing adults into captivity for a period to boost their reproductive output could therefore be beneficial components of a metapopulation management strategy for this species.]
Bowden, C.G.R., Fenton, C., Gray, G.A., Mackley, E., Hilton, G.M., and Atkinson, P.W.: The Montserrat oriole: in trouble again. Dodo Vol. 37 (2001), p. 100. [Icterus oberi.]
Bowman, V., and Plowman, A.: Captive duiker management at the Duiker and Mini-Antelope Breeding and Research Institute (Dambari), Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Zoo Biology Vol. 21, No. 2 (2002), pp. 161170. [The Dambari Field Station, owned and run by the Marwell Zimbabwe Trust, holds a unique collection of seven duiker species. Health and breeding records are good, with annual birth rates of approximately 50% for those species for which there are breeding pairs. There are no indications of recurrent disease syndromes, and regular health checks reveal very few endo- or ectoparasites. Blood values for hematology and chemistry are within ranges found in free-living conspecifics, with the exception of serum albumin, which is considerably lower than values found in all comparable species. Serum albumin levels are also lower than those reported in other captive duikers, whereas serum globulin and hemoglobin are substantially higher. Naturally vegetated duiker enclosures and non-intrusive husbandry routines are designed to stimulate as near to natural behavior patterns as possible. Although time spent foraging by duikers at Dambari is significantly less compared to free-living conspecifics, daily patterns of activity and rest by common (Sylvicapra grimmia) and blue (Cephalophus monticola) duikers are very similar to those of free-living conspecifics. There are activity peaks in the early morning and late evening, with long rest periods in the middle of the day. Blue duikers at Dambari tend to be more active at night than has been reported for wild blue duikers. This collection of healthy, breeding, and relatively naturally behaving duikers represents a unique opportunity for furthering our knowledge of these diminutive antelope. Excellent residential accommodation, office facilities, and a small laboratory are available for visiting researchers who wish to study duiker biology.]
Boylan, J.: Banding flamingos in captivity. Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 29, No. 4 (2002), pp. 170172.
Brack, C.: Some notes on the owls found in the zoological gardens in Moscow and St Petersburg. Tyto Vol. 7, No. 1 (2002), pp. 913. [Species mentioned are Siberian eagle owl (Bubo bubo sibiricus) at both zoos and the Siberian subspecies of Blakiston's fish owl (Bubo blakistoni doerriesi) in St Petersburg. There is also a brief report on the breeding programme for the nominate subspecies Bubo b. blakistoni at Kushiro Zoo, Japan.]
Carney, T.: Breeding in partially coloured male bowerbirds: what implications could this have for captive management? Thylacinus Vol. 26, No. 1 (2002), pp. 1618. [In 2000 a partially coloured (i.e. subadult) male regent bowerbird (Sericulus chrysocephalus) sired chicks on two separate occasions at Taronga Zoo. The author could find no previous records of partially coloured males of any bowerbird species siring chicks, though it may also be occurring at Currumbin Sanctuary with satin bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus). Since birds can now be sexed at a very young age, it is possible that zoos could be producing young from bowerbirds in their third or fourth year instead of waiting the usual five to seven years for males to achieve mature plumage. By breeding from younger birds the mean generation time could be reduced, thus making genetic management easier, as there would be fewer restrictions placed on breeding recommendations due to age. First, however, the problem of aggression between females and younger males would need to be resolved.]
Dierenfeld, E.S., Mueller, P.J., and Hall, M.B.: Duikers: native food composition, micronutrient assessment, and implications for improving captive diets. Zoo Biology Vol. 21, No. 2 (2002), pp. 185196. [In nature, duikers consume diets containing low starch (in general <0.1% of dry matter (DM)) and moderate-to-high fiber (averaging 32% DM) and protein (fruits <10%, leaves <20% DM) levels, and do not avoid foodstuffs containing tannins. Native food samples were found to be low to marginal in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) content compared with domestic ruminant dietary requirements, but Ca levels were generally two- to threefold higher than P concentrations. Diets fed to duikers in captivity are often low in fiber and tannin content, and high in starch and protein, as well as low in Ca relative to P (compared with native plants), which may lead to nutrient imbalances and health problems such as rumen acidosis. Duikers appear to be well able to deal with tanniniferous foods without ill effect, and may even benefit from these compounds in their diet. Therefore, inclusion of tanniniferous foods in artificial diets formulated for the feeding of captive animals should not be viewed as dangerous; indeed, it may be beneficial to actively seek out tannin-containing food items for zoo animal diets. Leguminous forages such as trefoil, sainfoin, vetch, peas, and beans; pigmented grains, including red millet and sorghum; and many fruits (e.g. berries) all contain some levels of tannin. The effects of tannins on animal response should be experimentally evaluated. In duiker diets sweet, low-fiber foods (fruits and grains) should be used sparingly, as training or enrichment items only. A frugivorous browser pellet/diet that incorporates the findings summarized here, and better duplicates the chemical complement described for native foods eaten by duikers, may provide health benefits to these small concentrate selectors.]
Esson, M.: Does conservation education travel well? Transferring skills from Jersey Zoo to institutions in the developing world. Dodo Vol. 37 (2001), pp. 8087.
Fa, J.E., Clark, C.C.M., Koontz, F., and Williams, E.: Managing endangered species recovery teams: an inter-trust collaborative training initiative. Dodo Vol. 37 (2001), p. 104.
Feistner, A.T.C., and Lee, R.J.: Assessing the status of Sulawesi crested black macaques Macaca nigra outside protected areas. Dodo Vol. 37 (2001), p. 96.
Ferguson, S.H., and Larivière, S.: Can comparing life histories help conserve carnivores? Animal Conservation Vol. 5, No. 1 (2002), pp. 112. [The demographic relationship between life-history variation and environment may form a foundation for developing conservation strategy. The authors grouping 52 North American carnivore species into `bet-hedgers' (e.g. bears, martens, fishers) who have evolved life-history adaptations to unpredictable environments, and others with highly competitive abilities (e.g. seals), or adaptations to high reproduction (e.g. neotropical felids and procyonids) or survival (e.g. foxes and skunks). For example, `reproducers' live in environments with low seasonality and high primary productivity, and are characterized by high reproductive output (long gestation, large neonates and small litters), short chronology of reproductive events (early age at maturity and short life), small home ranges and high population density. Conservation measures to promote carnivore populations should differ relative to the type of life history, emphasizing adult survival for bet-hedgers and survivors, and juvenile survival for reproducers and competitors.]
Fredrickson, R., and Hedrick, P.: Body size in endangered Mexican wolves: effects of inbreeding and cross-lineage matings. Animal Conservation Vol. 5, No. 1 (2002), pp. 3943. [The Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) appears to be extinct in the wild and now exists only in captivity and as a reintroduced population in south-east Arizona and south-west New Mexico. A recent study did not find evidence for inbreeding depression in juvenile viability or litter size in captive animals, but the authors found that captive wolves with little or no known inbreeding had lower body size than wild-caught wolves. In addition, captive wolves with higher inbreeding had lower body size than ones with little or no inbreeding. The captive population was descended from three founders until two other lineages, each descended from two founders, were recently added to the population. There has been concern that the offspring from matings between these lineages may differ from the individuals in the original lineage, so the authors examined the potential statistical power to detect differences between body size for animals from cross-lineage matings and other matings. In endangered species there are often limited opportunities to obtain sample sizes large enough to detect statistically significant differences. In this case, however, it appears that in the next few years there will be an adequate sample size to evaluate statistically the differences in body size between these groups.]
Ganswindt, A., Heistermann, M., Borragan, S., and Hodges, J.K.: Assessment of testicular endocrine function in captive African elephants by measurement of urinary and fecal androgens. Zoo Biology Vol. 21, No. 1 (2002), pp. 2736. [Measurement of urinary and fecal androgens generates useful information on gonadal status in male African elephants, and as such should provide new opportunities to improve the management and welfare of bulls maintained in captivity, as well as to examine physiological correlates of reproductive function in free-ranging animals.]
Goulart, C.: Management of an atypical binturong (Arctictis binturong) introduction. Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 29, No. 3 (2002), pp. 104110. [Kansas City Zoo.]
Guerrero, D.: Animal behavior concerns and solutions: how should we address food stealing during training? Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 29, No. 3 (2002), pp. 99100.
Guerrero, D.: Animal behavior concerns and solutions: how should we deal with behavior control issues? Part 1. Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 29, No. 4 (2002), pp. 148149.
Guerrero, D.: Animal behavior concerns and solutions: how should we deal with behavior control issues? Part 2. Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 29, No. 5 (2002), pp. 194196.
Harvey, N.C., Farabaugh, S.M., and Druker, W.B.: Effects of early rearing experience on adult behavior and nesting in captive Hawaiian crows (Corvus hawaiiensis). Zoo Biology Vol. 21, No. 1 (2002), pp. 5975. [Behavioral data were collected during the breeding season on eight pairs at two facilities on different islands. All data were collected from videocamera time-lapse recordings of the nesting platforms. Behaviors included frequency of nest cup manipulation, percent of time spent on nest, allopreening, play, and stereotypy. The number of breeding pairs increased from four in 1996 to six in 1997, seven in 1998, and eight in 1999. Five (3.2) of the older birds were solitary-reared for most if not all of their first year, while the remaining 12 birds were all socially reared. Significant differences were found between isolate- and socially-reared birds, with isolate-reared birds having higher rates of solo play and stereotypies. Pairs that included at least one isolate-reared bird engaged in significantly less allopreening than pairs in which both birds were socially reared. Aberrant behaviors displayed by isolate-reared males frequently disturbed their mates while nest-building or sitting. In some pairs, however, the dominance and aggressive behavior of socially-reared males frequently displaced their mates from nest-building activities. These male behaviors may occasionally have inhibited females from producing eggs. Although the management strategy of temporary removal of the male may have facilitated female nest-building and sitting, it did not necessarily guarantee egg laying or prevent the occurrence of egg damage. From 1996 to 1999, 87 eggs were laid. Only three females produced clutches every year, and they were responsible for 85% of the eggs laid. The mean number of clutches produced per pair decreased over the study period; age of females does not appear to be a critical factor in this decrease. New pairing combinations are under way in an effort to improve propagation in this highly endangered species.]
Jeggo, D., Young, H.G., and Darwent, M.: The design and construction of the Madagascar teal aviary at Jersey Zoo. [In 1992 Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust became involved in the conservation of the Madagascar teal Anas bernieri, and birds were brought to Jersey Zoo for captive breeding. A large aviary was constructed that zoo visitors view from hides, giving privacy for the ducks and a different exhibit experience for visitors. The aviary is landscaped both to provide for the birds' requirements and to give it a natural appearance suggesting the environment of the western Madagascan wetlands, and is shared by several other bird species from Madagascar. The teal bred for the first time in captivity in 1998, and this success has been repeated each year since.]
Kapfer, J.M., and Jones, S.N.: A method for rearing and keeping the eastern tiger salamander, Ambystoma t. tigrinum. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society Vol. 37, No. 2 (2002), pp. 2528. [Worldwide declines in amphibian populations have spurred much laboratory research involving amphibians as test subjects. Unfortunately, detailed methods for the proper care of these animals under laboratory conditions are difficult to acquire. Most descriptions of husbandry methods are brief and associated with studies not specifically focused on the captive care of the species involved. The eastern tiger salamander is a suitable test species when studying caudates in the northern United States. The authors describe an inexpensive and easily replicable method for rearing larval and adult A. t. tigrinum in the laboratory.]
López, J., and Cooper, J.E.: Polycystic kidney disease in captive poison-dart frogs Dendrobates auratus at Jersey Zoo. Dodo Vol. 37 (2001), p. 101.
López, J., Wormell, D., and Rodríguez, A.: Preliminary evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a UVB lamp used to prevent metabolic bone disease in pied tamarins Saguinus bicolor at Jersey Zoo. Dodo Vol. 37 (2001), pp. 4149. [Metabolic bone disease (MBD) occasionally occurs in pied tamarins at Jersey Zoo despite apparently appropriate dietary supplementation with vitamin D3. As an alternative approach to preventing MBD in this species, an ultraviolet B (UVB) lamp was fitted in the indoor enclosure of one family group. Blood levels of 25(OH)D3 and corneal and lens integrity were assessed in these tamarins, and in a control group supplemented with an extra 3,000 IU of vitamin D3/kg of food, to evaluate the efficacy of both treatments and the possible adverse effects of chronic exposure to artificial UVB radiation. No ocular damage was observed after 11 months, and the irradiated tamarins were able to produce significantly higher and more consistent levels of 25(OH)D3 than orally supplemented animals. These preliminary observations suggest that irradiation with artificial UVB light is likely to be safe for use in the health management of callitrichids and that, under the management conditions at Jersey Zoo, it may be a more reliable and efficient method of preventing MBD in pied tamarins than dietary supplementation.]
McPhee, M.E.: Intact carcasses as enrichment for large felids: effects on on- and off-exhibit behaviors. Zoo Biology Vol. 21, No. 1 (2002), pp. 3747. [Environmental enrichment is a commonly used tool for reducing stereotypic behaviors in captive animals. Behavioral needs associated with feeding, however, are often neglected in large carnivores. The author tested the effects of calf carcasses as enrichment for large felids. At two-week intervals over 14 weeks, nine animals (two lions, three leopards and four snow leopards) at Toledo, Potawatomi and Binder Park Zoos were provided with eviscerated carcasses. The cats were observed off and on exhibit for changes in feeding, natural, stereotypic, active, and inactive behaviors, and these were compared with behaviors observed during a baseline period in which the animals were fed traditional processed diets. For these nine cats, carcass provision decreased off-exhibit stereotypic behaviors but had little impact on on-exhibit behaviors.]
Mallinson, J.J.C.: Saving Brazil's Atlantic rainforest: using the golden-headed lion tamarin Leontopithecus chrysomelas as a flagship for a biodiversity hotspot. Dodo Vol. 37 (2001), pp. 920. [The Brazilian Atlantic forest is perhaps the most striking example of a conservation `hotspot', with less than 8% of its original forested area remaining. The Una Biological Reserve in south-eastern Bahia is the only federal conservation unit in this region that legally protects the high levels of biodiversity and endemism of plants and animals, including the endangered golden-headed lion tamarin. The Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust's approach to the conservation of this unique region has involved field research, land purchase, a landowners' environmental education programme, fund-raising, captive breeding, the chairing of an international recovery and management committee, political networking, and the promotion of L. chrysomelas as a `flagship' species.]
Melfi, V.A., and Feistner, A.T.C.: A comparison of the activity budgets of wild and captive Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra). Animal Welfare Vol. 11, No. 2 (2002), pp. 213222. [Three captive troops of Sulawesi macaques at Chester, Jersey and Marwell Zoos were each observed for 100 hours in large naturalistic enclosures. Activity budgets constructed from these observations were compared with published data collected from wild troops in Sulawesi. No significant difference was found between the activity budgets of the wild and the captive macaques, although social, resting and feeding behaviours were significantly different between zoos. There was more rest and less movement and feeding in captivity, although these differences were not significant. The relatively large number of individuals, the wide variety of agesex classes and the large and complex naturalistic enclosures provided for them may have been important factors in promoting wild-like behaviour.]
Moehrenschlager, A.: Population trends of reintroduced Canadian swift foxes Vulpes velox and future conservation priorities. Dodo Vol. 37 (2001), p. 97.
Molloy, L., and Hart, J.A.: Duiker food selection: palatability trials using natural foods in the Ituri Forest, Democratic Republic of Congo. Zoo Biology Vol. 21, No. 2 (2002), pp. 149159. [Cafeteria-style palatability feeding trials were conducted with six captive animals, three blue (Cephalophus monticola) and three white-bellied (C. leucogaster) duikers, who were offered unlimited amounts of paired foods in two experiments consisting of 20 feeding trials each. Five different foods, including fruits and flowers common to duiker diets, were used in each experiment, and preferred foods were determined by the quantities consumed. Chemical composition, including fiber fractions, protein, and soluble carbohydrates, was determined for foods offered. Blue duikers made consistent food choices in both experiments, whereas white-bellied duikers displayed consistent preferences only in Experiment 2, their choices in Experiment 1 appearing to vary at random. The two species had different food preferences in Experiment 1, but similar ones in Experiment 2. Food rankings were not significantly correlated with the chemical constituents assayed, or the size or shape of the food; but for blue duikers were significantly correlated with food color. In summary, duiker selection of natural foods appears to be based on a variety of factors, and is not limited to chemical composition or physical characteristics. The results suggest that the high dietary diversity of free-ranging duikers is a strategy to optimize the dietary costs and benefits of a diet dominated by semitoxic unripe fruits and seeds.]
Muurmans, M.: Getting the conservation message across: an evaluation of the animal talks programme at Jersey Zoo. Dodo Vol. 37 (2001), p. 103.
O'Connell, D.M., Moore, M., Price, E.C., Feistner, A.T.C., and Fidgett, A.: From enclosure to wood: initial responses of Leontopithecus chrysomelas groups at Jersey Zoo to a change in environment. Dodo Vol. 37 (2001), pp. 2133. [The authors describe the release of three separate groups of golden-headed lion tamarins into a wooded area in the grounds of Jersey Zoo. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected for the first six weeks after release to investigate activity patterns, substrate use and inter- and intraspecific interactions. Within six weeks, two of the groups were exhibiting adaptive behaviour such as foraging for appropriate foods, predator avoidance and group cohesion. The tamarins moved on substrates of all diameters and orientations, but showed a preference for horizontal, artificial supports. Predictably, the captive animals spent less time foraging and travelling than their wild conspecifics, probably because of their ample food supply. Zoos have an important role to play in expanding the knowledge of Leontopithecus biology, and the results of studies on free-ranging animals can be used to improve welfare and refine protocols for reintroduction programmes.]
Parsons, J.: Aussiedog: games that animals play from the outside looking in. Thylacinus Vol. 26, No. 1 (2002), pp. 1113. [The author's company, `Aussiedog', manufactures toys for dogs and other domestic animals, and has recently diversified into producing enrichment equipment for zoos. He describes items made for baboons, seals, lions and polar bears in Australian zoos.]
Plowman, A.B.: Nutrient intake and apparent digestibility of diets consumed by captive duikers at the Dambari Field Station, Zimbabwe. Zoo Biology Vol. 21, No. 2 (2002), pp. 135147. [The original diet fed to the seven species in the study consisted of pellets, mixed grain and fruit, containing approximately 11% protein and 21% neutral detergent fiber (NDF); the revised diet of pellets and vegetables was approximately 14% protein, 31% NDF. The revised diet resulted in an increased intake of protein and fiber, and a reduced intake of nonstructural carbohydrate and fat, and was therefore more similar to the natural diets of duikers. The revised diet also resulted in an increased intake of most minerals (except sodium). Total dry-matter intake increased on the revised diet, but estimated digestible energy decreased. The revised diet was intended to provide 75% of calories from the pellets, but in fact resulted as consumed in 85% of calories being derived from pellets. Achievement of the lower figure is recommended to decrease the intake of iron and copper. Fecal quantity was significantly greater, and apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein, NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF) significantly less for all species on the revised diet compared with the original. Apparent digestibility of fiber by red duikers (Cephalophus natalensis) was comparable to that of common duikers (Sylvicapra grimmia), and was affected similarly by the diet change. However, it was less comparable to that of blue and yellow-backed duikers (C. monticola and C. sylvicultur), suggesting that free-ranging red duikers may be more folivorous than the other forest duikers. The revised diet at Dambari could still be improved further by reducing the proportion of pellets to provide greater levels of readily available energy (from vegetables) for rumen microbes, and to reduce iron and copper intake.]
Pohl, B.: Bonobos in transit during crisis. Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 29, No. 5 (2002), pp. 207210. [Two bonobos from Planckendael Zoo, Belgium, were in transit to Columbus Zoo, Ohio, on 11 September 2001 when their plane was diverted to Gander, Newfoundland, Canada. They finally reached Columbus on 17 September.]
Pottorff, W.D.: Short story on conserving and managing big cats: one man's view. Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 29, No. 5 (2002), pp. 222223. [Cedar Cove Feline Conservation Park, Louisburg, Kansas; tiger and puma.]
Randriamahefasoa, J.: Impact of hunting on Meller's duck Anas melleri at Lac Alaotra, Madagascar. Dodo Vol. 37 (2001), p. 98.
Razafindrajao, F., Lewis, R., Nichols, R., and Woolaver, L.: Discovery of a new breeding population of Madagascar teal Anas bernieri in north-west Madagascar. Dodo Vol. 37 (2001), pp. 6069.
Roeder, B.L., Varga, G.A., Wideman, R.F., and Hollis, B.W.: Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus vitamin D metabolites 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D, and response to bPTH (1-34) in blue duikers. Zoo Biology Vol. 21, No. 2 (2002), pp. 171183. [In a colony of blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola bicolor) at Pennsylvania State University, many animals had reversed Ca:P ratios and acid-base imbalance, and some developed urinary calculi. The authors investigated the relationship between age, dietary Ca, P, and the homeostatic mechanisms controlling their extracellular fluid levels. The study suggests that blue duikers have a unique ruminant response to parathyroid hormone (PTH) that is related to vitamin D metabolism as influenced by the dietary level of Ca and P, and the age of the animal. The blue duiker may be a good animal model for studying comparative renal and bone responses to PTH, and Ca and P homeostasis. A Ca:P ratio of 1.25:1, with levels fed at 0.5%Ca:0.4%P may help normalize captive blue duiker serum Ca and P concentrations and acid-base balance to levels similar to those reported in free-ranging animals.]
Savage, A., Zirofsky, D.S., Shideler, S.E., Smith, T.E., and Lasley, W.L.: Use of levonorgestrel as an effective means of contraception in the white-faced saki (Pithecia pithecia). Zoo Biology Vol. 21, No. 1 (2002), pp. 4957. [Levonorgestrel implants can be an effective method for blocking cyclic ovarian hormonal changes in this species for one or possibly as long as two years.]
Shipley, L.A., and Felicetti, L.: Fiber digestibility and nitrogen requirements of blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola). Zoo Biology Vol. 21, No. 2 (2002), pp. 123134. [The authors examined the energy and protein requirements, and the fiber and protein digestive capacity, of the blue duiker by conducting a series of complete balance digestion trials at Washington State University with three captive males feeding on fruits, leaves, forbs [broad-leaved herbaceous plants], grass, and pelleted diets ranging from 9.4% to 49% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 2.5% to 30% crude protein. The diets also varied in tannin levels. On these diets, for which indigestible acid detergent lignin (ADL) comprised 520% of NDF, the duikers digested NDF as well as did larger ruminants. If food intake is unrestricted, duikers require a minimum protein content in their diet of about 4%. The level of tannins found in forages used in this study significantly reduced protein digestion, though the reduction appears to be less than that experienced by larger ruminants. Small ruminants, such as the blue duiker, seem to be able to handle lower-quality diets than expected for their size.]
Smith, J.: Parasitic infections of two crane species at Jersey Zoo. Dodo Vol. 37 (2001), p. 102.
Swinnerton, K.: Ecology and conservation of the pink pigeon Columba mayeri on Mauritius. Dodo Vol. 37 (2001), p. 99.
Tardona, D.R.: Evolutionary anthropology and psychology of animal conservation. Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 29, No. 5 (2002), pp. 214219.
Walsh, B.: Novel feed presentation and regurgitation and reingestion in western lowland gorillas. Ratel Vol. 29, No. 2 (2002), pp. 4759. [Dublin and Paignton Zoos.]
Waples, K.A., and Gales, N.J.: Evaluating and minimising social stress in the care of captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus). Zoo Biology Vol. 21, No. 1 (2002), pp. 526. [Stress can increase an organism's susceptibility to disease. Thus, managing stress and its causes are important elements of captive care. Social factors such as changes in group dynamics, competition over resources, and unstable dominance hierarchies are potential stressors for highly social animals such as bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.). The authors present three case studies of mortality and illness in captive bottlenose dolphins and suggest that stress, resulting from social instability and ensuing aggressive interactions, is likely to have played a role in these health consequences. Stress is implicated by blood profiles, loss of appetite, and gastric ulcers, and social problems and instability are evident in the quantitative analysis of individual activity levels and association patterns. This is a unique study on marine mammals in that it demonstrates a correlation between quantitative behavioral indices and physiological measures of stress and health. Recommendations are made for the management of captive dolphins, including regular quantitative assessment of behavior and associations and maintenance of appropriate groupings of age and sex classes. It is imperative to attempt to maintain a group structure that resembles that found in the wild. Although the captive situation cannot allow the fluidity of group composition experienced by wild dolphin populations, it can best approximate natural group structure by maintaining groups of females with one or two males in an enclosure of sufficient size or design to allow individuals to physically avoid others.]
Watermolen, D.J.: Dealing with reptile ticks. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society Vol. 37, No. 3 (2002), pp. 4550. [Several species of ticks use snakes, lizards or turtles as hosts, occasionally creating minor health problems. The author reviews advice given by book authors and practising veterinarians. Options range from physical removal, to the application of heat or various substances to the ticks or surrounding area, to the use of pesticidal chemicals directly on the offending parasite or in the container used to house the host animal. Each method varies in the success level attributed to it. Direct physical removal of ticks from their hosts (i.e. gently but firmly pulling them out) appears to be the soundest method for dealing with cases of tick parasitism.]
Wemmer, C.: Opportunities lost: zoos and the marsupial that tried to be a wolf. Zoo Biology Vol. 21, No. 1 (2002), pp. 14. [`Over a period of about 90 years some 13 zoos [18 elsewhere in the article] on three continents exhibited about 55 thylacines. . . String their lives together and you have more than 100 thylacine years in captivity.' Will other endangered animals now in zoos share the same fate?]
Wielebnowski, N.C., Fletchall, N., Carlstead, K., Busso, J.M., and Brown, J.L.: Noninvasive assessment of adrenal activity associated with husbandry and behavioral factors in the North American clouded leopard population. Zoo Biology Vol. 21, No. 1 (2002), pp. 7798. [The North American Neofelis nebulosa population is far from self-sustaining. Breeding success is poor and behavioral problems (e.g. fur-plucking, tail-chewing, excessive hiding or pacing, and intersexual aggression that results in mate killing) are common. This study was undertaken to investigate whether some of these problems may be indicators of chronic stress (as reflected by persistently elevated glucocorticoid levels) and whether they are associated with specific management factors. Adrenal activity was monitored in 72 (36.36) animals (65% of the North American SSP population) during a six-week period and compared to husbandry and behavior data. There was a significant gender difference in fecal corticoid concentrations, with females producing higher concentrations than males. Multiple regression analyses revealed negative associations between enclosure height, number of hours keepers spent with each animal per week, and corticoid concentrations. A positive correlation was found between the number of keepers caring for an individual and corticoid concentrations. Higher concentrations were measured in clouded leopards kept on public display or near potential predators compared to individuals maintained off-exhibit or in the absence of predators. Individuals that performed self-injuring behaviors also had elevated fecal corticoids. Overall results indicated that noninvasive fecal corticoid monitoring has enormous potential for investigating how management and behavioral problems are related to animal well-being. If conducted under carefully controlled experimental paradigms, this technique could allow researchers and managers to identify problem areas of captive management for clouded leopards (e.g., enclosure height, keeper time) and evaluate the efficacy of strategies designed to promote animal welfare and increased reproductive success.]
Willette, M.M., Norton, T.L., Miller, C.L., and Lamm, M.G.: Veterinary concerns of captive duikers. Zoo Biology Vol. 21, No. 2 (2002), pp. 197207. [Among the results of the March 2000 International Duiker Workshop was the production of a series of veterinary guidelines based on the general disease and management concerns of neonatal and adult duikers. These include: preventive medicine recommendations with pre-shipment, quarantine, and routine physical examination protocols; restraint and anesthesia recommendations; a necropsy protocol; and a summary of medical informational needs. The main intent of these protocols is to outline minimum standards of veterinary care, and indicate goals of future research which will eventually result in the establishment of a consistent and comprehensive data base, leading to improved husbandry, nutrition, and medicine for captive duikers.]
Wormell, D., and Price, E.C.: Reproduction and management of black lion tamarins Leontopithecus chrysopygus at Jersey Zoo. Dodo Vol. 37 (2001), pp. 3440. [The recovery programme for the critically endangered black lion tamarin is based on a metapopulation management strategy. As part of this, the species has been maintained at Jersey Zoo since 1990. Some problems with reproduction have occurred which have not been experienced with related species. Historical records on reproduction of this species were therefore examined and compared with two other Leontopithecus species maintained at the zoo, L. rosalia and L. chrysomelas. Two of five potentially breeding female black lion tamarins failed to reproduce. This did not occur in either of the other species. Furthermore, black lion tamarins had a lower infant survival rate. This was not due to inadequate parental behaviour, as rejection of infants never occurred in black lion tamarins; infant mortality was a result of a high level of premature and stillbirths (more than 30% of all infants born) and further losses of full-term live-born infants, one female persistently losing one infant from each twin litter. These problems occurred much less frequently in the other two species. In golden-headed lion tamarins, in contrast, there were high levels of infant rejection and also smaller litter sizes at birth. A preliminary assessment of management changes suggests that a higher-protein diet may reduce the incidence of premature and stillbirths and that careful monitoring may help ensure the survival of live-born infants.]
Publishers of the periodicals listed:
Animal Conservation, Zoological Society of London, Regent's Park, London NW1 4RY, U.K.
Animal Keepers' Forum, American Association of Zoo Keepers, 3601 S.W. 29th Street, Suite 133, Topeka, Kansas 66614, U.S.A.
Animal Welfare, Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, Brewhouse Hill, Wheathampstead, Herts. AL4 8AN, U.K.
Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society, 2060 North Clark Street, Chicago, Illinois 60614, U.S.A.
Dodo, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, Les Augrès Manor, Trinity, Jersey JE3 5BP, Channel Islands.
Ratel, Association of British Wild Animal Keepers, 110 Carrick Knowe Drive, Edinburgh EH12 7EL, U.K.
Thylacinus, Australasian Society of Zoo Keeping, P.O. Box 248, Healesville, Victoria 3777, Australia.
Zoo Biology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158, U.S.A.