International Zoo News Vol. 47/8 (No. 305) December 2000
|OBITUARY Martin Bourne|
|The Setting Up of a Public Walk-through Mixed Lemur Exhibit||Darren Webster|
|Some Unusual Mixed Exhibits at Poznan Zoo's Nocturnal House||Radoslaw Ratajszczak and Ewa Trzesowska|
|The Philippine Eagle in Captivity Outside The Philippines, 19091988||Richard Weigl and Marvin L. Jones|
|International Zoo News|
|Index to Contributors, Vol. 47|
|Index to Books Reviewed, Vol. 47|
|Subject Index, Vol. 47|
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I am sad to report the death on 9 September 2000 of Dr Martin Bourne. As an Associate Member of the Zoo Federation and co-chair of the EAZA Small Mammal TAG he will be known to many within the zoo community. These contacts were reflected in the large and diverse private collection of animals he amassed at his five-acre farm on the northernmost outskirts of Manchester, England. Here could be found a veritable wonderland of fauna including markhor, pudu, binturong, brush-tailed porcupine, zorilla, palm civet, lesser Malay chevrotain, various callitrichids, cranes, waterfowl and other birds, even poison-arrow frogs, illustrating an interest in all kinds of animal life. Breeding results were many, but I know he was particularly proud of breeding Brazilian tapirs.
Dr Bourne made contact with Jean-Marc Lernould of Mulhouse Zoo some years ago and became a member of the Rare Lemur Consortium. This led to something of a specialization in the family Lemuridae, resulting in no fewer than 17 different species and subspecies being kept by Dr Bourne. I was fortunate to visit this collection on a number of occasions, and my favourite memory is of feeding a wide variety of lemurs some choice fruit with appreciative reactions from the animals. Much of the never-ending round of feeding and cleaning this sizeable collection was undertaken by Dr Bourne himself it was clear that he positively relished close contact with his `family'. The response was usually apparent as many offspring testified.
Dr Martin Bourne was a youthful 69 when he died. Flora and fauna had held a fascination for him since his earliest years, and his home became a true showcase for this passion. I am pleased to report that his widow and daughter intend to continue the valuable work that has been started, and to pay tribute to Dr Bourne by fulfilling his aspirations for the collection.
Independent Zoo Enthusiasts Society
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THE SETTING UP OF A PUBLIC WALK-THROUGH MIXED LEMUR EXHIBIT
BY DARREN WEBSTER
Mixed lemur exhibits have become very popular within the zoo community during the last few years, with more and more zoos planning to set up similar exhibits in the near future. In this article I have tried to explain why and how Blackpool Zoo decided not only to mix lemur species, but also to allow members of the public in with them.
Blackpool Zoo had had plans to mix three lemur species for several years prior to work commencing in the spring of 1999. During this time, ideas for the exhibit had changed several times. The original concept behind the new exhibit was to house the zoo's non-breeding lemur species and individuals in a more naturalistic setting, whilst trying to educate the public about the plight of lemurs, and of the island of Madagascar in general. Another advantage of mixing the lemurs was that it would free up several more enclosures in the primate house, allowing new species to be brought into the collection.
Several sites within the 40-acre [16-ha] zoo had been considered, including a large island in the centre of the zoo. (At the time of writing this area is being developed for the zoos group of lowland gorillas.) Finally, however, the decision was made to work with an underdeveloped piece of land, about one acre [0.4 ha] in total, on one side of the central waterfowl lake. No mammal species were currently housed in this area, and apart from the giant tortoises (Geochelone gigantea) towards the rear of this piece of land, it held very little interest for members of the public.
The site included not only a wooded area, with about a hundred trees and shrubs of various sizes, but also a large grassed area, leading towards the lake. The main reason for choosing this site instead of the island was that we felt it very important that the public should be able to view the inside accommodation. We thought it was unlikely that lemurs of any species would willingly choose to spend a lot of time outside during the British winter; so accessible inside viewing would be very important for the winter visitor.
The removal of the giant tortoises to a new enclosure would immediately provide us with one block of indoor accommodation, although this house could not be viewed internally. Although this already existing house was of a decent size, it could at most house one group of lemurs, so more housing would be needed. The second house would need to accommodate the other two species of lemur, as well as allowing the public inside viewing.
Our newly chosen site had opened up more possibilities for this exhibit. After further planning and discussion, it was decided that the enclosure should be opened up to the public.
A walk-through exhibit
We felt that this would give the public much more of an experience. However, two major considerations needed to be thought through before we could allow visitors into the enclosure:
1. How would the lemurs react?
2. How would the public react?
In allowing the public into the enclosure, we did not want to inhibit the lemurs' behaviour too much. Another consideration was that we could not afford the luxury of a member of staff permanently on duty to watch the exhibit all day whilst visitors were in. So a solution was needed which would restrict the area the public had access to within the enclosure.
We decided that the best answer to both of these problems was to restrict the public to a single walkway with side railings (see photo, p. 487). The public would have to climb the railings to gain access to the rest of the exhibit. This in theory allowed the lemurs access to the people, but not the people to the lemurs unless the lemurs chose to allow it!
Now we had an idea of what we wanted from our new exhibit, work could commence on the project.
The lemurs to be used were all animals who were already housed at Blackpool Zoo.
Group 1 consisted of 7.0 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). All seven of these males were from a successful breeding group, which was housed in the small primate house. The group consisted of the father plus his six sons, whose ages ranged from one to five years. It was felt necessary to separate the group at this stage, as although the father was still the dominant male within the group, there were several daughters reaching sexual maturity. So to prevent any inbreeding, all the males were to be taken out and a new male to be sourced for the nine females who were left in the group.
Group 2 consisted of 2.3 black lemurs (Eulemur m. macaco). This was a non-breeding family group. Ages ranged from three to 18 years. The group consisted of the mother plus two of her daughters and two of her sons. Both males had been vasectomised, as part of the EEP recommendations for this species.
Group 3 consisted of 1.1 red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra). These were an old non-breeding pair who had been in several zoos before coming to Blackpool several years previously. The male was 15 years old and the female 18.
We were, of course, aware that these three species would not share the same territory in the wild. L. catta comes from the dry scrub and closed canopy forests of southern and south-western Madagascar, V. v. rubra from the eastern rainforest area (the Masoala Peninsula), and E. m. macaco from the evergreen forests of the Sambirano region in the north-west, and from the islands of Nosy Be and Nosy Komba (Mittermeier et al., 1992).However, various combinations of these species have been tried in captivity with varying degrees of success, and we therefore had reason to be optimistic about our proposed exhibit.
The inside enclosure
Several ideas were considered as to what the housing should consist of. Apart from the usual requirements of indoor accommodation, we did not know at this stage how well the different species would get on together, so a minimum of three separate inside enclosures would be needed. We already had the giant tortoise house (House 2), which would be utilized to house one species of lemur, so at least two more indoor enclosures would be needed. In the end House 1 was designed so that it could be divided into three indoor enclosures (see Figure 1), giving us a total of four separate areas to house the lemurs. The different sections of this house had interconnecting doors and slides, allowing us to open it up and use it as one large enclosure if we so wished. Each individual enclosure has an external wired enclosure of roughly the same measurements attached to it. We felt it was essential that external enclosures were built onto the new house, as this would make introduction of different lemur species easier, and in the event of any problems, it would be beneficial for the lemurs if they had to stay locked in their accommodation for any length of time.
In House 1, each inside section measures approximately 2 m ΄ 3 m ΄ 2.5 m, with public viewing windows of 100 cm ΄ 65 cm. The separate areas are all individually heated and lighted. The enclosure furniture consists of shelving, natural branches and rope. Bark chippings or sawdust is used as the floor substrate, although the house was built with good drainage and sloping floors, making an occasional good wash-out possible. Large cat flaps with different locking combinations are used for access from indoor to outdoor enclosures; this was very useful in the early stages, as it allowed us to lock the lemurs in without a keeper having to be present for a long period of time.
A kitchen/storage area is also included in the building, with power points and hot water available. The electric fence is also operated from this area.
As already mentioned, House 2 formerly housed the giant tortoises. It is circular in shape and slightly larger than the individual enclosures in House 1. It is furnished in the same way, but does not have an outside enclosure attached, and although it has large windows, due to their position the public cannot view it internally.
The outside enclosure is approximately one acre [4,000 m2] in total. The external barrier consists of an electric fence three-quarters of the way around, with the lake acting as the barrier on the remaining quarter of the perimeter. The electric fence is approximately 2.4 m high. High-tensile wire strands are spaced every 16 cm from the top down to 0.6 m above ground level; below this point the fence consists of wire mesh with three live wires attached to it. Every second wire above this is an earth wire, finishing with a live wire at the top. Wire mesh was used at the bottom of the fence because research has shown that when an animal touches an electric fence it inevitably has two options, to go backwards or forwards; with mesh along the bottom, it can only realistically go backwards, thus staying within the enclosure. The electric fence is run from a Gallagher `Smartpower' box in the kitchen area of House 1; this has a digital display which indicates any possible problems with the fence. This is a very important feature, as it reduces keeper time by removing the need to check every inch of the fence perimeter every morning. The box display and alarm will tell you if there are any problems.
The piece of land that was to become the lemurs' outside enclosure contained approximately one hundred trees and bushes of varying species and sizes. The principal species included popular (Populus spp.), willow (Salix spp.), red maple (Acer rubrum), sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), elm (Ulmus spp.), cherry (Prunus spp.), elder (Sambucus nigra), whitebeam (Sorbus aria), and lime (Tilia spp.)
The newly constructed walkway ran roughly through the middle of the enclosure, and divided it so that all the trees and shrubs were on one side, and the lake and large open grass area on the other. A combination of large and small tree trunks and logs were strategically placed on this open side, and a few others were placed near to House 2. As well as the logs, large sandstone rocks were placed near to an existing pond formerly used by the tortoises.
Introduction of the lemurs
This was to be one of the most crucial stages of the development. Nearly all work had been finished except for some renovation of the old tortoise house (House 2). So in early May 1999 it was decided that the move of some lemurs to their new enclosure could go ahead. The first two species to move to the new house (House 1) were the 1.1 V. v. rubra and 2.3 E. m. macaco. They were placed in adjoining parts of the house, so that they could get acclimatized to one another. At this stage a very weak electric fence was established in the small outside enclosures, and the lemurs soon learned not to go near this `training fence'. This situation was maintained for two weeks before one species, E. m. macaco, was chosen as the first to be released into the main enclosure. This release went very well, with all the animals utilizing their new enclosure to the full and with no sightings of any animal touching the electric fence. The lemurs were shut in for food that afternoon and left inside overnight. The next day the two V. v. rubra were let out on their own, and again there were no problems, although both were seen to touch the fence early in the day. After a couple of days out as individual species, both species were let out together, and although there was some chasing and shouting neither species seemed dominant over the other.
At this stage the group of 7.0 L. catta were brought to the new enclosure and acclimatized to their surroundings and to the training fence for several weeks. Throughout this time the two other species had been getting on fine. When it came time to allow the L. catta out, the other two species were shut in. Most of the L. catta males were seen to touch the fence at some stage during the first day, but otherwise they seemed at home, leaping in the trees or sunning themselves on the walkway. They were then mixed separately with first the E. m. macaco and then the V. v. rubra. This also went very well, although the L. catta were subordinate to both the other species.
A month after the first lemurs had been moved to the new enclosure, all three species were mixed together. This went very well for the first few days, but it then became apparent that the V. v. rubra and E. m. macaco were showing a lot of aggression towards one another, with two individuals in particular being the main aggressors the male V. v. rubra and the female (mother) E. m. macaco. Most of the time there was an uneasy stand-off between the two groups, as long as both the V. v. rubra were together. However if the V. v. rubra became separated from one another, the E. m. macaco would gain more confidence and start becoming more aggressive. Finally one day the E. m. macaco group cornered the male V. v. rubra and he received several wounds including a nasty gash to his face. It was decided to separate the pair of V. v. rubra and let the male recuperate while we decided what action to take next.
Throughout, the L. catta and E. m. macaco were getting on fine. With the completion of House 2 the entire project was now finished, but although the public now had access into the enclosure, we still did not have all three lemur species mixed!
A solution to the problem came with the arrival of two young female V. v. rubra from Chester Zoo, who mixed with the existing pair very well to form a stronger social group. Again the process of adapting these animals to the exhibit started. When the day came to mix them with the E. m. macaco things went well, with the E. m. macaco realizing there was more of a force to match, and the V. v. rubra females in particular would stay together more. Things ran smoothly for several weeks with all three species in the exhibit, before the old female E. m. macaco started causing a lot of trouble again. The E. m. macaco as a group were much more of a unit and would try to isolate one of the V. v. rubra, usually the male, and chase this animal constantly around the enclosure. Although there were no serious injuries during this time, it was apparent that the E. m. macaco were the dominant animals within the enclosure and that the old female was a very aggressive dominant animal. A solution would be needed before fighting resulted in serious injuries or escapes.
After much consideration it was decided to take the old female E. m. macaco and one of her daughters out of the enclosure, leaving three (2.1) of this species. The two females were moved to other accommodation within the zoo. This was the turning point in the project. Almost immediately things settled down, with the V. v. rubra becoming dominant over the E. m. macaco. The male V. v. rubra and the remaining female E. m. macaco would often chase each other about, but nothing serious ever came of it.
The mother E. m. macaco was euthanased later in the year due to thyroid cysts (could this have caused her aggression?). The other female was then put back into the group in the enclosure.
Throughout the introduction period of this project the feeding regime was a very important factor, and whenever possible all three species were brought in separately to their indoor enclosures for their main evening feed. The V. v. rubra were usually kept in overnight, whilst both L. catta and E. m. macaco had access to Houses 1 and 2 overnight, although this was not always possible. L. catta and E. m. macaco were often seen feeding together in the same indoor accommodation, as were L. catta and V. v. rubra; but this was never seen to occur with V. v. rubra and E. m. macaco.
Introduction of the public
This part of the programme started about two weeks after the first release of lemurs into the main outside enclosure. Initially the primate section staff kept a close eye on things, but this duty was soon passed onto two students who had begun projects on the exhibit. One project was on lemur-to-lemur interaction and the other on lemurhuman interaction. These students proved to be very useful in not only passing on information to the keepers about the lemurs and public behaviour, but also answering any questions members of the public might have about such a new style of exhibit for Blackpool Zoo.
We had deliberately made the walkway a one-way system, with visitors entering from the side nearest to the lemurs' inside accommodation and going out on the other side of the main enclosure. There were several viewing bays on the walkway, allowing any really interested people to stand and watch, whilst not blocking the rest of the walkway. At the entrance, between the two sets of double doors that are set approximately 3.5 m apart, the visitors' protocol was displayed in two places. Most visitors were noted reading this, with several choosing not to enter once it had all been read. On the whole very few problems were encountered with the introduction of the public. There were the usual occasional attempts to feed the animals, but no more than in any other part of the zoo. One fact that was very noticeable was how friendly the lemurs became to the public within a very short space of time, in particular the seven male Lemur catta. A lemur talk was soon added, and this also enabled us to explain to people about this new style of enclosure.
The new lemur exhibit at Blackpool Zoo has proved to be very successful from all points of view. Not only was it a relatively cheap enclosure to build compared to most other zoo enclosures of similar size, but it also gave the lemurs a more naturalistic way of life and encouraged them to display a full range of behaviours that might not have been used in a more conventional enclosure. From the public's point of view it gave the appearance of semi-freedom where these remarkable animals could be viewed in very close proximity with no barriers, a situation that very few people had previously been lucky enough to experience.
In our view any collection thinking of setting up a similar exhibit, especially where the mixing of more than one species is involved, should not underestimate the amount of keeper time needed, not only to set it up properly but also to continually ensure that things run smoothly. Moreover, not only should the various species be considered thoroughly in advance, but also individual animals' temperaments must be watched and monitored closely. At Blackpool we chose non-breeding animals to house in our enclosure for two main reasons:
1. We felt there would be less aggression towards one another and also towards other species if there were no young or breeding rights to fight for.
2. These animals were already housed at the zoo, and we felt that living in this new-style enclosure would perhaps compensate in some way for the non-breeding status of these individuals.
The walk-through enclosure has been open for over a year now and has been very successful. Things have settled down well, and on the whole we have experienced very few problems within this time. Although at some points during the worst of the British winter not all three species were given access to the main outside enclosure at once, this did not seem to affect the groups when they were all mixed together again at different stages.
Finally, public response to the enclosure has continued to be very positive, and we are sure that this sort of exhibit will become more and more popular in the future.
Mittermeier, R.A., Konstant, W.R., Nicoll, M.E., and Langrand, O. (1992): Lemurs of Madagascar: An Action Plan for their Conservation. 19931999. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.
Darren Webster, Head Keeper, Blackpool Zoo, East Park Drive, Blackpool, Lancs. FY3 8PP, U.K.
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SOME UNUSUAL MIXED EXHIBITS AT POZNAN ZOO'S NOCTURNAL HOUSE
BY RADOSLAW RATAJSZCZAK AND EWA TRZESOWSKA
Since the opening of the nocturnal house in our zoo in 1994, we have experimented with a variety of mixed exhibits. Most of them worked quite well and have already been established for at least a couple of years. Four of the more noteworthy exhibits are described in this article.
Pygmy slow loris and Asian horned beetle
This is a rather unusual story, as we suspect this might be one of the first mixed exhibits with any invertebrate (apart from the usual Pharaoh ants or a variety of cockroaches) and a mammal. We had begun to breed Xylotrupes gideon sumatraensis, a rather large beetle from Asia, a couple of years ago with a single pair imported from Sumatra. Luckily, the number of beetles increased through subsequent generations, and finally in spring 2000 we had enough adults emerging from pupae to try them out in a mixed exhibit, without compromising further breeding potential. It was observed that these beetles are much more active during the night than during the day. Flights were only observed when the lights were off. It was predicted that this species of beetle, with males reaching over 8 cm in length, would not be a likely prey for lorises. Additionally both sexes are very hard and tough. They make a squeaking noise when approached too closely, in order to scare a potential predator.
Our pygmy slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus) exhibit is about 4.6 square metres in area and 2.3 metres high. It is used for holding a pair of lorises and is furnished with a dense network of branches. The ground is covered with shredded bark. The temperature is in the range of 24° 26° C.
To prepare the exhibit for the beetles, water in a small pool inside the cage was replaced with a special mixture of dried leaves, mulch, coconut fibre and rotten wood. Initially only one male was placed in the exhibit. As nothing harmful happened to him, two females and another male were subsequently added. The lorises are fed above the ground on a hanging platform which prevents the beetles from eating their food. The beetles are fed on the ground and their food is partly buried in the soil, so it is inaccessible to the lorises. There were no losses among the beetles due to predation. In fact, for the first couple of days the lorises were interested in the beetles, following them along branches, watching them closely, and even trying to grab them. Such activities stimulated defensive behaviour in the beetles and forced the lorises to abandon hunting. The eggs buried by the beetles developed into a large number of grubs, and in another couple of months there will be another generation of beetles in the cage. The grubs stay deeply buried in the substrate and will thus be inaccessible to the lorises. The beetles are really active and one can observe the males fighting on the branches, and sometimes even flying around the exhibit. The lorises are also more active than they were before.
In the past we also tried lorises with tokay geckos (Gekko gecko). This exhibit also worked well for some time, but was abandoned on the death of the only gecko we had available at the time. (The death was not connected to the fact that this was a mixed exhibit.)
Douroucouli, hairy armadillo and lesser spear-nosed bat
Since the opening of the nocturnal house douroucoulis (Aotus lemurinus griseimembra) and hairy armadillos (Chaetophractus villosus) have been kept together. Both species bred successfully in this exhibit. The enclosure is rather large by nocturnal house standards, covering an area of 20 m2 and 2.3 m high. To add a bit of movement we put a male lesser spear-nosed bat (Phyllostomus discolor) into the exhibit. After a month a female was added. There are plenty of hiding places in narrow holes or crevices in the bark. For almost a year everything has worked well, and the bats can quite often be seen flying around the cage. We have observed no hunting behaviour by the douroucoulis and armadillos, who seem to ignore the bats totally.
Beaver rat and fishes
The beaver rat (Hydromys chrysogaster) is of course a piscivore, occupying to some extent the same niche in Australia as otters do elsewhere in the world. This species is, however, only capable of hunting rather small fish. The fishes we put into the pool in this exhibit, carp (Cyprinus carpio) and gibel or Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), were at least 30 cm long. Some were hunted, but a number of them have already been living there for a year or even longer. Sometimes the beaver rat still tries to catch them, but usually this is more a game than a real hunt. Polish tradition requires the eating of at least one carp during the Christmas holiday. Incidentally, our beaver rat usually kills one or two carp around Christmas time!
Vampire bat and blind cave tetra
It is pretty difficult to conceive of any mixed exhibit including vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). Although they are known to inhabit common roosts with other bat species in the wild, our efforts to keep them with lesser spear-nosed bats failed. The latter were found with bites on their bodies, so they were removed immediately. Our exhibit simulating a natural, shallow cave is supplied with a water pool. This pool is constantly filtered, and we decided to put some blind cave tetras (Astyanax mexicanus) into it. This worked well for some time, but always ended in the premature death of the fish. This was not in any way connected with the bats' activity; rather, it served as a proof that it is difficult for mammal keepers to take proper care of other vertebrates. There were problems with the filter and the water chemistry, some of them perhaps due to drops of blood sprayed by the bats into the water. However, we will certainly try again when cave tetras become available.
There is also a variety of other mixed exhibits in our nocturnal house, but these are ones which have already been tried in other zoos. It seems that, given ample space, mixed exhibits may alleviate some of the commonest problems in nocturnal displays poor visibility of animals and lack of general activity. The possibilities are almost unlimited, and we will certainly try more, once suitable animals become available.
Radoslaw Ratajszczak, Vice-Director, and Ewa Trzesowska, Curator of Mammals, Poznan Zoo, ul. Browarna 25, 61063 Poznan, Poland.
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THE PHILIPPINE EAGLE IN CAPTIVITY OUTSIDE THE PHILIPPINES, 19091988
BY RICHARD WEIGL AND MARVIN L. JONES
The Philippine eagle was collected on Samar by John Whitehead and given the scientific name Pithecophaga jefferyi in 1896 by W.R. Ogilvie-Grant, a British ornithologist, in honour of Mr Whitehead's father, who had financed his trip to the islands. As the scientific name indicates, it was also for many years called the monkey-eating eagle, but in recent years that name has largely fallen into disuse, at least in the English-speaking world.
It was not until 1909 that one was acquired by Mr Willoughby P. Lowe, and came to London Zoo. This was the first known specimen to be seen outside of its natural habitat, the Philippines. It died in 1910 and is now in the British Museum. It was not until 1934 that the second specimen was brought out of the islands by the resourceful bird trapper Wilfred J.C. Frost, and donated by Jean Delacour to Rome Zoo for its re-opening. This bird lived longer than any other captive specimen, and died in 1976. It too was saved for a museum in Rome, but it seems to have become lost or misplaced recently.
Only two more came out prior to World War II, one to San Diego Zoo in 1938, and one to the private collection of Herbert Whitley at Paignton (now the site of the Paignton zoo) in 1939; the latter was sent on by Whitley to London Zoo. The San Diego bird died in 1939, while the London one lived through the war and died in 1953. Both are preserved in American and British museums.
As Table 1 well demonstrates, the bulk of the birds seen in captivity arrived from 1947 to 1965, a very brief period of time. The first three were collected by a recently discharged American Army lieutenant named Charles Wharton, who joined an expedition sent to the area by the Chicago Natural History Museum (today known as the Field Museum of Natural History). One of these birds died in 1950, one in 1952 and one in 1958. A gentleman named John Eggeling, of Cebu City, then began to send specimens to zoological collections around the world either himself, or via other dealers. He also supplied skins to some museums and ornithologists; just how many he trapped is unknown, but he does seem to have been the primary supplier. Some lived relatively short captive lives, but one sent out in 1964 lived to 1988, and was the last known captive bird living outside the Philippines. A few collections made attempts to breed the species, but none were successful. Some at least sent specimens to museums when they died, but a fair number have simply disappeared or were not saved.
The authors want to express sincere thanks to the many zoo directors and curators, registrars and records keepers, pathologists, and museum personnel for the assistance they have provided, which helped to make this list possible. The list includes cause of death, where known, and location of any surviving physical remains.
Fortunately in recent years word has come of successful reproduction of the species in captive colonies in the Philippines, and it is still found in the wild on four islands, namely Luzon (especially in the Sierra Madre mountains), Samar, Leyte and Mindanao.
A Historical List of Monkey-eating or Philippine Eagles (Pithecophaga jefferyi Ogilvie-Grant, 1896) in Captivity Outside the Philippines
by Richard Weigl and Marvin L. Jones
1. 0.1 31.08.190911.02.1910 London Zoo, England
From Mr Willoughby P. Lowe, who acquired it from Father Llanos of Manila. Captured as adult in September 1908 at Tandag, Surigao del Sur, Mindanao. Departed the Philippines on 13 July from Manila bound for Liverpool on the Spanish Mail Steamer Claudio Lopez y Lopez. First living specimen seen outside Philippines. (Zoo records also show arrival as 2 September 1909.)
Mounted body (# 1910.2.11.1) and skeleton (# 1910.2.11.1a) at the Natural History Museum, London.
2. 1.0 01.12.193405.07.1976 Rome Zoo, Italy
Donated by Dr Jean Delacour, a French ornithologist, for the re-opening of the Rome Zoo. Adult on arrival, probably captured by the British collector Wilfred J.C. Frost.
Totally atrophic gonads. Kidneys with deep degenerative characteristics: voluminous, with strong retention of pulverulent uric acid which filled nearly every tract of the renal tubes. Lactescent pericardiac liquid with suspension of white sub-microscopic granules (uric acid?).
Lived in captivity 41 years and 7 months, longevity record for the species.
Prof. Dr Ermanno Bronzini, then Rome Zoo director, reported in Der Zoologische Garten 48 (1978), pp. 299300, that the body went to the Zoological Museum, Rome, but it could not be found on a visit by R. Weigl in April 2000.
3. 0.1 23.08.193802.03.1939 San Diego Zoo, California, U.S.A.
From Los Angeles dealer Cohn, found by him aboard the SS Mindanao, adult bird. (The date of arrival is 3 September in the zoo records).
Skeleton (# 166) at the Dickey Natural History Museum, University of California, Los Angeles.
4. 0.1 22.10.193917.05.1953 London Zoo, England
Presented by Mr Herbert Whitley, a Fellow of the Zoological Society of London, who had his own collection at Paignton and acquired the adult specimen from the British collector Fred W. Shaw Mayer, who arrived in London in late June with nine species of bird of paradise on board. The eagle went to Paignton 2 July 1939.
Generalized tuberculosis, aspergillosis.
Skin (# 1953.48.1) and partial skeleton (# S1955.22.5) at the Natural History Museum, London.
5. 0.1 06.07.194709.02.1952 Brookfield Zoo, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.
One of three specimens collected at `Calriran' (probably really Caburan), Mindanao, in early 1947 by former U.S. Army Lieutenant Charles Wharton, who joined a Chicago Natural History Museum expedition to the Philippines. Arrived along with many mammals, two other bird of prey species and some reptiles at the airport, Oakland, California, 4 July 1947. Adult specimen.
Skin (# FMNH 213208) and partial skeleton (# FMNH 106496) at the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago.
6. 0.1 09.07.194718.12.1958 Bronx Zoo, New York, U.S.A.
From Charles Wharton, young bird.
7. 0.1 09.08.194709.10.1950 National Zoo, Washington, U.S.A.
From Charles Wharton, adult bird. The eagle very probably came to the National Zoo in July, though the decision to actually acquire it was only made in August.
Skin and trunk skeleton (# USNM 428075) at the National Museum of Natural History, Washington.
8. 1.0 26.03.195205.01.1957 San Diego Zoo, California, U.S.A.
From John Eggeling, Cebu City, young bird.
9. 0.1 28.08.195222.04.1956 San Diego Zoo, California, U.S.A.
From John Eggeling, Cebu City. Collected on Mindanao, wild-hatched about 1950. Both 1952 birds were examined at Honolulu airport en route to California by Paul Breese, then Honolulu Zoo director. Exhibited at San Diego with male. Laid two eggs (4 and 5 April 1954), the first eggs in captivity outside the Philippines.
Skin and skeleton (# MVZ 134059) at the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley, California.
10. 1.0 30.09.195221.10.1961 London Zoo, England
From Mr Alex E. Lawrance, adult on arrival.
Mycosis of lungs and thoracic air sacs.
Skeleton (# S1961.23.1) at the Natural History Museum, London.
11. 0.1 03.12.195330.08.1954 Philadelphia Zoo, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
From John Eggeling, Cebu City. Collected on Mindanao. Weighed 5 kg on arrival, immature specimen.
Acute endocarditis and bacterial infection.
Skin (# ANSP 167604) at the Academy of Natural Sciences Museum, Philadelphia.
12. 1.0 03.12.195314.06.1955 Philadelphia Zoo, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
From John Eggeling, Cebu City. Collected on Mindanao. Weighed 4.1 kg on arrival, immature specimen.
Died following failure to feed and injuries to the liver.
13. 0.1 25.09.195411.01.1955 National Zoo, Washington, U.S.A.
From John Eggeling, Cebu City.
Skin and trunk skeleton (# USNM 429843) at the National Museum of Natural History, Washington.
14. 0.0.1 25.09.195403.06.1963 National Zoo, Washington, U.S.A.
From John Eggeling, Cebu City.
15 & 0.0.2
16 These two birds were received some time between 1955 and 1960 at Wassenaar Zoo, the Netherlands (which closed in 1985). Acquired from the dealer van Dijk, Tilburg, the Netherlands, via a Singapore animal dealer. They both lived for over one year at the zoo. One is mounted and still kept by the Louwman family at what is now the Wassenaar Wildlife Breeding Centre, and the other, also mounted, is at the Museon (a natural history and technical museum) in The Hague. While one of the specimens was being mounted, the taxidermist found in the bird's back a small part of an arrow, which had been there for a very long time. It had been shot in the wild before capture. (J.W.W. Louwman, pers. comm.)
17. 1.0 12.07.195502.05.1962 Antwerp Zoo, Belgium
From John Eggeling, Cebu City, adult bird.
Skin at the Natural History Museum, Antwerp Zoo.
18. 1.0 12.07.195523.12.1964 Antwerp Zoo, Belgium
From John Eggeling, Cebu City, adult bird.
Skin at the Natural History Museum, Antwerp Zoo.
19. 1.0 22.09.195626.10.1956 Philadelphia Zoo, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
From John Eggeling, Cebu City, immature bird.
Died following surgery to repair broken legs; cause of death identified as shock.
20. 0.1 22.09.195604.12.1974 Philadelphia Zoo, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Named Phyllis. From John Eggeling, Cebu City, adult bird. Laid one broken egg on 6 February 1972 and two infertile eggs on 3 February 1973 (64.5 ΄ 90 mm, 202 g) and 17 February 1973 (61.5 ΄ 90 mm, 180 g). Weighed 6.3 kg on 1 May 1973. Death came about after Phyllis captured a rabbit by reaching through the cage wire; she severed an artery and bled to death. Weight at death was 7.2 kg.
Skin (# ANSP 174095) at the Academy of Natural Sciences Museum, Philadelphia.
21. 1.0 10.12.195623.12.1958 San Diego Zoo, California, U.S.A.
From Honolulu Zoo, who acquired it a few days earlier from Father Osmundo G. Aguilar of the Philippines. Collected on Mindanao, one report says young bird, but estimated hatched in 1954.
22. 0.0.1 19.06.195731.08.1959 Honolulu Zoo, Hawaii, U.S.A.
Probably from Father Osmundo G. Aguilar.
23. 0.0.1 01.09.195714.03.1960 Honolulu Zoo, Hawaii, U.S.A.
Probably from Father Osmundo G. Aguilar.
A Pithecophaga jefferyi skin (#BPBM 184287) at the State Museum of Natural and Cultural History, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, is presumably that of one of the two birds (Nos. 22 and 23) kept at Honolulu Zoo.
24. 0.1 03.06.195811.01.1959 Brookfield Zoo, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.
From dealer Ansel W. Robison, San Francisco, adult on arrival.
Lesions in lungs and air sacs. Aspergillosis cultures. Kidneys swollen and mottled.
Skin (# FMNH 224493) at the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago.
25. 0.1 03.06.195807.12.1960 Brookfield Zoo, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.
From dealer Ansel W. Robison, San Francisco, adult on arrival.
Very fat, much scarring of heart. Probable cause of death cardiac failure.
Skeleton (# FMNH 106817) at the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago.
26. 0.0.1 14.08.195819.01.1964 Frankfurt Zoo, Germany
From John Eggeling, Cebu City, adult on arrival.
Mycobacteriosis. Weight at death was 3.9 kg.
Skin at the Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt.
27. 1.0 14.08.195813.07.1976 Frankfurt Zoo, Germany
From John Eggeling, Cebu City, adult on arrival.
on loan 14.07.197613.02.1986 Los Angeles Zoo, California, U.S.A.
Put in with the female (No. 50) in January 1982.
Arteriosclerosis, disseminated venous thromboses, nephrosis.
Skin at World Museum of Natural History, La Sierra (old name of Loma Linda) University in Riverside, California.
28. 0.1 15.06.195926.05.1975 Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan
Named Lone. From Philippine Zoological and Botanical Garden, Quezon City (date of arrival there unknown), adult bird.
on loan 27.05.197518.07.1984 Planckendael Zoo, Mechelen, Belgium
Name changed to Harriet. In together with Jack (No. 43) at 17 October 1975.
Aspergillosis, avian tuberculosis. Weight at death was 3.6 kg.
Skin at the Natural History Museum, Antwerp Zoo.
29. 1.0 18.02.196026.09.1961 Philadelphia Zoo, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
From dealer Alton V. Freeman (Miami Rare Bird Farm, Kendall, Florida, U.S.A.), adult on arrival.
Killed by Phyllis (No. 20).
30. 1.0 11.04.196016.10.1963 Berlin Zoo, Germany
From John Eggeling, Cebu City, young bird.
Skin (# ZFMK 63.464) at the Alexander Koenig Museum, Bonn, Germany.
31. 0.0.1 25.04.196123.08.1965 Berlin Zoo, Germany
From John Eggeling, Cebu City, young bird.
Mounted (# 46177) plus partial skeleton at the Naturkunde Museum, Schloss Rosenstein, Stuttgart, Germany.
32. 1.0 30.06.196107.04.1966 Ménagerie du Jardin des Plantes, Paris, France.
From dealer L. Ruhe, Hannover Zoo (date of arrival there unknown), adult bird.
Suffocation (a piece of bone lodged in the trachea).
Body at the Musée National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
33. 1.0 06.07.196104.04.1973 Bronx Zoo, New York, U.S.A.
Named Legs. From dealer Ansel W. Robison, San Francisco, acquired as female.
on loan 04.04.197321.05.1975 Philadelphia Zoo, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Weighed 4.5 kg on arrival at Philadelphia Zoo. Placed with Phyllis (No. 20-) 1 May 1973.
on loan 21.05.197509.01.1976 Los Angeles Zoo, California, U.S.A.
Put in with the female (No. 50) in June 1975.
Killed by female.
Spirit specimen (# AMNH 4563) at the American Museum of Natural History, New York.
34. 1.0 07.08.196118.01.1963 Tierpark Hagenbeck, Hamburg, Germany
From Manila Zoo (date of arrival there unknown), adult bird.
Skin and partial skeleton (# 63.121) in the Zoological Museum at the University of Hamburg.
35. 0.1 07.08.196101.02.1963 Tierpark Hagenbeck, Hamburg, Germany
From Manila Zoo (date of arrival there unknown), adult bird.
Skeleton (# 63.310) in the Zoological Museum at the University of Hamburg.
36. 1.0 23.09.196121.02.1972 Bronx Zoo, New York, U.S.A.
From Querubin S. Ball, Pulantubig, Dumaqueteleity (Dumaguete City), Negros Oriental, Philippines, acquired as female.
Spirit specimen (# AMNH 6396) at the American Museum of Natural History, New York.
37. 1.0 05.06.196209.07.1963 Antwerp Zoo, Belgium
From John Eggeling, Cebu City.
moved 11.07.196325.10.1966 London Zoo, England
Vitamin A deficiency suspected.
Eviscerated spirit specimen (# A1973.4.1) at the Natural History Museum, London.
38. 1.0 25.02.196330.06.1970 St Louis Zoo, Missouri, U.S.A.
From Alton V. Freeman (Miami Rare Bird Farm, Kendall, Florida), adult on arrival.
Skin (# USNM 499879) at the National Museum of Natural History, Washington.
39. 0.1 27.05.1963???? Antwerp Zoo, Belgium
From dealer Avicentra, Schilde, Belgium.
moved ????1975 Planckendael Zoo, Mechelen, Belgium
returned 197507.05.1977 Antwerp Zoo, Belgium
Tubulonephrosis, fibrosis of heart valve, fatty degeneration of liver. Weight at death was 8 kg. Had been chromosomally sexed as male, but after death autopsy showed it was a female. (S. Vansteenkiste, pers. comm.)
Skin at the Natural History Museum, Antwerp Zoo.
40. 0.0.1 05.08.196323.10.1963 Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde, Germany
From dealer L. Ruhe, Hannover Zoo (date of arrival there unknown), young bird.
Skin (# 63.213) at the Naturkunde Museum, Berlin.
41. 0.1 05.08.196328.09.1965 Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde, Germany
From dealer L. Ruhe, Hannover Zoo (date of arrival there unknown), young bird.
Acute generalized miliary tuberculosis with tubercular intestinal ulcers. Weight at death 3.8 kg.
Skin at the Naturkunde Museum, Berlin.
42. 1.0 03.12.196307.12.1966 Philadelphia Zoo, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
From broker Frederik J. Zeehandelaar, New Rochelle, New York.
Malnutrition due to failure to feed.
43. 1.0 07.05.1964???? Antwerp Zoo, Belgium
Named Jack. From John Eggeling, Cebu City.
moved ????29.07.1987 Planckendael Zoo, Mechelen, Belgium
returned 29.07.198718.01.1988 Antwerp Zoo, Belgium
When he died, Jack was the last specimen in captivity outside of the Philippines.
Skin at the Natural History Museum, Antwerp Zoo.
44. 0.0.1 06.09.196407.02.1968 Berlin Zoo, Germany
From dealer Victor H. Franck, Köln (Cologne), Germany, young bird.
Necrosis of liver.
Mounted at the Haus der Natur, Salzburg, Austria.
45. 0.0.1 27.09.196401.07.1966 San Diego Zoo, California, U.S.A.
From Manila Zoo (date of arrival there unknown), adult bird.
46. 1.0 29.01.196531.01.1965 Griffith Park Zoo, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.
From Alton V. Freeman (Miami Rare Bird Farm, Kendall, Florida).
Skin at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.
47. 0.0.1 1965???? Saigon Zoo, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Came with some other birds as donation by Mr Eleuterio J. Tropa, director of Cebu Zoological and Botanical Gardens, Cebu City (date of arrival there unknown). In exchange, Saigon Zoo donated a baby Asian elephant to Cebu City Zoo. Seen by Marvin L. Jones 1968/69.
No data on death, and not known to have been preserved. When Dr Nguyen Quoc Thang, current director of Saigon Zoo, was a teacher at Hanoi University, he visited Saigon Zoo in June 1975, and says he saw no large eagle there (R. Weigl, April 1998).
48. 1.0 05.03.196505.12.1965 Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan
From Cebu Zoological and Botanical Gardens, Cebu City (date of arrival there unknown), adult bird.
Catarrhal pneumonia. Weight at death 5 kg.
Body preserved at Ueno Zoo.
49. 0.0.1 19.04.196519.04.1965 San Diego Zoo, California, U.S.A.
From unknown source, said to have been hatched on Cebu in 1963.
Either arrived dead or died the same day.
50. 0.1 23.05.19651966 Griffith Park Zoo, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.
From Alton V. Freeman (Miami Rare Bird Farm, Kendall, Florida).
moved 196622.05.1984 Los Angeles Zoo, California, U.S.A.
Moved upon closure of Griffith Park Zoo. Weight at death was 8 kg.
Mounted at World Museum of Natural History, La Sierra (old name of Loma Linda) University in Riverside, California.
Richard Weigl, Frankfurt Zoo, Germany, and Marvin L. Jones, Zoological Society of San Diego, U.S.A.
* * *
INTERNATIONAL ZOO YEARBOOK 37, edited by P.J.S. Olney, Fiona A. Fisken and Helen F. Stanley. The Zoological Society of London, 2000. ix + 440 pp., photographs, diagrams, hardback. ISSN 00749664. £67.00 (U.K.), £73.00 (overseas), including postage and packing.
In view of the fact that both penguins and birds of prey have twice appeared as an International Zoo Yearbook's special topic, it is quite surprising that this is the first volume ever to feature parrots in the lead role: for my own subjective estimate would be that the Psittaciformes regularly occupy a larger share of avicultural literature than any other group of birds. They are also more in need of the help zoos can offer than any other avian family. In a useful overview, Nigel Collar of BirdLife International gives the figures 90 (26%) of the 350-odd parrot species are threatened with extinction, compared with `only' 11% of bird species as a whole. (More than half of these 90 are endemic to just six countries Indonesia, Australia, Brazil, the Philippines, Colombia and Mexico.) Collar's analysis of `criteria, characteristics and cures' will be required reading for many conservationists who have no connection and possibly no sympathy with zoos. It is a tribute to the fair-mindedness of the Yearbook's editors that they have given pride of place to an essay of such undoubted importance, despite the author's proclaimed lack of faith in captive breeding as a conservation tool. He points in particular to the problems of reintroducing birds as dependent on learning as the parrots, and sees the chief value of captive breeding in its potential to supply the cage-bird market and thus take pressure off wild populations.
Roger Wilkinson of Chester Zoo follows with a riposte from the `captivity' camp, surveying zoos' regional collection plans and captive-management programmes worldwide. But he also refers to the valuable work done by some zoos in in situ conservation Nigel Collar would presumably agree with him here. Wilkinson also touches on the potential value of private aviculture; until recently this was almost a tabu subject for zoos, but the skill and success of many private breeders nowhere more evident than in their work with parrots is increasingly hard to ignore, and cautious moves towards greater cooperation are at last taking place.
There are in all 32 papers in the special section, but lack of space precludes mentioning them all here. (As usual, all the papers in the Yearbook are listed, with brief summaries, in our Recent Articles section, below.) Topics include lorikeet breeding and husbandry, and the natural history, status, conservation, behaviour and captive management of various species, including cockatoos, macaws, amazons, the kea, fig parrots and Pesquet's parrot. Other papers discuss environmental enrichment, common viruses affecting parrots in captivity, conservation-education programmes in Latin America, the Caribbean and the Pacific, conservation priorities in the Andean region, the research and in situ work undertaken and supported by Loro Parque, and longevity records of captive parrots.
The ten papers in Section 2 range as widely as ever the husbandry and breeding of the Kerry spotted slug, aquarium husbandry of sea anemones, genetic analyses of the California condor, growth and mortality of the black stilt, breeding the writhe-billed hornbill, nutritional deficiencies and toxicities in New World monkeys, hand-rearing Goeldi's monkeys, a new great ape facility at Oklahoma City Zoo, hand-rearing and early reintroduction of an orang-utan at Brookfield Zoo, and environmental enrichment for kinkajous at Newquay Zoo.
The introductory Guest Essay, introduced in Volume 35, was a valuable innovation which will from now on, I hope, be a regular feature. The latest essay, by Sally Walker, argues the case for regional or national networks of the Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, using the Indian National Network of CBSG as a proven example. Most of the world's biodiversity is concentrated in the so-called `developing' countries, where communication, financial, administrative and political problems put daunting barriers in the way of those working for wildlife conservation. The CBSG's flexible, decentralized approach seems to offer a way forward. At present, for reasons outlined in the article, Indian zoos make a negligible contribution to the conservation of threatened endemic species; but Sally puts forward a `Utopian' but not totally unrealistic plan whereby their potential could be realised in the future.
Regular users of the Yearbook will notice one major change in this volume. Section 3 contains an up-to-date address list and 1997 data for the 167 international studbooks, and a list of the world's regional and national zoo associations; but the familiar annual figures for animals bred and rare animals held in captivity are missing. Their absence, fortunately, is only temporary. Software is now being produced which will convert ISIS data into Yearbook format, reducing the need for Yearbook questionnaires to be sent to collections which are already supplying data to ISIS. At present 300-odd collections contribute data to the Yearbook but not to ISIS; it is hoped that the change may encourage more of these collections to join ISIS. Until now, a great deal of identical work has been performed separately by the Yearbook and ISIS; it certainly makes sense to find a way of avoiding this duplication in future. But it is a relief to know that the complete breeding and census figures will be published in Volume 38, for these statistics, now extending back over four decades, have become an indispensable source of information on the recent history of captive breeding.
FISH DISEASES AND DISORDERS: Volume 1, Protozoan and Metazoan Infections edited by P.T.K. Woo (1995), ix + 808 pp., hardback, price £99.95/
US$185.00, ISBN 0851988237; Volume 2, Non-infectious Disorders edited by J.F. Leatherland and P.T.K. Woo (1998), ix + 386 pp., hardback, price £75.00/US$140.00, ISBN 085199-126-2; Volume 3, Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Infections edited by P.T.K. Woo and D.W. Bruno (1999), ix + 874 pp., hardback, price £99.50/US$185.00, ISBN 0-85199-194-7. CABI Publishing (CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon. OX10 8DE, U.K.).
In June 1971 a leading authority on fish diseases, the late Stanislas Snieszko of Krakow, Poland, sent out a hopeful circular letter to any interested parties on the subject of `Veterinary Medicine and Diseases of Fish'. Dr Snieszko was trying to fan the `spark of interest recently shown by veterinarians in the field of fish medicine, nutrition, genetics, etc.', and he deplored the fact that `channels of communication have not been opened between fish culturists and veterinarians'. He also proposed that `well informed teachers in veterinary schools can do much to bring the aquarium fish interests and veterinarians together . . . but someone will have to start supporting research in the field of medicine of aquarium fish.'
Three decades on, with the publication of Fish Diseases and Disorders an edited treatise, complete in three volumes (1995, 1998, 1999) it is good to note that the yawning chasm identified by Dr Snieszko has been substantially bridged between veterinarians and scientific researchers on one side and aquaculturists and aquarists on the other. In fairness, there has been much excellent earlier progress in knowledge acquisition, consolidation and dissemination, e.g. Mawdesley-Thomas (1972), Ribelin and Migaki (1975), Van Duijn (1981), Hargis (1986), Roberts (1989), Mann (1989), Sindermann (1990), Gratzek (1992), Stoskopf (1993) and Noga (1996). There are now professional bodies such as the European Association of Fish Pathologists (EAFP) who have, for the last ten years, organised an annual conference on diseases of fish and shellfish, with published proceedings. Also now available are comparatively new serial publications such as the Journal of Fish Diseases, Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, Aquatic Toxicology and the Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Aquarium hobbyist magazines also regularly feature popular articles (see, for example, the series on fish diseases by Dr Robert J. Goldstein in Freshwater and Marine Aquarium, Volume 22, 1999).
Notwithstanding these substantial improvements in contemporary knowledge, the present massive trilogy is in a league of its own in breadth and depth of coverage. Each chapter is penned by an expert (or experts) actively researching in the topic, and there is a full glossary of technical terms. As an added bonus, useful coverage of certain commercial species of `shellfish' (aquatic invertebrates) is also provided. There is thus an authoritative and comprehensive aspect to the entire work.
Volume 1, on Protozoan and Metazoan Infections, begins with dinoflagellates. Among these, Amyloodinium ocellatum is rightly featured as a major pathogen of both sharks and bony fishes in tropical marine environments and aquaria. We move on to the obscurely known diplomonads and kinetoplastids, and then to ectoparasitic amoebae which cause amoebic gill diseases and which merit much more research. There are interesting accounts of microsporans and myxosporeans. These are responsible for several fatal diseases in fish and have also been the subject of a separate, thorough review by Garden (1992). We are then deeply immersed in ciliophorans. This is a taxon of at least 7,200 species, only two of which are well known to aquarists: Ichthyophthirius multifilis and Cryptocaryon irritans. The former is a cause of the common, highly infectious `white-spot' disease of freshwater fish in both temperate and tropical systems, and it may exist as several different strains. The latter is the cause of `marine white-spot disease'. Although C. irritans has been known for more than 60 years, its taxonomy, life cycle, transmission and pathogenesis is only now being fully elucidated (see also a separate, more recent review by Colorni and Burgess, 1997). The trichodinid ciliophorans are gamely tackled, but many are so far not determined to species and when they are (as with Tetrahymena corlissi) the precise nature of the presumed parasitism is often unclear.
A host of other taxa are considered in Volume 1 in a more-or-less ascending phyletic sequence, and in an overwhelming blizzard of detail: apicomplexans, trematodes (monogeneans and digeneans), cestoideans, nematodes, acanthocephalans, arthropods and annelids. Following this, there is an interesting account of fish-borne metazoan parasitic diseases that are transmissible to humans (zoonoses). Aquarists, however, would probably need to eat copious quantities of raw `sushi' to be at much risk of infection from the commoner flukes, nematodes and tapeworms! The concluding chapters cover the immune system in fishes, innate and acquired immunity, effects of environment and stress on the immune response, and immunological techniques. This last section is highly relevant to aquarists, especially in terms of the hoped-for development of new and effective oral vaccines.
Volume 2, on Non-Infectious Disorders, is rather slimmer than Volume 1, but packed with extraordinary detail nonetheless. There are in-depth chapters on disorders associated with: development, genetics, heavy metal and organic pollution, polychlorinated biphenyls, inappropriate environmental pH, exposure to excess dissolved gases, dysfunction in osmotic or ionic regulation, and general `stress factors' (which correspond fairly closely with those that affect mammals). It should be noted that these disease-inducing stress conditions often arise from over-intensive stocking policies in aquaria and aquaculture. Cancerous neoplasms and related lesions are fully dealt with, as are health problems associated with the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. The volume ends with a chapter on the diagnostic assessment of non-infectious disorders of captive and wild fish populations, and the use of fish as `sentinel' organisms to detect potential problems in the environment such as pollution (the `canary in the coal mine' principle). In this connection, readers should consider the (so far unfulfilled) need for a code of practice in relation to fish welfare and ethical treatment (see, for example, Pickering, 1981, and FAWC, 1996). Welfare issues aside, a comparison between fish populations in situ and ex situ is important for proposed reintroduction programmes all of which should be supported by (so far undeveloped) protocols in health care monitoring and veterinary and environmental screening.
Volume 3, on Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Infections, is even more massive than Volume 1 and in the logical, taxonomic terms adopted elsewhere should really precede it. There are bulging chapters on infectious pancreatic necrosis caused by aquatic birnaviruses and on viruses associated with haematopoietic necrosis, haemorrhagic septicaemia or VHS, salmon anaemia or ISA, pancreatic disease or IPN, erythrocytic necrosis, and the troublesome Spring viraemia or SVC of carp. Rickettsial and chlamydial (gram-negative) bacterial infections are discussed at length, and many other conditions where bacteria are implicated: kidney disease or BKD (Renibacterium salmoninarum); gram-positive bacterial disease outbreaks (Enterococcus seriolicida, Streptococcus iniae); mycobacteriosis and nocardiosis; furunculosis (Aeromonas salmonicida); enteric redmouth disease or ERM (Yersinia ruckeri); vibriosis and flavobacterial diseases; and, finally, Edwardsiellosis (thankfully not known in Great Britain). For the dedicated reader who has waded through to page 599 there are important essays on putative `fungal' or `water mould' infections, including Saprolegnia (and other Oomycetes) and Ichthyophonus. The phyletic status and appropriate nomenclature for these taxa is often controversial and Ichthyophonus, for example, is referred by some authorities to the protozoans and by others to the fungi! It is also not always clear whether they are primary or secondary pathogens and, most importantly, whether they contribute significantly to mortality.
From the foregoing inventory, the current hot topic for aquarists is mycobacteriosis caused by species of Mycobacterium. Again, the systematics of Mycobacterium are complex and now subject to the scrutiny of the International Working Group on Mycobacterial Taxonomy. Mycobacteriosis (sensu lato) is ubiquitous and known in freshwater fish since 1897 and marine fish since 1910. It is understood to cause tuberculosis-like lesions in the liver, spleen and kidney of fishes, and it may also cause skin and other diseases in humans. The presence of mycobacteriosis in threatened species of cichlid fish from Lake Victoria, East Africa, is a cause for concern. Chester Zoo is currently supporting a study on cichlid mycobacteriosis being conducted by Dr Akinyi Nyaoke, a veterinary researcher originally from Kisumu on the shores of Lake Victoria. Strategic research targets are the development of vaccines and rapid diagnostic tests (e.g. ELISA or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay).
Volume 3 concludes with a chapter on the application of epidemiology (epizootiology) to infectious diseases of fish. This is `the study of the frequency, distribution and determinants of health and disease in populations'. Hitherto not rigorously applied to wild populations of fish, epidemiology is particularly relevant to aquarists engaged in conservation outreach projects in the field. Epidemiological data can inform difficult debates such as whether or not diseases occur naturally in the range states, and whether or not to reintroduce fishes with their parasites. Although not dwelt upon in this chapter, certain fish diseases are notifiable to the governmental authorities in the U.S.A. and within the European Union. In England this would be the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), and in Scotland the Agriculture, Environment and Fisheries Department (SOAEFD). These bodies can be referred to for advice on the Fish Diseases Acts (1937, 1983), the Fish Health Regulations (1992) and the Welfare of Animals during Transport Order (1994, as amended, and which includes reference to fish). MAFF and SOEAFD also produce guidance leaflets on importing fish and combating fish disease.
Overall, Fish Diseases and Disorders germane though it is in many respects caters more for the interests of specialist veterinarians, veterinary pathologists, microbiologists, immunologists, parasitologists and other zoological researchers than it does for the day-to-day needs of aquarists and aquaculturists. For a handy reference guide, signs, diagnostic charts, colour plates, and treatment plans, some readers will find popular publications such as Andrews et al. (1989), Untergasser (1989) and Burgess et al. (1998) to be of more immediate practical use.
The lasting impression from this book is of an international community of research scientists and specialist veterinarians who are completely absorbed in issues of commercial capture fisheries and fish farming, to the exclusion of the crucial health issues now emerging in relation to fish conservation in nature. For example, seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) are being over-fished globally at an unsustainable rate in excess of 20 million individuals each year. Seahorses are now being successfully bred in public aquaria as an insurance against extinction in the wild. However, among a range of health problems, seahorses are susceptible to a `gas bubble disease' of uncertain aetiology. Unfortunately, such critical health issues do not feature in Fish Diseases and Disorders.
Elsewhere, veterinary practitioners are generally more concerned with treating commercially valuable, artificially selected and hybridised ornamental fishes than applying knowledge to real issues with wild fish species and their conservation (see, for example, Gratzek, 1981, Post, 1987, and Butcher, 1998). Closer still to the professional aquarium community are the regional associations of zoo veterinarians and wildlife veterinarians, but they pay scant attention to fishes. For example, the 1998-published Joint Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians and American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians include only four fish papers (or 2.4%) among 166 on other taxa or issues (Kirk Baer, 1998). Clearly, there is an overwhelming need to develop a whole new discipline of conservation medicine for fishes.
Gordon McGregor Reid, Director, Chester Zoo
Christopher West, Chief Curator, Chester Zoo
Andrews, C., Excell, A., and Carrington, N. (1988): The Manual of Fish Health. Salamander Books, London.
Burgess, P., Bailey, M., and Excell, A. (1998): AZ of Tropical Fish Diseases and Health Problems. Ringpress Books, Lydney, Gloucestershire, U.K.
Butcher, R.L. (1998): A pictorial overview of some diseases of ornamental fish. Veterinary International 1: 1120.
Colorni, A., and Burgess, P. (1997): Cryptocaryon irritans Brown 1951, the cause of `white spot disease' in marine fish: an update. Aquarium Sciences and Conservation 1 (4): 217238.
FAWC (1996): Report on the Welfare of Farmed Fish. Farm Animal Welfare Council, Surbiton, Surrey, U.K.
Garden, O. (1992): The Myxosporea of fish: a review. British Veterinary Journal 148: 223239.
Gratzek, J.B. (1981): An overview of ornamental fish diseases and therapy. Journal of Small Animal Practice 22: 345.
Gratzek, J.B. (1992): Aquariology: The Science of Fish Health Management. Tetra Press, Morris Plains, New Jersey, U.S.A.
Hargis, W.J. (ed.) (1986): Parasitology and Pathology of Marine Organisms of the World's Oceans. NOAA Technical Report (NMFS No. 25).
Kirk Baer, C. (ed.) (1998): Proceedings of the 1998 Joint Conference of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians and American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians. AAZV & AAWV, Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.A. (xxiii + 548 pp.)
Mann, J.A. (1989): Selected bibliography on diseases and parasites of fishes: books, proceedings and reviews, 19781989. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.
Mawdesley-Thomas, L.E. (ed.) (1972): Diseases of Fish. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, No. 30. (xxiv + 380 pp.)
Noga, E.J. (1996): Fish Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment. Mosby-Yearbook, St Louis, Missouri, U.S.A.
Pickering, A.D. (ed.) (1981): Stress and Fish. Academic Press, London and New York.
Post, G. (1987): Textbook of Fish Health. TFH Publications, New York.
Ribelin, E., and Migaki, G. (eds) (1975): The Pathology of Fishes. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.
Roberts, R.J. (ed.) (1989): Fish Pathology (2nd edition). Baillière Tindall, London.
Sindermann, C.J. (1990): Principal Diseases of Marine Fish and Shellfish (revised edition). Academic Press, New York and London.
Stoskopf, M.K. (ed.) (1993): Fish Medicine. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia and London.
Untergasser, D. (1989): Handbook of Fish Diseases (English language edition, translated by H.H. Hirscham). TFH Publications, New York.
Van Duijn, C. (1981): Tuberculosis in fishes. Journal of Small Animal Practice 22: 391.
JOSEPH WOLF (18201899) TIERMALER/ANIMAL PAINTER edited by Karl Schulze-Hagen and Armin Geus. Basilisken-Presse, Marburg, 2000. 361 pp., 213 illus., hardback. ISBN 3925347577. DM 148.00 (c. £45 or US$65).
CREATURES by Henry Horenstein and Owen Edwards (introduction). Stewart, Tabori and Chang, New York, 2000. 84 pp., 57 photographs, paperback. ISBN 1556709862. £14.99 or US$22.50. (Published in German as KREATÜRLICHES with an introduction by Elke Heidenreich. Frederking & Thaler, Munich, 2000. 84 pp., 57 photographs, hardback. ISBN 3894054166. DM 58.00.)
Among the most attractive (and expensive) collectibles of zoo-related paraphernalia are issues of, and offprints from, the Transactions and Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Much to the disgust of the zoo historian, print dealers frequently have only the plates on offer, disbound from the original text. For collectors, however, with no scholarly interests, it's the work of the artists that makes the two journals perhaps the most desirable of all zoo periodicals. `The most prolific of all zoological artists was probably Joseph Wolf,' according to Wilfred Blunt in The Ark in the Park, his sesquicentennial history of the Z.S.L. in the 19th century. Thumbing through Schulze-Hagen and Geus's beautifully produced catalogue and collection of essays published to accompany a travelling exhibition, one can quickly appreciate why Wolf was in such demand. Over a period of 32 years, he created 355 plates for the P.Z.S. alone, 28 for the larger-format Transactions, and between 1861 and 1867 100 plates for the two-volume Zoological Sketches, edited by Philip Lutley Sclater, Secretary of the Z.S.L. from 1859 to 1903. `Wolf,' Sclater wrote in his foreword, `may be fairly said to stand alone in his intimate knowledge of the habits and forms of mammals and birds.'
Joseph (originally Mathias) Wolf was born in the German village of Mörz, south-west of Koblenz in what is now Rhineland-Palatinate, on 22 January 1820. Apparently a born naturalist and naturally talented artist, he had little inclination to take over the family farm that provided his parents with a modest but steady income. Determined to become an animal painter, his parents let him go to Koblenz in 1836 to learn the craft of lithography. In 1842 he drifted to Darmstadt, the capital of Southern Hesse, and became a student in the grand-ducal drawing school directed by the landscape artist Carl Ludwig Seeger. Promoted by the naturalist Hermann Schlegel in Leiden and the ornithologist John Gould, with whom he would collaborate for 25 years, Wolf settled in London in the spring of 1848, having adopted the name Joseph. He had made his reputation with twelve lithographs for Schlegel and Verster van Wulverhorst's `elephant' folio [c. 70 ΄ 58 cm Ed.] Traité de fauconnerie, published between 1845 and 1853. `All these (other) artists were surpassed by a young painter, Jos. Wolf,' Schlegel, himself an excellent bird illustrator, wrote in an essay published in 1849. For the rest of his life, Wolf would live within walking distance of London Zoo.
A travelling exhibition celebrating the art of Joseph Wolf was inaugurated at the Biohistoricum, the museum for the history of biology in Neuburg on the Danube, late last June. Following a three-month stay in Darmstadt ending 21 January, it will open at Holland's National Natural History Museum in Leiden on 15 February and at the Natural History Museum in London on 1 June. Americans will have an opportunity to admire the show at the National Museum for Wildlife Art in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, scheduled for the autumn of 2001. For those who will have no chance to see the exhibition at any of the five venues, and as a beautiful souvenir for those who do, one could hardly hope for a more attractive and at the same time scholarly book than Joseph Wolf. In addition to the comprehensive catalogue, ten authors contributed twelve essays on various aspects of Wolf's life, art and influence. Schulze-Hagen's contribution `Zoological Society of London, Zoo, Zoological Research' might be of most interest to readers of I.Z.N., but the importance of zoo specimens for the artist Wolf was not lost on the other essayists either. The reproduction of Wolf's art in colour is excellent. And befitting a companion to an exhibition travelling through Germany, Holland, Britain and the States, Joseph Wolf is genuinely bilingual, with every text and picture caption in both German and English. A comprehensive bibliography of secondary literature and of all publications that include Illustrations executed by Wolf bring a fine book to its end. Visitors who bought their copy at either retrospective in Germany got a 30% discount, but even if the museums in Leiden, London and Jackson Hole cannot make the same offer, the booksellers' price of DM 148 still represents very good value.
Henry Horenstein's Creatures too have been on exhibit in the United States, in his native Boston and in New York and Houston. A reader in photography and illustration at the Rhode Island School of Design, and author of well-received college textbooks on photography, he enjoys a national reputation as an artistic photographer, and deserves an international one. The 57 beautiful tritone images of Creatures were taken, with very few exceptions, in zoos and aquaria. And although not one of the menageries or vivaria is identifiable in the picture, or identified in the text, his portfolio makes one glad again that there are zoos. His portraits represent a fresh and lively perspective that makes me want to moth-ball my Leica. Yet realistically, most could only have been taken in a zoo.
Aside from the four-page introductions, the English- and German-language editions are identical. It really doesn't matter in what language one buys a copy. On two double pages at the back of the book each photograph is reprinted in stamp-size, giving the vernacular and scientific names of every animal; the rest is just wonderful photography. Joseph Wolf would have been impressed.
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ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA, U.S.A.
Extracts from the 1999 Annual Report
Curators' Report (by James M. Dolan, Director of Collections)
The Zoo's mammal department made important acquisitions, which allowed for improved breeding of a number of species in the collection. These included Vietnamese giant flying squirrel, forest buffalo, Vernay's ratel, naked mole-rat, and African spotted-necked otter. Additionally, a group of South African springbok were imported, a species that has not been seen at San Diego Zoo in several years. January began a series of firsts at the Zoo with the first birth of a Vernay's ratel in North America. The summer kicked off with additional first births for the Zoo, including two litters of Chacoan peccaries and three Indo-Chinese tiger cubs. But of course, the year's real showstopper was Hua Mei, the first giant panda born in the Western Hemisphere since 1990 and the first such birth for the Zoo. The new Ituri Forest exhibit features a number of unique, mixed-species enclosures including forest buffalo, spotted-necked river otters, Allen's swamp monkeys, Schmidt's spot-nosed guenons, and De Brazza guenons.
The completely redesigned Owens Rain Forest Aviary reopened in November after being closed for three years. The extensive interior remodel was spectacular, including an elevated walkway, an aquarium, several waterfalls, and three pools. More than 200 birds representing 60 species of Southeast Asian birds are exhibited. This was also the best year ever for Raggiana birds of paradise, with ten chicks raised. At the busy Avian Propagation Center, staff hand-raised their sixth harpy eagle chick and the first curl-crested aracari to be raised in the United States. A rare Eurasian bearded vulture, or lammergeier, arrived from Tel Aviv as a mate for the Zoo's lone female; this is the only pair in a U.S. zoo, and we are hoping for successful reproduction.
The Zoo's reptile department continues to manage the Fiji Island banded iguana (Brachylophus fasciatus) colony and studbook, sending more iguanas to other zoos to establish breeding colonies. We bred several species for the first time at the Zoo: bushmasters, New Caledonian live-bearing geckos, emperor flat lizards, amethystine pythons, and frilled lizards. We also acquired several new species: Asian horned frogs, Papuan taipans, green mambas, banded rock rattlesnakes, twinspot rattlesnakes, Bornean giant pond turtles, Chinese box turtles, Asian painted terrapins, Hamilton's pond turtles, and Boelen's pythons.
The mammal department's animal care staff at the Wild Animal Park were kept busy counting newborns in 1999. They welcomed the 86th and 87th southern white rhino calves to be born there, as well as the 29th, 30th, and 31st Indian rhino calves. Gaurs have also done well at the Park, with their 188th and 189th calves born in March. The okapis had four calves born, as did the Uganda giraffes, while the reticulated giraffes had two. Among the primates, one gorilla was born, the 15th for the Park, and a female crested gibbon (Hylobates gabriellae) was also born, the 4th for that family group. The Transcaspian urials (Ovis vignei arkal) had eight births this spring, and all the young sheep could be seen clambering over rocks in their steep exhibit.
Significant acquisitions for the Park's bird department included two bateleur eagles, four black-casqued hornbills and four long-tailed hornbills. Among the many significant hatches were nine California condors, one Andean condor, six Guam rails (with one released back into the wild), two white-bearded manakins, four pink pigeons, five hornbill species (black, red-knobbed, wrinkled, Papuan and eastern yellow-billed), and three African pygmy falcons. The flamingo colonies at the Park continue to breed successfully, with five lesser flamingos hatched, which is a Park first, as well as 15 greater flamingos.
CRES Report (by Alan Dixson, Director of Conservation and Science, Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species)
All eight divisions of CRES are involved with field research projects, both in the U.S.A. and overseas, to better understand the biology of endangered species and better design conservation strategies for their recovery in the wild. Close to home, the California condor is making a comeback with 18 chicks produced in 1999 and nine of them hatched at the Wild Animal Park. Behavioral studies of the captive population have shown that both parents participate equally in incubating and turning the eggs, as well as in brooding, feeding, and preening their chicks. On San Clemente Island, off the coast of California, a joint recovery program for the San Clemente Island loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi) resulted in 11 captive-breeding pairs being established, who produced 52 chicks, and 33 of these were parent-reared. Other studies are being conducted on the desert tortoise, American alligator, California least tern, snowy plover, southern California bighorn sheep, San Diego fairy shrimp, and San Diego coast horned lizard. In Hawaii, CRES researchers have helped with the Peregrine Fund's Hawaiian Endangered Bird Conservation Program specifically, the release of the Hawaiian forest crow. Survival of released birds has been disappointing, and it now appears that this is partly due to toxoplasmosis, a parasitic infection transmitted by domestic cats.
Studies are under way on inducing estrus in captive cheetahs. A collaborative study involving CRES scientists and staff at the Wild Animal Park has added substantially to the knowledge of the reproductive endocrinology of the female white rhinoceros. Studies involving black rhinos have also included reproductive endocrinology, as well as genetic diversity and herpesviruses. A cooperative program has been established with the Drill Rehabilitation and Breeding Centre in Nigeria; and other primates studied include slender loris, lion-tailed macaque, douc langur, and white-headed langur.
Studies of the genetic variation, population structure, and evolution of argali sheep resulted in preliminary findings that female Mongolian argali are not philopatric (loyal to a home area) in comparison with North American mountain sheep, and that there is no support for multiple subspecies designations for Mongolian argali. A study of wild sheep in Asia and North America supports the view that much of the currently accepted subspecific taxonomy of wild sheep is not congruent with new molecular data and lacks all evolutionary basis.
In gamete biology, domestic dogs were used as a model for carnivores. The effects of serum, growth factors, protein and steroid hormones, and media formulations on in vitro maturation of canid oocytes were examined. The results of these studies will be used to optimize in vitro maturation and fertility of carnivore oocytes for preservation of genetic diversity. Also, most germ plasm collections from exotic species occur opportunistically during medical procedures or at the time of the animal's death. Appropriate sperm or ova are not always available, and embryo recipients cannot be maintained for immediate in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer for the variety of species in the Society's collection. Thus, effective cryopreservation is of critical importance for future germ plasm utilization. Preliminary experiments attempted to preserve oocyte maturation and fertilization potential during freezing and thawing.
In the American alligator, the temperature at which the eggs are incubated affects the sex of the offspring. The CRES endocrinology division is examining possible mechanisms by which estrogen exerts its effects upon sex determination in this species. Finding an easy, quick, and reliable method of determining gender in sexually monomorphic birds has been an important goal for the genetics division, especially for the task of sexing the California condor chicks each year. For the past few years, sex has been determined using polymerase chain reaction primers that amplify W-linked and non-W-linked fragments in birds. The PCR technique was also successfully used on a harpy eagle for whom chromosome analysis was inconclusive in identifying gender.
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INTERNATIONAL ZOO NEWS
Alma-Ata Zoo, Kazakhstan
This zoo in the Asian part of the former Soviet Union (Alma-Ata now written Almaty is the capital of the now independent republic of Kazakhstan) kept a pair of Asian elephants in the past which had five offspring from 1968 to 1978. Today none of these calves is still alive, and the survivor of the original pair, the female Palma, died in 1998 at the age of 40, leaving the zoo without elephants. But in summer 2000 the zoo successfully imported a young pair (1.5 years old) of Asian elephants from Bangladesh, and hopes are high that breeding may start again in the future.
There are very few young elephants in the zoos of the former Soviet Union, as nearly all the elephant houses there were constructed for only two elephants (mostly 1.1!). The reasons for this were the lack in funds and construction materials and the high cost of heating, feeding and the import of elephants from their native countries. The dramatic economic crisis in all these countries prevents the reconstruction and improvement of zoo exhibits with the aim of keeping social groups of difficult animal species, including elephants.
Jürgen Schilfarth, European Elephant Group
Australian Reptile Park, Somersby, New South Wales, Australia
The park suffered a devastating fire to its main building complex in the early hours of 16 July 2000. Three-quarters of the building's interior was totally gutted, and almost the entire reptile, amphibian, fish, platypus and invertebrate collection was lost. The remainder of the park was untouched, including all of the birds, most of the mammals, the large crocodilians, Galapagos tortoises, lace monitors and a small number of bearded dragons, tiger snakes, Cunningham's skinks, bluetongues and native turtles. Mercifully, the rough-scaled pythons were not housed in the main building, nor were the majority of the green-and-golden bell frogs. Everything else perished, except for one alligator snapping turtle and a pig-nosed turtle, both of which miraculously survived. Needless to say, the directors, John and Robyn Weigel, and all the staff are totally devastated by this event and will take some time to come to terms fully with the consequences; but there is no doubt that we will pick up the pieces and begin again. We see this as a major set-back, but also as an opportunity to address all the problems that we had experienced with the facility. To do this successfully we will need the assistance of many of our zoo industry colleagues, as well as an understanding and sympathetic approach from the relevant government authorities. Our first step is to implement the cleanup, and then to initiate the planning process.
Rob Porter in ARAZPA Newsletter No. 47 (August 2000)
Belfast Zoo, Northern Ireland, U.K.
Our success earlier this year with the Humboldt's penguins has been repeated, and now additional pairs are successfully rearing their own chicks, so our flock is growing at a pleasing rate. Our first year of success with the gentoo penguins, imported from Edinburgh Zoo in 1997, is also very pleasing; these young birds have surpassed themselves in rearing six chicks to independence in their first reproductive year. The gentoo penguin is only held by a handful of zoos and aquaria around the world, and this breeding represents a huge success for the zoo.
A veritable population boom among our primates has included births of ring-tailed, ruffed and lesser mouse lemur, white-bellied pygmy marmoset, emperor, red-bellied, Weddell's and cotton-top tamarins, black lion tamarin, Colombian black spider monkey (Ateles fusciceps robustus), François's langur and Kikuyu colobus. Other births have included a red panda, our first for several years, and a litter of short-clawed otters. Welcome additions to the zoo's hoofed populations include a female giraffe, the first offspring sired by a young male imported from England nearly two years ago. A further two females are looking distinctly rotund, so our fine herd of eight animals could well increase in size over the next few months. The birth of a female Nile lechwe is pleasing and breaks a run of male births in this herd. The birth of a male mhorr gazelle was also a summer highlight, though we could really do with a number of females to increase our future breeding potential with this extremely rare species.
The flock of 3.6 eastern white pelicans from Rotterdam Zoo will make an interesting addition to our lake. These recognisable and familiar birds have not been kept here for many years. At the same time, we also imported two male white-tailed black cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris), and while they are still young, they should in time considerably help our chances of breeding from this infrequently kept species. A small flock (3.3) of Nicobar pigeons has been loaned to us from Barcelona Zoo; we have bred this threatened species in the past, and the acquisition of these new birds should, we hope, allow for continued breeding success.
An unrelated female white-bellied pygmy marmoset (Cebuella pygmaea niveiventris) has arrived from America. She has been paired with one of the males from our main group, allowing us to establish a second group of this rarely-kept subspecies. To create new and second pairs of other endangered marmosets and tamarins, a silvery marmoset and a pied tamarin have been imported from Jersey, and a female emperor tamarin has been acquired for pairing with a proven breeding male. All these species are the subjects of managed and coordinated breeding programmes, in which we continue to play an active role.
Mark Challis, Assistant Manager, in Zoo Crack No. 49 (Summer/Autumn 2000)
Brookfield Zoo, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.
A male infant was born to Gracie, an aardvark at Brookfield Zoo, Chicago, on 20 June. The sire, Bernaard, is wild-born, which makes this a significant birth since the calf is his first surviving offspring. In addition, this is a third-generation captive birth on the maternal side. The calf weighed 15 pounds [6.8 kg] at birth, and by early August weighed more than 21 pounds [9.5 kg]. He will be introduced to his exhibit this fall. Currently there are only 15 aardvarks in eight North American zoos.
AZA Communiqué (September 2000)
Cincinnati Zoo, Ohio, U.S.A.
Ever since the zoo was founded 125 years ago, a combination of animals and plants has been a part of the institutional vision. The early Cincinnati Zoo was planted as an experimental garden with a large number of exotic trees and shrubs from around the world, and some of the historic 19th-century trees still stand today. Unlike the displays of many typical botanical gardens, the zoo's botanical displays do not include separate gardens of perennials, annuals, roses, lilacs, or rhododendrons. The informal, naturalistic plantings blend a variety of plants with a multitude of different animal exhibits to demonstrate the complexity, diversity and beauty of the natural world.
Since 1980, trained volunteers have given tours to garden clubs and other groups, while many plants have been labeled for visitors. In August 1985 the zoo hosted the midwestern regional meeting of the American Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta. By 1986 Cincinnati Zoo had received four national landscaping and grounds maintenance awards as it became known for its outstanding gardens and landscape.
To reflect the natural interdependence of animals and plants and to highlight its botanical collection and displays, the zoo changed its official name in 1987 from Cincinnati Zoological Garden to Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden. The name change was a part of director Edward J. Maruska's vision of extending the zoo's collections and exhibits to the full range of the world's life forms. The change to Zoo and Botanical Garden was not in name only. The botanical collection rivals the animal collection in value and far exceeds it in number. By 1992 there were 3,000 plant species and cultivars, making the zoo's combined animal and plant holdings one of the largest living collections in the zoo world.
David Ehrlinger, Director of Horticulture, in a Cincinnati Zoo press release
Dambari Field Station, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe
The Dambari Field Station is run by the Marwell Zimbabwe Trust (MZT) as a breeding and research institute for duikers and other small antelopes, and is jointly funded by Marwell and Paignton Zoos in the U.K. Duikers are secretive animals and, with one exception, are forest dwellers. Hence, studying them in the wild is difficult and little is known about them in comparison to their larger, savannah dwelling relatives. The duiker collection at the station is a good cross-section of the tribe. Small duikers held are the blue duiker (Cephalophus monticola) and Maxwell's duiker (C. maxwellii); medium-sized ones are red (C. natalensis), bay (C. dorsalis) and black (C. niger) duikers; and large species are yellow-backed (C. sylvicultur) and the only non-forest species, the common duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia). Most of the animals were transferred to the station from the Chipangali Wildlife Orphanage [see I.Z.N. 40/3, pp. 1621 Ed.]. The duikers are housed in large, well-planted, semi-natural enclosures in which they are generally healthy and breed well. It is also possible to temporarily bring them into smaller pens for intensive studies or to release them into a 50-acre [20 ha] park for extensive studies. The animals experience minimal disturbance from humans and therefore retain much of their natural behaviour and activity patterns, so the station is an excellent base for research into these poorly understood antelopes.
As forest dwellers, most duikers are under some degree of threat from habitat destruction. But perhaps a more imminent threat for many species is the bushmeat trade duikers account for over 60% of animals taken as bushmeat. By contrast, common duikers do not seem to be threatened and may even be thriving in areas close to human habitation. Their success is largely due to their ecological adaptability, but the reasons underlying it are not entirely clear; to investigate this further, we have initiated a study on free-living common duiker in the nearby Matopos National Park and surrounding communal land.
As human populations throughout Africa continue to grow, conservation breeding will have an increasingly important role in the survival of these animals. Currently, duikers tend not to do well in captivity, so more information is needed to improve husbandry practices. Since the end of 1998 we have been conducting detailed research into the nutrition of all the duikers at the station. We have also studied their foraging ecology within their enclosures, including daily patterns of food intake and rumination. A variety of opportunistic data is also collected on animals requiring veterinary treatment and from post mortem examinations. Although the duikers are handled as little as possible, capture, handling and sampling techniques are continuously reviewed and refined. Whenever possible mating, gestation and parturition data are collected for future reference.
To date, small antelopes have been somewhat neglected, in terms of research and conservation efforts. To facilitate exchange of information about them, MZT is hosting an international symposium in Zimbabwe in February 2001. For further information please contact Dr Amy Plowman at email@example.com. For information on MZT's other activities, please contact Tim Woodfine at Marwell Preservation Trust (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Abridged from Amy Plowman (Paignton Zoo) and Verity Bowman (Dambari Field Station) in EAZA News No. 32 (OctoberDecember 2000)
Drusillas Park, Alfriston, U.K.
In June, Drusillas was named `Visitor Attraction of the Year' by the South East England Tourist Board, beating off tough competition from rivals throughout Kent, Surrey and Sussex. In the period JanuaryJuly school visits were up by 49% thanks to a range of curriculum-linked education sessions, including the popular topic of `Minibeasts' linked to our new Millennium Bugs invertebrate exhibit.
In summer 2000 we opened our new saki and golden-headed lion tamarin enclosure; the pair of sakis came from Szeged (Hungary) and Skansen (Sweden) Zoos, and the tamarins from London and Bristol. They all settled well together for the first few months, but the male tamarins have now had to be segregated due to fighting. We have introduced a pair of capybaras into our European beaver enclosure, as by nature the beavers are very inactive during the day and the enclosure needed an addition to it. They have settled in well together, and the male capybara has on occasions been found in the beavers' lodge with them.
Births and hatchings this year have included 0.0.2 Goeldi's monkeys, 0.0.3 Humboldt's penguins, 2.0 ring-tailed lemurs and 2.0 black-and-white ruffed lemurs. Notable arrivals were 1.1 capybaras, 1.1 white-faced sakis, 2.0 golden-headed lion tamarins, 1.1 kookaburras, 5.0 Sulawesi macaques and an established colony of leaf-cutter ants. Five (3.2) vervet monkeys went to Woburn to be mixed with their bears and colobus monkeys, and four male ring-tailed lemurs left to join Whipsnade's bachelor group. Two (1.1) Asian short-clawed otters died, both from old age; it is interesting to note that neither had any calcification found on the kidneys or other organs at post mortem.
Sue Woodgate, Zoo Curator
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, Jersey, Channel Islands, U.K.
The `mountain chicken' (Leptodactylus fallax) is a large (20 cm snoutvent) frog now found only in Dominica and Montserrat in the eastern Caribbean. Its name derives from its native habitat, mountains, and the similarity of its taste, when fried, boiled or roasted, to that of chicken. Unfortunately, this similarity has led to the frog's exploitation for human consumption and is a factor contributing to its increasing endangerment in the wild. As part of an ongoing multi-faceted wildlife monitoring and conservation programme for Montserrat's native species [see I.Z.N. 46/3, pp. 166167], the Trust collected 13 adult mountain chickens in August 1999, at which time the species had never before bred in captivity to our knowledge (although it has been maintained with that intention by a number of institutions since the mid-1970s). Jersey Zoo successfully propagated them to metamorphosis and beyond in May, June and August 2000. A total of seven foam nests have been obtained to date. The first nest produced 40 3-cm-long baby frogs in late June, after two months in the foam nest. All are doing well. Three subsequent nests have been fertile but failed to hatch, whilst two more have produced 34 and 43 baby frogs respectively. This world-first breeding in captivity has allowed us to document, by the use of infra-red cameras in the frogs' underground burrows, much about their unique reproductive biology previously unknown to science.
Richard Gibson, Andrew Owen and David Jeggo in EAZA News No. 32 (OctoberDecember 2000)
Dvur Králové Zoo, Czech Republic
A female northern white rhino (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) was born at the zoo on 29 June 2000 after a gestation period of 482 days. The birth was recorded by five cameras and could be observed live on the Internet. The mother, Najin, was born in July 1989, also at Dvur Králové. She is the first F1 northern white rhino to reproduce in captivity. Although Najin is a first-time mother, she is taking excellent care of her calf. The sire, Saut, was wild-born in 1972 in Sudan and arrived here in September 1975. His first young was born in 1980, but since then he has produced no more offspring until now. Between 1989 and 1998 Saut and two wild-caught females from Dvur Králové were on breeding loan at San Diego Wild Animal Park, but this exchange did not result in any pregnancy. As Saut was the only unrelated male in captivity for the young females Najin and Nabire, he returned here in July 1998. He was introduced to the females on 19 August and mated Najin for the first time on 14 September. Further matings took place on 28 October and 28 November 1998 and on 5 March 1999. The last mating resulted in Najin's pregnancy. Recently, Saut has concentrated on the other young female, Nabire, who was born at Dvur Králové Zoo in November 1983. Her hormonal cycle is continuously monitored by means of faecal metabolites. Saut mated her for the first time on 26 June, and hopes are high that this may have resulted in another pregnancy.
The northern white rhino is one of the most endangered large mammals on earth, with about 30 animals in the wild and ten in captivity (at Dvur Králové and San Diego). Dvur Králové made zoo history when it achieved the world-first breeding success in June 1980. Since then four northern white rhinos have been mother-reared here, including this year's female calf. Dvur Králové is thus the only zoo worldwide to have successfully bred four rhinoceros taxa, Indian, black, southern white and northern white.
Dana Holeckova and Kristina Tomasova in EAZA News No. 32 (OctoberDecember 2000)
Highland Wildlife Park, Scotland, U.K.
The twin male pine martens (Martes martes) born in March were reared without problems by their elderly mother. Meanwhile, we had left the smaller of the two youngsters from last year in with the adult male, assuming it was a female. However, in early July, this youngster started to behave very aggressively towards the old male, continually ambushing him and generally making his life a misery. So we caught up the yearling for the first time and immediately saw it was a male. This certainly explained the aggressive behaviour, as he was quite naturally challenging his father. It was interesting that the father had tolerated the presence of the young male for so long. They were often seen playing or sleeping together during the daytime, particularly when using the new aerial tunnels. These tunnels, or `treespans' as we call them, have been a great attraction in the Forest Habitat, where they extend out around and back to the pine marten and wild cat enclosures.
As well as the pine martens born in the park, we also had two sets of twins (3.1) brought in for hand-rearing, having lost their mothers, possibly due to persecution or road accidents. After rearing the two sets apart, we started to mix them in a `playpen' when their rearing cages were being cleaned out. The youngsters developed their climbing skills very quickly, and it was fascinating to watch the way in which they need to develop their digital movements. They appear to have the digital dexterity of a human concert pianist by the age of nine weeks, in order to move around, as they cannot retract their claws.
In response to a local press story about our work with the pine marten kits, we received a rather alarming and very negative reaction from a number of local people, who were quite abusive, accusing us of rearing `vermin'. There was also a marked cooling in response to approaches we made to local landowners, with a view to releasing the wild-born martens after they become independent. People seemed very reluctant to see this capable and highly adapted predator back in their `backyards'. This is a sad indictment of the extent to which biodiversity is valued in Scotland today.
Abridged from Jeremy Usher Smith, park manager, in Arkfile Vol. 9, No. 3 (Autumn 2000)
John G. Shedd Aquarium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.
A three-day workshop on erysipelas in cetaceans, hosted by Shedd Aquarium, provided an opportunity for marine mammal experts, veterinarians and scientists to gather for the first time specifically to discuss this lethal disease and a strategy to prevent it. Erysipelas is a fast-acting blood-borne bacterial infection that can kill a whale or dolphin within 24 hours, with few symptoms to alert the animal-care staff. Every year, the disease claims cetaceans in aquariums and zoos, as well as animals in the wild.
`Erysipelas is not a common cause of fatalities,' says Dr Jeff Boehm, vice president of research and veterinary services, `but it is a consistent enough cause that it has the attention of most of the marine mammal community.' Boehm coordinated the workshop with Dr Geraldine Lacave of Marine Mammal Veterinary Services in Brugge, Belgium, and Dr Rhonda A. Patterson of the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Southern Mississippi.
Twenty-one experts from 13 zoological and research institutions in three countries shared current knowledge about erysipelas and coordinated plans to standardize tests to identify the disease-causing bacteria, which can be present on the raw fish fed to marine mammals. They also outlined research to gain a better understanding of whales' and dolphins' immune response to the bacteria and the vaccine currently in use.
Shedd has been involved in erysipelas research with the University of Ghent, Belgium, and the University of Southern Mississippi since 1995, when one of its Pacific white-sided dolphins died of the disease. The aquarium also lost a beluga whale to erysipelas in 1999.
`At this workshop, many colleagues came together to discuss the disease and achieve consensus on the direction in which we're moving in husbandry practices and in research,' says Boehm. `We'll be reconvening this group at professional meetings to keep each other apprised of our progress and sustain the momentum created here.'
WaterShedd Vol. 21, No. 4 (Autumn 2000)
Newquay Zoo, Cornwall, U.K.
Britain's smallest rodent, the harvest mouse (Micromys minutus), has nearly disappeared from our countryside. An adult harvest mouse is little more than 5 cm long from nose to base of tail, and weighs about 510 g. In the wild these mice will only live for about six months, and are often eaten by predators; but the biggest threat to them is changes in land use. The mice used to build their nests on stalks in corn-fields, where they would eat corn, other seeds, and occasionally fruit and insects. As farmers now cut their crops earlier in the summer, and then plough the fields, the mice have had to move into the field margins and hedgerows. And as those hedgerows have been pulled up and destroyed, the harvest mice have died.
Wildlife conservation organisations have now set up a programme in conjunction with zoos to breed the mice in captivity and release them back into the wild. Newquay now has two breeding pairs, given to us by Chester Zoo. They arrived in spring 2000, and are doing well, having already produced young. Looking after them is fairly easy: they are fed on a variety of small seeds, and the sawdust in their house is changed every couple of weeks. Unlike domestic mice, they don't smell. At the moment we have an all-male group on display in the Mini Beasts Room in the Tropical House, with breeding pairs next door in the Education Room and off-show in the Incubation Room. Work is now being carried out to identify suitable release sites for the future; but until then, our harvest mice are performing a valuable educational role, not just in the zoo but also as roving ambassadors with the Cornish Wildlife Trust.
Neil Swan in Paw Prints Vol. 3, No. 2 (Summer 2000)
Novosibirsk Zoo, Russia
A very special breeding success in 2000 was the hatching of two Siberian nutcrackers (Nucifraga caryocatactes macrorhynchos). For the first time both chicks were successfully parent-reared. To our knowledge Novosibirsk is the only zoo to breed these birds. This is also true for the Siberian spruce grouse (Dendragapus falcipennis), which produced more than 30 offspring in 2000. This species has regularly bred at the zoo for many years. The most interesting breeding success in the mammal department was the birth of two yellow-throated martens (Martes flavigula). This is all the more significant as both cubs were successfully mother-reared. The species bred for the first time in 1983 at Novosibirsk Zoo, and since then 45 have been born here, including the cubs of 2000. Novosibirsk is also famous for its breeding of Pallas's cats: a total of 41 kittens have been born here since 1995. The breeding female Solda contributed significantly to this success story when she gave birth to no less than nine kittens in 1999, of which eight have been reared.
Rostislav A. Shilo in EAZA News No. 32 (OctoberDecember 2000)
San Diego Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species (CRES), California, U.S.A.
A year ago, Betty Jensen was conducting genetic crosses of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, looking for a genetic basis of insecticide resistance. More recently, as the Bud Heller Fellow for the year 2000, she has been involved in molecularly cloning and sequencing the DNA of specific genes of the immune system that allow an individual to fight off infectious micro-organisms. She is also busy co-discovering novel herpesviruses that may play some causative role in a variety of diseases seen in the species on which she works. But rather than working on six-legged invertebrates as she has for the last 20 years, Betty is now focusing her energy on helping sustain the captive population of the critically endangered black rhinoceros.
The Heller Conservation Fellowship is awarded annually to an individual who will be working in one of the divisions at CRES, specifically on a species kept at the San Diego Wild Animal Park. The virology/immunology division of CRES pursues, as one of its priorities, an understanding of the immune system of rhinoceroses and the infectious agents that potentially threaten their long-term existence in captivity. Betty and her colleagues are applying a variety of molecular biological techniques both to identify rhinoceros-specific genes for subsequent analysis and for the discovery of novel pathogens.
One of the highest priorities for research on the black rhinoceros is to understand the genetic basis and causative factors of the many diseases seen in this species in captivity. These diseases include, among others, acute hemolytic anemia, chronic non-hemolytic anemia, hemorrhagic vasculopathy, fungal pneumonia, necrolytic dermatitis, mycobacterial infections, and chronic non-specific weight loss. Whether there are specific individuals or subpopulations of the species that are more or less likely to develop one or all of these diseases is unknown. Betty has been involved with determining the DNA sequence and level of genetic variation, among individuals, of two immune system genes that bind foreign proteins and present them to responsive cells. By utilizing genomic DNA samples isolated from the blood of more than 100 individual black rhinos, she and her co-workers have been looking for genetic patterns among these animals, and will attempt to correlate these patterns with the presence or absence of specific diseases.
In addition to this extremely challenging project, Betty has been intensively involved with the discovery and partial sequencing of three novel herpesviruses that have been detected in blood or tissue-specific cell lines of the black rhinoceros. Herpesviruses are widespread in nature and cause a broad spectrum of diseases, some of which are similar to those seen in this species. Betty has been instrumental in developing assays for the specific detection of these viruses in the blood of living animals, and the molecular epidemiological data that emerge from this study may establish connections between viral infections and specific diseases.
Michael Worley, D.V.M., Division Head, Virology/Immunology, in CRES Report (Fall 2000)
Toledo Zoo, Ohio, U.S.A.
The zoo recently received three awards from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) for contributions to the conservation and recovery of the nation's endangered and threatened species.
Dr Peter Tolson, Conservation Biologist, received the first of these awards for the Virgin Islands boa (Epicrates monensis) reintroduction program. The boa is one of two federally-listed endangered boas in the United States and its territories. It is found in Puerto Rico and some of its satellite islands, and on St Thomas of the U.S. Virgin Islands. Toledo was the first zoo in the world to successfully reproduce the species, and more than 100 of these snakes have been born since 1986. The goal of the program is to reintroduce captive-born boas to the islands from which they have disappeared.
R. Andrew Odum, Curator of Herpetology, accepted the second award for his work with the Wyoming Toad Recovery Program. This toad (Bufo hemiophrys baxteri) was listed as endangered in 1984, and by 1994 the Wyoming Game and Fish Department had brought into captivity the last few remaining wild toads in an effort to prevent the subspecies from becoming extinct. The Wyoming Toad Recovery Program has resulted in the release of many animals back into their natural habitat, with the goal of re-establishing populations in the wild.
Mitch Magdich, Curator of Education, accepted the third award for the reintroduction of the Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis), which is also a federally endangered species. Listed in 1992, it was once very common in the Oak Openings region, but disappeared from Ohio in 1988 due to loss of habitat. It is currently limited to small populations in four states bordering the Great Lakes. North-west Ohio is the first reintroduction site in the United States.
Toledo Zoo press release
Weymouth Sea Life Park, Dorset, U.K.
In August, staff at the park carried out a delicate underwater operation using the kind of plastic bags made for sandwiches. The result should be the world's first twin sharks. The young lesser spotted dogfishes (Scyliorhinus canicula) had been attached by their umbilical cords to a double yolk, but were growing in one egg sac; they needed a sac each to survive.
Marine biologist Nina Godsell removed them from the sac and placed each embryo and its yolk in a separate plastic bag. She had to hold the two bags just beneath the surface of a small nursery tank, then carefully snip the end off the egg sac and gently squeeze to transfer the embryos. Any damage to the yolks during the transfer could have proved fatal, and it was made more difficult because the tubes that connected the yolk sacs to the sharks were twisted around each other.
If the pioneering operation had not been performed, the twins would have outgrown the sac long before their nine-month gestation period was complete. They would have been too immature to survive. Experts are confident that the sharks, which were five months into their gestation at the time of the operation, will emerge safely from their incubators. If all goes well the youngsters can look forward to growing to a metre long and living for 15 years.
Zoological Center Tel Aviv, Ramat Gan, Israel
This zoo is famous for its unique success in breeding both species of elephant. The first birth took place in 1973, and since then more than 30 young elephants have been sired in this institution, first in Tel Aviv Zoo and since 1980 when the animals moved to their new exhibits at Ramat Gan. The last two Asian elephants were born in May 2000, and Dr Amelia Terkel, curator of the park, has described what happened.
`Both Warda and Wered gave birth to female calves. First Wered gave birth; the baby was a little small and was ``kidnapped'' by Warda. We tried to separate the two cows, so that Wered could have her baby back, but they became so agitated and so overheated that we feared for Warda's well-being as she was at the end of her pregnancy. Then Warda gave birth and she managed both calves, even though Wered kept trying to regain control of her own baby. Wered's baby (Victoria) did not thrive and eventually succumbed, dying a few days later. Warda's baby Vivi is strong and doing very well. And actually today Wered is doing most of the daily care and playing, while Warda only nurses Vivi.'
Wered herself is a daughter of Warda, born in January 1991. She was mated successfully by her father Motek when she was just four years old, and had her first baby (a female) in October 1996, which unfortunately died as a result of injuries. Warda, the herd's matriarch, is now 42 years old and little Vivi is her tenth (!) calf since she started breeding in 1973. This is not only a unique record among captive elephants, but is also unlikely to occur in the wild. (Out of these ten calves, seven are still living.) The sire of the two last-born calves is again Motek, the 40-year-old bull. He has fathered a total of 14 Asian elephants in Israel, and five of his offspring are scattered around the world (Thailand, The Netherlands, Germany, Canada).
When these two births took place in May, Warda's two last sons (Victor, born in October 1993, and Vermouth, born May 1996) were still living in the group. A few months later Victor moved to Berlin Zoo to replace Kiba, who died suddenly in 1998 from a herpesvirus infection. Victor has settled in well and was introduced to two of Berlin's resident females only three days after he arrived, giving hope for his successful integration into the herd; but as he is just seven years old, it will be some time before he starts breeding in Germany.
Jürgen Schilfarth, European Elephant Group
* * *
Anderson, R.C.: Sea anemones of the north-eastern Pacific: the flowers of the sea. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 321330. [Aquarium husbandry and distinguishing features of sea anemones of the north-eastern Pacific are described, based on 20 years of experience at the Seattle Aquarium. Anemones are relatively easy to maintain in aquariums, one having lived for more than 66 years following standard aquarium practices. The reproduction, food requirements, predators and symbionts of anemones are described, together with some intriguing aspects of their biology.]
Blount, J.D., and Taylor, N.J.: The relative effectiveness of manipulable feeders and olfactory enrichment for kinkajous Potos flavus: a preliminary study at Newquay Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 381394. [The kinkajou is a nocturnal, arboreal species that feeds opportunistically, mostly on fruits and insects. The implications for captive management of these aspects of the species' ecology have received little attention in the literature. Captive kinkajous often show stereotypic behaviour, indicating sub-optimal welfare and probably reflecting insufficient opportunity to display important aspects of natural behaviour. This study assessed the effects of complex feeders and scented cloths enrichment for a pair of kinkajous at the zoo. Feeding enrichment, alone and in combination with scented cloths, elicited most positive active behaviours and space utilization, and least stereotypic and inactive behaviours. Food provision requiring species-typical exploration and manipulation may improve the welfare and educational value of kinkajous.]
Boussekey, M.: An integrated approach to conservation of the Philippine or red-vented cockatoo Cacatua haematuropygia. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 137146. [In 1992 an in situ conservation programme was launched on Palawan island for this critically endangered species, and the education, law-enforcement and nest-protection schemes are described. An EEP was also established in 1992 to coordinate the breeding of Philippine cockatoos already maintained in captivity. The collection .of ecological data through fieldwork, and research into disease and genetics, are outlined.]
Brouwer, K., Jones, M.L., King, C.E., and Schifter, H.: Longevity records for Psittaciformes in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 299316. [Psittaciformes are generally believed to be long-lived birds and are frequently said to reach ages of 100 years old or more. In reality, however, life spans rarely exceed 50 years, although a few reliable records exist of parrots aged up to 6570 years. Cockatoos appear to have the highest longevities and the longest reproductive life spans. Larger psittacines are generally longer-lived than smaller ones, although there seem to be some exceptions to this trend and quite remarkable differences in longevity between some similar-sized parrot genera. Some particularly interesting longevity histories, information on maximum breeding ages and trends in longevity are discussed.]
Buay, J., and Thirunavukkarasu, R.: Breeding Pesquet's parrot Psittrichas fulgidus at Jurong BirdPark. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 158165. [The captive population of this threatened New Guinea species is not well established and breeding in captivity is not common. Detailed observations of breeding and rearing at Los Angeles Zoo and Loro Parque have been invaluable for the development of a breeding programme at Jurong BirdPark, and the key issues related to pair compatibility, nesting requirements, health and the rearing of chicks are presented.]
Butler, P.: Promoting Protection Through Pride: a manual to facilitate successful conservation-education programmes developed at RARE Center for Tropical Conservation. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 273283. [RARE Center for Tropical Conservation is a non-profit, unaffiliated organization based in Philadelphia, U.S.A., which was founded in 1973 to promote the conservation of tropical wildlife and habitats, and to serve local conservation organizations in Latin America, the Caribbean and the Pacific. The Center has developed a successful and reproducible approach for promoting conservation awareness in a programme called Promoting Protection Through Pride, a locally driven, locally staffed, one-year outreach campaign that uses marketing techniques, colourful flagship species (usually a threatened bird) and national pride to generate grass-roots support for conservation. RARE Center provides a conservation-education manual, core materials and technical assistance to the lead agency and local counterpart, who tailor the campaign to address the ecological, social, political and economic realities of the target country or region. Details are given of seven species or subspecies where the Center's conservation-education programme has been utilized, in many instances, to a positive advantage.]
Chemnick, L.G., Kumamoto, A.T., and Ryder, O.A.: Genetic analyses in support of conservation efforts for the California condor Gymnogyps californianus. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 330339. [The California condor has been a focus of intensive conservation efforts for several decades. Genetic studies have played an integral part in these efforts, beginning in 1981 with cytogenetic sexing of all birds. A protocol was optimized for culturing condor lymphocytes and 84 individuals were subsequently sexed through chromosomal analysis. More recently the molecular genetic techniques of DNA-probe hybridization and polymerase chain reaction amplification of sex-specific DNA fragments have been used for sex determination, using blood samples taken opportunistically and eggshell membrane material collected non-invasively. In addition, the data obtained by DNA fingerprinting and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of mitochondrial DNA have provided insights into the relatedness of the founder birds and the amount of genetic diversity in the entire extant population. Three genetically distinct groups were identified within the founder population using a statistical model to analyse data from multi-locus DNA fingerprints. A mitochondrial DNA probe identified four distinct maternal lineages in the condor population, but only two of these remain in the extant females. As a result of the collaborative efforts of the recovery programme, by mid-1999 the population comprised 162 birds, including 50 condors living in the wild.]
Collar, N.J.: Globally threatened parrots: criteria, characteristics and cures. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 2135. [Ninety (26%) of the world's parrot species are threatened with extinction. The great majority (currently 93%) of these are forest species, most (75 species, 83%) have populations estimated at less than 10,000 mature individuals, and many (37 species, 41%) have ranges smaller than 20,000 km2. Habitat destruction (notably the loss of nest-sites), trade, hunting and introduced species are significant threats. Indonesia, Australia, Brazil, the Philippines, Colombia and Mexico support two-thirds (60 species) of all threatened parrots. Conservation of sites with sympatric threatened parrots is required, alongside research and awareness programmes that enable site and species management.]
Crissey, S., and Pribyl, L.: A review of nutritional deficiencies and toxicities in captive New World primates. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 355360. [The science of providing adequate nutrition for New World primates in captivity has improved dramatically in the past decade. To utilize these advances it is important to be aware of specific metabolic diseases and/or conditions associated with nutrient deficiencies or toxicities in these animals. Primates may require up to 64 dietary nutrients, highlighting the importance of an appropriate diet for optimal health. The authors present a review of the major nutritional problems which occur in captive New World primates, to provide a basis for good nutritional management of these species.]
Demlong, M.J., and Bohmke, B.: A temperature-controlled nestbox for thick-billed parrots Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha at the Phoenix Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 191195. [In Phoenix (Arizona), summer temperatures outdoors can reach a fairly constant 38° C for over 100 days, and often soar to over 43° C. During this period, the temperature in an unoccupied, standard wooden nestbox for parrots at the zoo can reach up to 40° C. For nesting adult parrots and their eggs or offspring, these temperatures can be deadly. Information is provided on the design of an air-conditioned nest log that maintains a significantly cooler internal temperature during the summer than a standard wooden nestbox.]
Dierenfeld, E.S., Wildman, R.E.C., and Romo, S.: Feed intake, diet utilization, and composition of browses consumed by the Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) in a North American zoo. Zoo Biology Vol. 19, No. 3 (2000), pp. 169180. [A nutritional study of the three Sumatran rhinos at Cincinnati Zoo. Their diet consists of mixed alfalfa/grass hay (214% of total dry matter intake or DMI), a variety of browses (6283% of DMI), grain pellets (1017% of DMI), fruit (apples and bananas 59% of DMI)), and a vitamin E supplement. All three rhinos maintained body weight (614761 kg), regular patterns of bowel movements, and fecal consistency and composition throughout the three 5-day trials. DMI ranged from 1.40 to 2.49% of body mass. Browse (with a leaf:twig ratio of approximately 2:1 by weight) contributed by far the majority of nutrients to the diets in this study, from 62 to 83% of DMI. The nutrient composition of six species of subtropically grown browses showed that leaves did not differ from twigs in water or lignin content, but leaves contained higher concentrations of protein and ash, as well as lower fiber fractions. Of the macrominerals analyzed, only phosphorus differed between leaves and twigs, with twigs containing significantly more. No differences were seen between leaves and twigs in iron, molybdenum or zinc content, but leaves contained lower concentrations of copper and higher concentrations of manganese and selenium compared with twigs from the same plants. Dry matter digestibility averaged approximately 50%. The only overt imbalances detected when comparing rhino diets with nutrient recommendations for domestic equids were excess calcium relative to phosphorus intake and low copper intake.]
Field, D.A.: A review of the salmon-crested cockatoo Cacatua moluccensis European Endangered Species Programme (EEP). International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 125129. [The EEP population of this species is in decline, but captive breeding is improving, with increasing numbers of birds in the F2 generation. The major aim of the EEP is to increase the number of effective founders by improving husbandry standards. Proposed strategies to achieve this aim include the establishment of groups of young cockatoos and allowing compatible cockatoo pairs vocal and visual contact with pairs of other white cockatoos of the genus Cacatua.]
Field, D.A., and Thomas, R.: Environmental enrichment for psittacines at Edinburgh Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 232237. [The application of environmental enrichment techniques to birds has been limited. Even now, when more enrichment is being provided for birds, much of it is centred on parrots, possibly as a means of alleviating undesirable behaviours rather than providing enriched environments. The strategies developed for psittacine enrichment at Edinburgh are described; these have now been extended to include other birds in the collection.]
Gresl, T.A., Baum, S.T., and Kemnitz, J.W.: Glucose regulation in captive Pongo pygmaeus abeli, P. p. pygmaeus, and P. p. abeli ΄ P. p. pygmaeus orangutans. Zoo Biology Vol. 19, No. 3 (2000), pp. 193208. [Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed on 30 orang-utans in 11 U.S. zoos. Two animals previously suspected to be diabetic were easily identified, and two others, aged 18 and 40, were identified as potentially prediabetic. In addition, nearly half of the animals exhibited delayed or attenuated acute insulin responses, suggesting a propensity for glucose intolerance in captive orang-utans. This propensity may be related to advancing age, and there may be a genetic component involved as well. In this study, both diabetic and potentially prediabetic animals were mature adults of considerable body weight, so, as in humans, fat mass may play a role in glucose regulation. Identification of diabetic individuals indicates the need for insulin therapy and for monitoring renal, cardiovascular, and other potential complications.]
Grisham, J., Lyon, F., Pearson, P., and MacFarlane, C.: Great EscApe: the great ape facility at Oklahoma City Zoological Park. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 366374. [Great EscApe, opened in 1993, is a state-of-the-art exhibit for three species of great ape: gorilla, Sumatran orang-utan and chimpanzee. The 2.6-ha enclosure comprises a large support facility, four spacious outdoor enclosures, two visitor centres, a children's activity loop, an open-air pavilion and a research station. It also provides an educational experience for visitors covering all facets of great ape biology and the conservation challenges which these species present. Extensive landscaping with plants, many of which simulate the natural surroundings of the apes, was utilized throughout the exhibit.]
Gruber, T.M., Friend, T.H., Gardner, J.M., Packard, J.M., Beaver, B., and Bushong, D.: Variation in stereotypic behavior related to restraint in circus elephants. Zoo Biology Vol. 19, No. 3 (2000), pp. 209221. [The behaviors of ten Asian and three African elephants were videotaped for at least 24 hours at each of six performance locations. At four of these locations, the elephants were restrained in electric-wire pens on turf and at two locations they were restrained via leg chains on macadam. It was found that the probability of stereotypic behaviors was higher when elephants were leg-chained along a picket line on macadam than when restrained in small groups within electric fences placed on turf. The effect of chained restraint differed among individual elephants, with the youngest animals more likely to show stereotypic behavior and less likely to show ingestion or resting activities than the older elephants. In contrast to chained restraint on macadam, the social and physical enrichment during penned restraint was associated with more species-typical behaviors.]
Jeggo, D.F., French, H., Bellingham, L., Copsey, J., Fidgett, A.L., Neke, K., Robert, N., and Feistner, A.: Breeding programme for St Lucia amazon Amazona versicolor at Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, Jersey. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 214220. [The Trust maintains the only captive population of St Lucia amazons outside St Lucia. In 1975 a captive-breeding programme was established as a safeguard against extinction in the wild, but subsequently the wild population recovered from a low of 100 birds to between 350 and 500 individuals at the time of writing. Over 20 offspring have been bred at Jersey and since 1996 all chicks have been parent-reared. An extensive programme of research has been carried out on diet, mortality and breeding behaviour, resulting in considerable advances in our knowledge of the captive requirements of this species.]
Jupp, T.: The status of cockatoos in south-west Western Australia and conservation efforts by Perth Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 8086. [There are eight indigenous and one introduced species of cockatoo in this area. Natural habitat is fragmented across the region. Perth Zoo, in collaboration with the state conservation authority, private aviculturists and community groups, has developed a series of cooperative breeding programmes and education initiatives to protect local species of cockatoo and prevent further decline of wild populations. Detailed descriptions are given of the breeding requirements and threats which affect four taxa Carnaby's cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus latirostris), Baudin's cockatoo (C. baudinii), forest red-tailed black cockatoo (C. banksii naso), and the southern subspecies of western long-billed corella (Cacatua p. pastinator) and the contributions the zoo is making to their conservation.]
King, C.E.: Husbandry and breeding of palm cockatoos Probosciger aterrimus at Rotterdam Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 6980. [Since the mid-1980s 22 palm cockatoos have been maintained at Rotterdam. The author describes health problems and husbandry experiences with the species. Initial group housing allows mate selection to take place; thereafter the presence of extra conspecifics seems to inhibit breeding, as does the presence of a chick with its parents. Housing other parrots with palm cockatoos proved unsatisfactory, but a pair is successfully housed in a mixed exhibit with kookaburras, honeyeaters and pigeons.]
King, C.E.: Situation-dependent management of large parrots by manipulation of the social environment. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 238244. [Further exploration of alternative methods of managing large parrots in captivity, that will allow natural behaviours to be expressed, is desirable. The author gives examples of social behavioural management of large parrots at Rotterdam and other zoos. Topics discussed include group pair selection, group housing and breeding, leaving the young with the parents during successive breeding efforts, managing aggression, foster incubation and foster parenting.]
King, C.E., Heinhuis, H., and Brouwer, K.: Management and husbandry of black cockatoos Calyptorhynchus spp in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 87116. [Black cockatoo spp. have been uncommon in European zoos because of Australian wildlife export restrictions, but recently several of these birds have been loaned to EAZA member zoos after their confiscation by government officials. Management guidelines are being developed to aid zoos with little or no experience with these species. Questionnaire responses were received from 15 zoos, and results from the survey and relevant information from the literature are presented.]
Krabbe, N.: Overview of conservation priorities for parrots in the Andean region with special consideration for yellow-eared parrot Ognorhynchus icterotis. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 283288. [Thirty-two species of parrot are restricted to the Andes and the temperate zone of Patagonia, South America, and 15 of them are considered threatened. Priorities for conservation need to be determined, and this requires a knowledge of species distributions and population status. Information concerning five of the 12 most threatened species is provided, and the yellow-eared parrot, which is considered the top priority for conservation, is discussed more fully. For parrots of the Andean region, conservation through in situ programmes is the best approach.]
Lücker, H.: The European Endangered Species Programme (EEP) for red-tailed amazon Amazona brasiliensis and in situ conservation. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 202205. [In 1994 the EEP for the red-tailed amazon was founded to facilitate captive breeding in the face of increasing threats to the species in the wild. There are c. 300 captive birds in Brazil, and the EEP is collaborating on the development of a Brazilian studbook in order to coordinate captive breeding and establish a self-sustaining captive population. The EEP also supports collaborative in situ conservation projects. The article discusses education programmes, public-awareness campaigns, ecological surveys and threats which have been identified.]
Lücker, H., and Patzwahl, S.: The European Endangered Species Programme (EEP) for the hyacinth macaw Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus from 1989 to 1998. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 178183. [The EEP for the hyacinth macaw was founded in 1989 following concerns about the status of the wild population and the lack of breeding success in captivity. Management guidelines were published in 1993 and revised in 1996. Problematic aspects of breeding, hand-rearing and diet are discussed, and several detailed guidelines to facilitate successful breeding in captivity are given.]
Mettke-Hofmann, C.: Reactions of nomadic and resident parrot species Psittacidae to environmental enrichment at the Max-Planck-Institut. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 244256. [The exploratory behaviour of six species of lorikeet and four species of broad-tailed parrot which differ in their migratory behaviour was tested to investigate whether residents and nomads show different reactions to environmental enrichment. For each species, seven pairs of birds were tested in a familiar aviary. The test was performed on two days, separated by a resting period of two days. Three unknown objects were brought into the aviary for 24 hours on Day 1 and six hours on Day 2. The results showed that more resident birds contacted the objects than nomadic birds, and that residents showed shorter latencies until first contact than nomads. No differences between groups occurred in the duration of exploration, but there was a positive correlation between duration of exploration and the tendency of the species to exhibit plucking behaviour. The results suggest that object presentation is a useful tool in supporting activity in resident as well as nomadic Psittacidae.]
Millam, J.R.: Neonatal handling, behaviour and reproduction in orange-winged amazons and cockatiels Amazona amazonica and Nymphicus hollandicus at the Department of Animal Science, University of California. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 220231. [Studies of reproductive management of captive birds of these two species show that early behavioural experiences, specifically being handled by humans during the nestling stage, can influence not only tameness but also immune status and, in cockatiels, adult reproductive performance. Behavioural studies also show that inactivity characterizes much of the time budget (c. 7590%) of breeding pairs of wild-caught orange-winged amazons under typical captive conditions, even though serum sex-steroid levels change dramatically during the course of a reproductive cycle. Other studies show that operant behaviour techniques can be used in monogamous parrots to study the reinforcing efficacy of visual access to conspecifics.]
Müller, M.: Review of the in situ status of the great green or Buffon's macaw Ara ambigua and the European Endangered Species Programme (EEP). International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 183190. [This species is discontinuously distributed in lowland tropical forests primarily along the Caribbean coast of Central America. Habitat loss and trapping are severely affecting the remaining population of c. 5,000 birds. In the early 1990s field studies were initiated to gather information about the ecology and biology of the species, and in 1994 an EEP was established to help safeguard a viable captive population for the future. Morphological differences between A. ambigua and the military macaw (A. militaris, which are important to identify in order to avoid hybridization in the captive population, in situ projects, ex situ studies and the captive-breeding programme are described. At the end of 1996 the European studbook reported 76 birds at 23 institutions, but only 14 chicks had been reared successfully by four pairs in a two-year period.]
Myers, M.S.: Breeding the writhe-billed hornbill Aceros leucocephalus at Audubon Park and Zoological Garden, New Orleans. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 345354. [In 1993 1.1 wild-caught writhe-billed hornbills were loaned to Audubon Zoo, and between 1994 and 1997 the courtship, mating and nesting behaviours of this pair were observed. The author presents these observations, and gives details of diet and chick/juvenile development. To date nine chicks have hatched, eight have successfully fledged, including one hand-reared bird, and at the time of writing five offspring were alive.]
Pilgrim, M.: Development of the European Endangered Species Programme (EEP) for the Ecuadorian or lilacine amazon Amazona autumnalis lilacina at Chester Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 195202. [In the early 1980s customs officials confiscated 150 lilacine amazons which were illegally imported into the U.K. and Germany, presenting the opportunity to establish a captive-breeding programme with a large founder population. In 1991 an EEP was established, and by 1998 101 wild-caught founders had been traced as potential breeders. Recommendations concerning the breeding of founders, husbandry and disease control are presented here, together with details of the genetic management of the EEP population and taxonomic research using DNA analysis.]
Reed, C.E.M., Sancha, S.E., and Fraser, I.: Growth and mortality of black stilt or kaki Himantopus novaezelandiae chicks at the Department of Conservation, Twizel. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 340345. [Between 1989 and 1998, 294 black stilt chicks hatched at Twizel, South Canterbury, New Zealand. Of these, 251 (85%) were successfully reared to fledging. Eighty-four (29%) chicks were parent-hatched and 75% of these fledged. A total of 188 hand-reared chicks survived to fledging. Forty-three chicks died from a number of causes, including starvation or nutritional deficiency (21%) as a result of slow acceptance of supplementary diet, bacterial infection (14%), accidents while with parents (14%), poor parenting (9%), weak hatchlings after artificial incubation (11%), stress from sibling aggression (2%), enteritis and pneumonia. There were five deaths from unknown causes.]
Rimlinger, D., Lewins, E., and King, P.: A breeding history of the collared lorikeet and blue-crowned lorikeet Phigys solitarius and Vini australis at San Diego Zoo and Assiniboine Park Zoo, Winnipeg. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 5861. [In 1991 the two zoos imported ten (7.3) collared lorikeets from Fiji; all but two of these birds have bred, with a total of 32 hatches at San Diego and four at Assiniboine. Eight (4.4) blue-crowned lorikeets arrived from Tonga; again, all but two bred, and as of February 1998, 75 chicks have hatched. Husbandry techniques are summarized for both species.]
Ritchie, B.W., Gregory, C.R., Latimer, K.S., Pesti, D., Campagnoli, R., and Lukert, P.D.: A review of the most common viruses affecting Psittaciformes. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 257273. [Four of the most common viral infections affecting psittacine birds have been studied in detail: (1) avian polyomavirus, (2) proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), (3) Pacheco's disease and (4) psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD). The Psittacine Disease Research Group, University of Georgia, has been actively involved in this research. Proventricular dilatation disease has been reported in more than 50 psittacine species as well as species in other families, while PBFD affects over 40 psittacine species. The acute and chronic clinical characteristics of the diseases, pathological features, diagnosis, and transmission prevention and control, including vaccination, are described. The vaccine for avian polyomavirus is safe and effective in captive birds, and, when used in high-risk situations, vaccination against Pacheco's disease (a psittacine herpesvirus) can prevent high mortality. A safe vaccine for PBFD is being evaluated. Specific tests for viral nucleic acid (DNA probe tests) for avian polyomavirus and PBFD virus, and anti-virus antibody assays for avian polyomavirus and Pacheco's disease, have been developed which will facilitate the diagnosis and monitoring of disease. The benefits and limitations of screening psittacines for disease are also discussed.]
Romer, L.: Management of the double-eyed or red-browed fig parrot Cyclopsitta diophthalma macleayana at Currumbin Sanctuary, Queensland. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 152158. [The double-eyed fig parrot has three subspecies in Australia which occur in isolated populations. Since 1987 Currumbin Sanctuary has been involved in a breeding programme for C. d. macleayana to develop techniques which might be applied in the management of the highly threatened subspecies Coxen's fig parrot (C. d. coxeni) should it come into captivity in the future. The aim of the programme is primarily to produce parent-reared offspring, which would be most suited to reintroduction, but the work also involves egg-fostering trials and cross-fostering of chicks.]
Smales, I., Brown, P., Menkhorst, P., Holdsworth, M., and Holz, P.: Contribution of captive management of orange-bellied parrots Neophema chrysogaster to the recovery programme for the species in Australia. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 171178. [This species overwinters on the Australian mainland and breeds on Tasmania, more than 200 km away. The Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team, established in 1983, guides and initiates conservation measures to protect this threatened species and its natural habitat. The first captive-breeding programme for the species was established near Hobart and the second was at Healesville Sanctuary. The aim is to breed orange-bellied parrots, retaining as much genetic heterozygosity as possible, for release into the wild, and to study the species to obtain biological data. At Hobart between three and 37 young have been reared to independence annually, and at Healesville between two and 36 annually. Health issues which affect this species, such as parrot beak and feather disease and zinc toxicity, are addressed. Details about techniques for successful reintroduction of captive-bred parrots and their subsequent monitoring are described. (Between 1991 and 1996, 68 birds were reintroduced.)]
Sodaro, V.: A review of hand-reared Goeldi's monkey Callimico goeldii at Brookfield Zoo 19771997. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 360366. [Since 1977 a breeding group of Goeldi's monkeys has been maintained at Brookfield. Between 1977 and 1997 there were 291 births of which 78 infants did not survive. Ninety per cent of the surviving infants have been parent-reared, and hand-rearing is only carried out after maternal illness or rejection, or if injuries or other problems affect the infants. Successful hand-rearing began in about 1979 and has been attempted for 66 (36.30) infants, 20 (10.10) of whom survived. Changes to the hand-rearing procedures first outlined in 1982 are described, and data are presented on birth mass and patterns of mass gain for successfully hand-reared infants. The circumstances relating to infants who did not survive hand-rearing are also documented.]
Sodaro, C., and Weber, B.: Hand-rearing and early reintroduction of a Sumatran orang-utan Pongo pygmaeus abelii at Brookfield Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 374380. [In 1988 Brookfield successfully reintroduced a five-month-old, hand-reared orang-utan to its mother. This paper documents the hand-rearing procedures and training techniques used to facilitate supplemental feeding in what is believed to be the earliest documented case of infantmother orang-utan reintroduction.]
Sweeney, R.G.: Husbandry, breeding and hand-rearing of salmon-crested cockatoo Cacatua moluccensis at Loro Parque Fundación, Puerto de la Cruz. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 130137. [Loro Parque considers this a priority species for husbandry research, and successful captive breeding was achieved there during the 1990s. Parent-rearing has been successful for some pairs, but artificial neonatal care has been necessary for a significant percentage of chicks. Husbandry guidelines developed at the park for neonatal care are based upon the successful hand-rearing of over 30 offspring from two pairs of problematic adults. The guidelines recommend parent-rearing whenever possible, but when hand-rearing is necessary, every attempt should be made to minimize the risks of imprinting.]
Taylor, M.R.: Natural history, behaviour and captive management of the palm cockatoo Probosciger aterrimus in North America. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 6169. [In 1983 the confiscation of 103 palm cockatoos by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service led to the formation of a breeding consortium, which in 1988 was formalized as an SSP. In 1998 the regional studbook recorded 318 (170.129.19) birds, 204 of them captive-bred. The article gives details of the natural history, physical traits and behaviour of the species, and of enclosure design and captive management.]
Vick, S.-J., Anderson, J.R., and Young, R.: Maracas for Macaca? Evaluation of three potential enrichment objects in two species of zoo-housed macaques. Zoo Biology Vol. 19, No. 3 (2000), pp. 181191. [One group each of Barbary macaques (M. sylvanus) and stump-tailed macaques (M. arctoides) at Edinburgh Zoo received hard replica fruits in three experimental conditions: as empty (`unresponsive') objects, as maracas that rattled when manipulated (`simple responsive'), and as objects from which food items could be extracted (`foraging devices'). Both groups manipulated the replica fruits most when they functioned as foraging devices, and responsiveness tended to decrease within sessions in all conditions. Thus, objects that increased the animals' sense of control in addition to providing food rewards appeared particularly suitable as enrichment devices, although novelty and indirect behavioural effects point to the need for thorough evaluation of enrichment interventions.]
Walker, S.: CBSG Regional Networks as conservation engineers: India as a case study. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 117. [The greater proportion of species diversity is situated in what is known as the `developing' world, most of which is in the tropics. The need for identification, assessment, and intensive management and monitoring of threatened and near-threatened taxa is critical for an ever-increasing number of species. Yet the individuals and even institutions responsible for identification and assessment in tropical countries often suffer from poor communication facilities, low-value currency, and vexing administrative, bureaucratic and political scenarios, which thwart efforts to forward conservation action. A variety of skills and a flexible approach are required to address these scenarios, fill lacunas in information and communication, and give impetus to action. The CBSG has evolved a dynamic set of tools and processes in conservation, communication, and people management, which can cut through administrative and political hierarchies, facilitate dissemination of information and clarify conservation problems and solutions. Regional or national networks of the CBSG, operating at grass-roots level, can make maximum use of these tools and processes to catalyse conservation action where it is most required. These tools are ideal for helping countries fulfil their commitment to the Convention on Biodiversity. This essay describes the work of the Indian National Network of the CBSG and its Utopian dream for Indian conservation breeding facilities and zoos.]
Waugh, D.R.: Parrot conservation and Loro Parque Fundación, Puerto de la Cruz. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 288298. [Loro Parque maintains the largest parrot collection in the world and is a major supporter of international efforts to conserve threatened parrots and their habitats. The collection, comprising approximately 2,750 specimens from 310 taxa, is an educational resource which also provides opportunities for research aimed at improving husbandry techniques. Loro Parque supports field research projects designed to integrate the needs of both people and parrots through local community participation and education programmes, some of which the author describes. Data compiled from field research and captive populations are also used to facilitate production of global management plans. The support provided for projects involving the zoo community, aviculturists, field researchers and local communities, as well as basic research, is described, highlighting the key role Loro Parque plays in encouraging effective collaboration for conservation of parrots in their natural habitat.]
Waugh, D.R., and Romero, G.S.: Behaviour of red-tailed amazons Amazona brasiliensis during free mate choice in a communal aviary at Loro Parque Fundación, Puerto de la Cruz. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 206213. [The endangered red-tailed amazon has had limited breeding success in captivity to date. Pair incompatibility may be a contributory factor, and stronger pair bonds might be achieved by placing a group of birds in a communal aviary where they are free to choose their own mates. At Loro Parque 2.3 adults, two of whom had been maintained as a pair without producing fertile eggs, were placed in an aviary together and specific behaviours were recorded during free mate choice. Interactive behaviours and inter-individual distances clearly indicate that four individuals formed bonded pairs, one soon after introduction and the other immediately following removal of the first pair. The results also show that, when offered a free choice of mate, the original pair did not re-form.]
Wilkinson, R.: An overview of captive-management programmes and regional collection planning for parrots. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 3658. [Psittacines are kept widely in captivity in zoos and private aviculture, but international studbooks are only maintained for a small number of threatened species. Regional collection planning is well advanced in Australasia, North America and Europe, with high-level coordinated breeding programmes and regional studbooks. A few regional studbooks are also maintained by zoos in Africa, Brazil and Japan. Within Australasia most programmes are for indigenous parrots, and some are linked closely to species-recovery projects involving local wildlife agencies. In Europe and North America the majority of breeding programmes and studbooks are for exotic species of larger macaws, cockatoos and amazons. Some of these breeding programmes in zoos assist field conservation through active fundraising and participation of staff in field projects. Zoos also support conservation projects for species not maintained at their institutions. The role that private aviculture may play in conservation breeding programmes is discussed.]
Wilkinson, R., Pilgrim, M., Woolham, A., Morris, P.I., Morris, A., and West, B.: Husbandry and breeding of blue-eyed cockatoos Cacatua ophthalmica at Chester Zoo 19661998. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 116125. [Blue-eyed cockatoos have been maintained at Chester Zoo since 1966, and 38 young have been reared to independence, 27 of whom were hand-reared. In October 1997 EAZA approved a European studbook for the species, and 24 birds bred at Chester have been placed in nine of the cooperating European institutions. As at 31 December 1998 the studbook listed 72 birds. Data are presented from Chester on husbandry, natural breeding, and techniques for artificial incubation, hand-rearing and enrichment, as well as on chick development, age at first breeding and longevity. Chester Zoo, in collaboration with Manchester Metro University, also supports in situ research on the biology and status of this and other parrot species on the island of New Britain.]
Wisniewski, P.J.: Husbandry and breeding of Kerry spotted slug Geomalacus maculosus at the Endangered Species Breeding Unit, Martin Mere. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 319321. [This slug has a restricted European range and may be threatened by loss of habitat. Since 1990 it has been maintained at the Unit under a low-maintenance husbandry regime. From 1991 to 1999 between 44 and 328 eggs hatched each year, allowing a number of animals to be distributed to British zoos. The author discusses various aspects of the species' husbandry, breeding and longevity.]
Witman, P., and Lewins, E.: Breeding and hand-rearing Pesquet's parrot Psittrichas fulgidus at the Zoological Society of San Diego. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 165171. [Pesquet's parrot are rare in captivity and successful breeding is uncommon and usually off-exhibit. At San Diego Zoo, however, two pairs which were on exhibit have bred successfully. In the 1980s a pair of wild-caught adults nested in a natural palm log in their enclosure and eight chicks hatched from 17 eggs which were artificially incubated. In 1997 two hand-reared adults nested in an artificial nestbox, laying seven eggs, all of which were removed for artificial incubation and two of which hatched. The chicks from both pairs were hand-reared owing to the lack of parent-rearing success in the past. A review of breeding history since 1988 at the zoo is given, and the methods used for artificial incubation and hand-rearing are described.]
Woolcock, D.: Husbandry and management of kea Nestor notabilis at Paradise Park, Hayle. International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 37 (2000), pp. 146152. [Keas have been maintained at Paradise Park since 1978. Successful breeding began in 1983, and of the 106 chicks hatched since then, 62 have been reared to independence. Suitable enclosure design and diet for adult keas are described. The artificial incubation and hand-rearing techniques developed at the park are presented, including full details of the diet specifically developed for kea chicks.]
Publishers of the periodicals listed:
International Zoo Yearbook, The Zoological Society of London, Regent's Park, London NW1 4RY, U.K.
Zoo Biology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158, U.S.A.
* * *
Index to Contributors, International Zoo News Volume 47 (2000)
Alekseicheva, Irina A., see Tkacheva, Elena Y.
Anderson, Roland C., 5, 333335
Aoyama, Shigeru, 5, 320
Banks, Chris, 3, 188
Barnaby, David, 4, 234239
Bartholomeusz, David, see Hawke, Lianne
Batters, Gary, 4, 244245; 5, 309
Benirschke, Kurt, 7, 452
Bilbaut, Marianne, 5, 332333; 6, 402403
Bircher, Peter, 7, 456458
Blaskiewitz, Bernhard, 1, 59; 4, 259260; 6, 404
Bowman, Verity, see Plowman, Amy
Brown, Tim, 8, 482
Campbell, Gordon, 3, 194195
Case, Dave, 5, 310313
Challis, Mark, 1, 51; 8, 518519
Chan, Nancy, & Sargent, Eva, 1, 47
Cousins, Don, 7, 436446
Craig, Mark, 6, 395
Damen, Marc, 2, 114
de Ruiter, Maarten, 2, 107108
Dennis, Christina, 2, 128
Diebold, Ed, 3, 189
Diver, Shirley, 1, 5556
Dixson, Alan, 8, 516517
Dolan, James M., 8, 515516
Downey, Jo, see Miller, Kate
Dukát, Zsófia, 5, 329
Dunce, Ilze, 7, 470471
Edwards, Roy, 5, 316
Ehrlinger, David, 8, 520
Ellis, D., 6, 384
Ettling, J., 4, 259
Ferenc, Hanna, & Wielich, Anna, 7, 427431
Frädrich, Hans, 2, 121
Fritz, Jo, 1, 46
Fukuda, Michio, Suzuki, Hitoshi, Yamazaki, Yukio, Yuzawa, Mitsuru, & Kawamura, Sanae, 5, 318319
Furnweger, Karen, 7, 467468
Gagen, Judith, see Olson, Debbie
Gates, Luke, 2, 121123
Gibson, Richard, Owen, Andrew, & Jeggo, David, 8, 522
Gippoliti, Spartaco, 1, 55; 3, 177178; 6, 356368
Gould, Nicholas, 1, 23, 4044; 2, 70; 3, 138139; 3, 179180, 182184; 4, 242243; 5, 273275, 313316, 317; 6, 346, 375378; 7, 418, 453; 8, 507508
Haeffner, Rick, 4, 254255
Hartley, Matt, see Saville, Robert
Hawke, Lianne, Lauer, Peter, Bartholomeusz, David, & Steen, Zeta, 2, 7181
Hendrick, 2, 127128
Heuschkel, Brigitte, Kröhne, Annette, & Zimmermann, Waltraut, 7, 460462
Holeckova, Dana, & Tomasova, Kristina, 8, 522523
Hori, H., Sato, M., & Morikubo, S., 2, 126
Horton, Marnie, 1, 57
Hulyer, Doug, see Whitehead, Malcolm
Jeggo, David, see Gibson, Richard
Johann, Achim, 2, 8994; 5, 321323
Johnson, Andrew B., 7, 469470
Johnstone-Scott, Richard, 2, 128129
Jones, Marvin L., see Weigl, Richard
Kaal, Mati, 1, 5758
Kawamura, Sanae, see Fukuda, Michio
Kawata, Ken, 1, 411; 2, 109111; 4, 240; 6, 373374
Keeling, Clinton H., 1, 3839; 3, 174176; 6, 372; 7, 448
Kimura, Takashi, 1, 5455
King, Philip, see Wrigley, Robert
Kitada, Y., see Sakashita, R.
Kniveton, Tim, 3, 176177
Kocar, Linda, 5, 330331; 7, 466467
Kröhne, Annette, see Heuschkel, Brigitte
Lauer, Peter, see Hawke, Lianne
Lieberman, Alan, 4, 245
Lifanova, Olga B., see Tkacheva, Elena Y.
Lorca, Luc, 6, 405
Lücker, Hubert, 1, 38
Lupton, Judith, 6, 404405
McBee, Andrew, 4, 257259
Mallinson, Jeremy J.C., 5, 270273
Mansard, Pat, 2, 124126
Meng, Lim Tit, see Nyunt, Khin May
Michault, Mickaël, 1, 46
Miller, Kate, Sprake, Tully, & Downey, Jo, 1, 5253
Molcanova, Renata, see Wakefield, Simon
Morikubo, S., see Hori, H.
Mudway, Graham, 3, 139140
Mun, Wong Hon, see Nyunt, Khin May
Murn, Campbell, 7, 452453
Nicholson-Lord, David, 3, 187188
Nyunt, Khin May, Mun, Wong Hon, & Meng, Lim Tit, 4, 215221
O'Brien, John, 2, 8288
Ogawa, H., see Sakashita, R.
Olson, Debbie, & Gagen, Judith, 1, 5354
Owen, Andrew, see Gibson, Richard
Partridge, John, & Pullen, Kirsten, 3, 168171
Pickard, John, 5, 284296
Plowman, Amy, & Bowman, Verity, 8, 520521
Popova, Natalia, 2, 128
Porter, Rob, 8, 518
Povada, Michelle, 2, 95103
Prior, Nicholas J., 7, 432435
Pullen, Kirsten, see Partridge, John
Radcliffe, Charlie, 7, 463464
Ratajszczak, Radoslaw, & Trzesowska, Eva, 8, 492494
Rees, P.A., 6, 369371
Reichenbach, Herman, 1, 4446; 2, 111113, 115116; 3, 141147, 180182; 6, 378381; 8, 513514
Reid, Gordon McGregor, & West, Christopher, 8, 508513
Reynolds, Richard J., 5, 276282
Richardson, Douglas M., 1, 3738
Rookmaaker, Kees, 3, 172
Rothfels, Nigel, 6, 372373
Ruivo, Eric Bairrão, 4, 261
Ryder, Oliver, 7, 460
Sargent, Eva, see Chan, Nancy
Sakashita, R., Sugita, H., Sekii, T., Shichiri, S., Kitada, Y., & Ogawa, H., 5, 335
Sato, M., see Hori, H.
Saville, Robert, & Hartley, Matt, 1, 1216
Schilfarth, Jürgen, 2, 104105; 8, 518, 527
Schulman, Mark, 6, 382384
Schwammer, Harald, see Weisz, Isolde
Seitz, Stefan, 3, 148160
Sekii, T., see Sakashita, R.
Sherriff, Douglas, 7, 464466
Shichiri, S., see Sakashita, R.
Shilo, Rostislav A., 8, 525
Shoemaker, Alan H., 1, 56; 3, 196; 5, 333; 7, 471
Sigmond, István, 5, 331332
Smith, Brian, 7, 449450
Smith, Jeremy Usher, 8, 523
Sprake, Tully, see Miller, Kate
Steen, Zeta, see Hawke, Lianne
Stroud, Peter, 1, 50
Sugita, H., see Sakashita, R.
Summerhays, Giles, 7, 458459
Suzuki, Hitoshi, see Fukuda, Michio
Swan, Neil, 8, 524
Takahara, Yuki, 7, 471472
Takahashi, Yukihiro, 6, 404
Talbot, Roslin, 3, 191193
Terkel, Amelia, 2, 124
Teyn, Harry, 5, 308309
Tkacheva, Elena Y., Lifanova, Olga B., & Alekseicheva, Irina A., 5, 301307
Tomasova, Kristina, 2, 123; see also Holeckova, Dana
Trzesowska, Eva, see Ratajszczak, Radoslaw
Tuson, John, 2, 107; 3, 174; 4, 222227; 4, 240; 6, 401402
Valade, James A., 7, 462
van der Elst, Wilfried, 6, 395396
Vermeer, Jan, 2, 126; 5, 297300
Vince, Martin, 1, 46
Wakefield, Simon, & Molcanova, Renata, 7, 459
Walker, Sally, 1, 1722
Wallace, Michael, 1, 4850
Webster, Darren, 6, 396397; 8, 483491
Weigl, Richard, 1, 2436
Weigl, Richard, & Jones, Marvin L., 8, 496506
Weiss, Maryann, 1, 56
Weisz, Isolde, Wuestenhagen, Andrea, & Schwammer, Harald, 4, 228233
West, Christopher, see Reid, Gordon McGregor
Whitehead, Malcolm, & Hulyer, Doug, 7, 419425
Wielich, Anna, see Ferenc, Hanna
Williams, Tracé, 3, 191
Wisniewski, P.J., 6, 399; 7, 472
Woodgate, Sue, 8, 521522
Woollard, Stephen P., 5, 308
Worley, Michael, 8, 525526
Wrigley, Robert E., 4, 210214; 6, 347354
Wrigley, Robert E., & King, Philip, 3, 161167
Wuestenhagen, Andrea, see Weisz, Isolde
Wyatt, Jeff, 5, 318
Yamazaki, Yukio, see Fukuda, Michio
Yedvab, Shmulik, 1, 5960
Yuzawa, Mitsuru, see Fukuda, Michio
Zimmermann, Waltraut, see Heuschkel, Brigitte
Zwartepoorte, Henk, 7, 450451
* * *
Index to Books Reviewed, International Zoo News Volume 47 (2000)
Baratay, Eric, & Hardouin-Fugier, Elisabeth: Zoo Histoire des Jardins Zoologiques en Occident (xviexxe Siècles), 6, 378380
Chan, Susan D., Baker, William K., & Guerrero, Diana L. (eds.): Resources for Crisis Management in Zoos and Other Animal Care Facilities, 5, 313314
del Hoyo, Josep, Elliott, Andrew, & Sargatal, Jordi (eds.): Handbook of the Birds of the World: Volume 5 Barn-owls to Hummingbirds, 1, 4244
Denzau, Gertrud, & Denzau, Helmut: Wildesel, 2, 111113
Eisenberg, John F.: Mammals of the Neotropics (Vol. 1, The Northern Neotropics: Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana), 1, 4042
Eisenberg, John F., & Redford, Kent H.: Mammals of the Neotropics (Vol. 3, The Central Neotropics: Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil), 1, 4042
Faust, Ingrid: Zoologische Einblattdrucke und Flugschriften vor 1800, Vol. 2: Vögel, Säugetiere (Affen, Raubtiere, Schuppentiere, Nager, Hasenartige), 1, 4446
Frost, John: The Rhinoceros Browse Survey, 3, 183184
Haufellner, Alexander, Schilfarth, Jürgen, & Schweiger, Georg (eds.): Elefanten-Dokumentation 1999, 4, 242
Horenstein, Henry, & Edwards, Owen: Creatures, 8, 513514
Johnsgard, Paul A.: The Pheasants of the World: Biology and Natural History, 3, 179180
Keeling, C.H.: Year of Janus, 5, 310313
Kunze, Gerhard: Tiergarten Schönbrunn Von der Menagerie des Kaisers zu Helmut Pechlaners Zoo der Glücklichen Tiere, 6, 380381
Lawrence, Bob: My Wild Life, 5, 314316
Leatherland, J.F., & Woo, P.T.K. (eds.): Fish Diseases and Disorders: Vol. 2, Non-infectious Disorders, 8, 508513
Marion, Rémy: Penguins A Worldwide Guide, 5, 316
Martin, Roger, & Handasyde, Kathrine: The Koala: Natural History, Conservation, and Management, 3, 182183
Myers, Douglas G. (with Stephenson, Lynda Rutledge): Mister Zoo: The Life and Legacy of Dr. Charles Schroeder, 2, 109111
Nowak, Ronald M.: Walker's Mammals of the World (6th edition), 6, 375378
Olney, P.J.S., Fisken, Fiona, & Stanley, Helen F. (eds.): International Zoo Yearbook 37, 8, 507508
Plowman, A.B., & Stevens, P.M.C.: Conservation Centres for the New Millennium: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Zoo Design, 3, 180
Redford, Kent H., & Eisenberg, John F.: Mammals of the Neotropics (Vol. 2, The Southern Cone: Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay), 1, 4042
Reynolds, John E., & Rommel, Sentiel A. (eds.): Biology of Marine Mammals, 4, 242243
Rieke-Müller, Annelore, & Dittrich, Lothar: Unterwegs mit Wilden Tieren Wandermenagerien Zwischen Belehrung und Kommerz 17501850, 3, 181182
Schulze-Hagen, Karl, & Geus, Armin (eds.): Joseph Wolf (18201899) Tiermaler/Animal Painter, 8, 513514
Sommer, Volker: Die Grossen Menschenaffen Die Neue Sicht der Verhaltensforschung, 1, 4445
Twiss, John R., & Reeves, Randall R.: Conservation and Management of Marine Mammals, 4, 242243
Wachtel, Hellmuth: Otto Antonius 18851945, 6, 380381
Wilson, Don E., & Ruff, Sue (eds.): The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals, 1, 4041
Woo, P.T.K. (ed.): Fish Diseases and Disorders: Vol. 1, Protozoan and Metazoan Infections, 8, 508513
Woo, P.T.K., & Bruno, D.W. (eds.): Fish Diseases and Disorders: Vol. 3, Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Infections, 8, 508513
* * *
Subject Index, International Zoo News Volume 47 (2000)
[Primary references to species and genera are under scientific names, with cross-references from common English names. The name of a single species is normally given in the singular, even where the reference is to a number of individuals of that species: thus, e.g., _Cercopithecus neglectus, mixed exhibit with gorilla, Melbourne Zoo does not imply that the exhibit contains only a single gorilla; but _Hornbills, captive breeding will refer to an item about more than one species of hornbill. The terms _Zoological Gardens and _Zoological Park, and their equivalents in other languages, are abbreviated to _Zoo, except in cases where confusion might result.]
Aardvark, see Orycteropus afer
Aceros leucocephalus, breeding, Audubon Zoo, 8, 534
birth weight and neonatal growth rate, Wassenaar Wildlife Breeding Centre, 2, 131
behavioural differences as predictors of breeding status, 3, 208
dietary supplement, 3, 185
litter of eight cubs, Marwell Zoo, 7, 457
Adelaide Zoo, South Australia,
environmental enrichment study, oriental small-clawed otter, 2, 7181
in situ conservation project, Seychelles magpie robin, 6, 395
Aepyceros melampus petersi, breeding, Lisbon Zoo, 4, 261
Africam Safari, Puebla, Mexico, visitor's report, 1, 2930
death at 28, U.S. National Zoo, 1, 61
encouraging maternal care, Wolong Research Centre, 5, 344
videos used to encourage mating, Wolong Research Centre, 4, 261
Zoo Atlanta, 2, 127128
Alcedo atthis, breeding, Inokashira Zoo, 1, 5455
Alma-Ata (Almaty) Zoo, Kazakhstan, Asian elephant, 8, 518
Alouatta caraya, European studbook, 3, 168171
Alsophis antiguae, conservation and reintroduction project, 7, 449450
Amazon, imperial, see Amazona imperialis; orange-winged, see A. amazonica; red-tailed, see A. brasiliensis; St Lucia, see A. versicolor
Amazona amazonica, taming parent-reared chicks, 2, 130
Amazona brasiliensis, free mate choice, Loro Parque, 8, 538
Amazona imperialis, conservation, Dominica, 3, 186
Amazona versicolor, breeding, Jersey Zoo, 8, 532
Amblonyx cinereus, environmental enrichment study, Adelaide Zoo, 2, 7181
Amphibians, breeding, Riga Zoo, 7, 470471
Anaconda, green, see Eunectes murinus
Anemones, sea, longevity (66+), 8, 528
Anglesey Sea Zoo, U.K., lobsters stolen, 4, 261
Anoa, lowland, see Bubalus depressicornis
Antidorcas marsupialis, deaths in flood, Réserve Africaine de Sigean, 5, 332333
Antwerp Zoo, Belgium,
contraceptive research, golden-headed lion tamarin, 6, 408
common cuttlefish, egg collection and rearing, 6, 395396
Aonyx cinerea, see Amblonyx cinereus
Aotus lemurinus, mixed exhibit with hairy armadillo and lesser spear-nosed bat, Poznan Zoo, 8, 492494
Aquarium of the Pacific, Long Beach, California, U.S.A. breeding, weedy sea dragon, 6, 396
Aquariums, U.K., internet website, 2, 129
Ara glaucogularis, breeding, Tierpark Berlin, 6, 404
Aracari, curl-crested, see Pteroglossus beauharnaesii
Aragón Zoo, Mexico City, visitor's report, 1, 2728
Arctocephalus pusillus, Frankfurt Zoo, 4, 255256
Ardeotis kori, breeding, Dallas Zoo, 7, 480
Arowana, Asian, see Scleropages formosus
Aspinall, John (19262000),
obituary tributes, 5, 270275, 308309
receives Zoological Society of San Diego gold conservation medal, 4, 261
Asses, wild (book review), 2, 111113
Assiniboine Park Zoo, Winnipeg, Canada, 3, 161167
Astyanax mexicanus, mixed exhibit with vampire bat, Poznan Zoo, 8, 492494
Ateles paniscus, possible longevity record (44+), Twycross Zoo, 6, 404405
Audubon Zoo, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.,
African wild cat born by inter-species embryo transfer, 2, 121
breeding, writhe-billed hornbill, 8, 534
Aurochs, see Bos taurus
Australian Reptile Park, Somersby, New South Wales, Australia, main building destroyed by fire, 8, 518
Avocet, pied, see Recurvirostra avosetta
Aye-aye, see Daubentonia madagascariensis
Babirusa, see Babyrousa babyrussa
Baboon, hamadryas, see Papio hamadryas
hand-reared, growth and development, Port Lympne Wild Animal Park, 1, 1216
Bat, lesser spear-nosed, see Phyllostomus discolor; Livingstone's fruit, see Pteropus livingstonii; Rodrigues fruit, see P. rodricensis; vampire, see Desmodus rotundus
Bear, polar, see Ursus maritimus; spectacled, see Tremarctos ornatus; sun, see Helarctos malayanus
Beauval Zoo, St Aignan sur Cher, France, breeding, rhinoceros hornbill, 6, 405
Beaver, European, see Castor fiber
Beetle, Asian horned, see Xylotrupes gideon
Belfast Zoo, Northern Ireland, U.K., 8, 518519
breeding, François's langur, 1, 51
Berlin Zoo, Germany, breeding, musk deer, 2, 121
Bioparco, Rome, see Rome Zoo
Bird of paradise, twelve-wired, see Seleucidis melanoleuca
Bitis worthingtoni, breeding, St Louis Zoo, 4, 259
Blackpool Zoo, U.K.,
walk-through mixed exhibit, ring-tailed, black and red-ruffed lemurs, 8, 483491
naturalistic exhibit, gorilla, 6, 396397
Boa, Feick's dwarf, see Tropidophis feicki; Virgin Islands, see Epicrates monensis
Boa constrictor, status in zoos, 2, 108
Bongo, see Tragelaphus eurycerus
Bonobo, see Pan paniscus
Bos taurus (aurochs), Sababurg Animal Park, 4, 234239
Bourne, Martin, obituary, 8, 482
Bristol Zoo, U.K.,
annual report 1999, 6, 385386
supports primate rescue centre, Yaounde Zoo, Cameroon, 3, 190
spider phobia courses, 1, 60
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservation Park, New York, U.S.A.,
annual report 1999, 4, 246251
social interactions, gorilla, 3, 203204
William Conway retires as Director, 2, 128
Brookfield Zoo, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.,
breeding, aardvark, 8, 519
hand-rearing, Goeldi's monkey, 8, 536
wetlands exhibit, 1, 5152
Bubalus depressicornis, Edinburgh Zoo, 3, 191193
Buceros bicornis, breeding, Rostock Zoo, 5, 341342
Buceros rhinoceros silvestris, breeding, Beauval Zoo, 6, 405
Budapest Zoo, Hungary, butterfly exhibit, 5, 329
Bufo hemiophrys baxteri, breeding and release project, Toledo Zoo, 8, 526
Burgers' Zoo, Arnhem, The Netherlands, annual report 1999, 2, 114
Burhinus oedicnemus, European zoos, 2, 9091
Bustard, kori, see Ardeotis kori
Butterfly, Karner blue, see Lycaeides melissa samuelis
Butterfly exhibit, Budapest Zoo, 5, 329
Cacatua moluccensis, breeding, Loro Parque, 8, 536537
Cacatua ophthalmica, Chester Zoo, 8, 538539
hand-rearing, Brookfield Zoo, 8, 536
renal disease and vitamin D metabolism, 4, 262
Callithrix jacchus, time budget study, Göttingen University, 2, 135
dietary research, Jersey Zoo, 6, 412
vitamin D requirements, 4, 266
Canadian zoos, conservation and science, 6, 347354
Canis familiaris dingo, husbandry and breeding, Healesville Sanctuary, 1, 5253
Canis lupus, captive breeding, 1, 3839
Capuchin, brown, see Cebus apella
Capybara, see Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris
Castor fiber, mixed exhibit with capybara, Drusillas Zoo, 8, 521
Cat, African wild, see Felis silvestris libyca; Pallas's, see Otocolobus manul
Cebus apella, vocalization and stress, 3, 198199
Cephalophus niger, breeding, Los Angeles Zoo, 1, 60
breeding, Orana Wildlife Park, 1, 5556
reproductive research, San Diego Wild Animal Park, 2, 134
twelve transferred from South Africa to Australasian zoos, 1, 50
Werribee Zoo, 2, 128
Ceratotherium simum cottoni, breeding, Dvur Králové Zoo, 8, 522523
Cetaceans, erysipelas, workshop, John G. Shedd Aquarium, 8, 523524
Chaetophractus villosus, mixed exhibit with douroucouli and lesser spear-nosed bat, Poznan Zoo, 8, 492494
Chapultepec Zoo, Mexico City, visitor's report, 1, 2427
Charadriiformes, EEP TAG, 2, 8994
Cheetah, see Acinonyx jubatus
Chessington Zoo (Chessington World of Adventures), U.K., 12, 121123
breeding, hammerkop, 2, 121122
training to accept veterinary treatment, Californian sea lion, 2, 122
Chester Zoo, U.K., breeding, blue-eyed cockatoo, 8, 538539
Chimpanzee, see Pan troglodytes; pygmy (bonobo), see Pan paniscus
China, zoos, ban on use of live animals as food, 1, 61
Chrysocyon brachyurus, introducing males to their mates and cubs, Houston Zoo and Fossil Rim Wildlife Center, 2, 131
Cincinnati Zoo, Ohio, U.S.A.,
birth by frozen-thawed embryo transfer, ocelot, 6, 397398
botanical collection, 8, 520
breeding, okapi, 4, 253
new exhibit, Asian elephant, giraffe and okapi, 3, 190191
nutritional study, Sumatran rhino, 8, 530531
polar bear exhibit, 5, 329
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, Ohio, U.S.A.,
Australian exhibit, 4, 253254
breeding, pacarana, 1, 61
Cobra, Russian, see Naja oxiana
Cockatoo, blue-eyed, see Cacatua ophthalmica; palm, see Probosciger aterrimus; salmon-crested, see C. moluccensis
Cologne (Köln) Zoo, Germany,
behaviour, bachelor group, Grevy's zebra, 7, 460462
reproductive control, hamadryas baboon, 1, 65
Columbus Zoo, Ohio, U.S.A., rescue and rehabilitation, manatee, 7, 462
Condor, Andean, see Vultur gryphus; California, see Gymnogyps californianus
Conway, William, retires as President and General Director, Wildlife Conservation Society, 2, 128
Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark, annual report 1999, 7, 454456
eczema treatment, Malayan tapir, 7, 455
`rye-grass staggers', Asian elephant, 7, 455
social behaviour, black-tailed prairie dog, 7, 455456
Copsychus sechellarum, in situ conservation project, Adelaide Zoo, 6, 395
Coral husbandry, 6, 409
Crane, Mississippi sandhill, see Grus canadensis pulla
Crateromys spp., see Rats, cloud
Cricket, field, see Gryllus campestris
Crocodile, salt-water, see C. porosus
Crocodylus porosus, immune system research, 5, 319320
Crocuta crocuta, genetic identification of geographic origin, 2, 130
Cuba, in situ conservation project, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, 3, 188189
Cuon alpinus, social behaviour study, Dresden Zoo, 2, 133134
Curlew, stone, see Burhinus oedicnemus
Cuttlefish, common, see Sepia officinalis
Cyanopsitta spixii, recovery project, 4, 245
artificial incubation, 3, 200201
breeding in wild, Florida, 4, 244
migration study, Riverbanks Zoo, 3, 189
Cynomys ludovicianus, social behaviour, Copenhagen Zoo, 7, 455456
Dactylopsila trivirgata, breeding, London Zoo, 1, 61
Dallas Zoo, Texas, U.S.A., breeding, kori bustard, 7, 480
Dambari Field Station, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, breeding and research, duikers, 8, 520521
Danmarks Akvarium, Charlottenlund, Denmark, 6, 398399
Daubentonia madagascariensis, breeding, Jersey Zoo, 2, 128129
Deer, musk, see Moschus moschiferus
Dendragapus falcipennis, breeding, Novosibirsk Zoo, 8, 525
Dendroaspis polylepis, breeding, Houston Zoo, 6, 400
Dendrobates pumilio, vocalisations, Edinburgh Zoo, 6, 391
Dendrolagus matschiei, breeding, Miami Metrozoo, 6, 401
Denver Zoo, Colorado, U.S.A.,
annual report 1999, 6, 386389
attempted breeding, Komodo dragon, 4, 254255
breeding and nutrition, polar bear, 6, 387
circulation problem, anaconda, 6, 388
first documentation of flehmen, common hippo, 3, 208
kitten mortality, Pallas's cat, 6, 388
feeding, snakes, 7, 463464
Desmodus rotundus, mixed exhibit with vampire bat, Poznan Zoo, 8, 492494
Dhole, see Cuon alpinus
Dicerorhinus sumatrensis, nutritional study, Cincinnati Zoo, 8, 530531
breeding, Port Lympne Wild Animal Park, 2, 119
immune system research, San Diego Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species, 8, 525526
in situ and ex situ conservation costs compared, 2, 128
Dickerson Park Zoo, Springfield, Missouri, U.S.A., birth by artificial insemination, Asian elephant, 2, 123
Diet and nutrition, 6, 346, 372
Dingo, see Canis familiaris dingo
Dinomys branickii, breeding, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, 1, 61
Dog, African wild, see Lycaon pictus; Asian wild (dhole), see Cuon alpinus; black-tailed prairie, see Cynomys ludovicianus; raccoon, see Nyctereutes procyonoides
Dogfish, lesser spotted, see Scyliorhinus canicula
Douroucouli, see Aotus lemurinus
Dresden Zoo, Germany,
African elephant, 1, 38; 2, 104105
social behaviour study, dhole, 2, 133134
Drill, see Mandrillus leucophaeus
Drill Rehabilitation and Breeding Centre, Cross River State, Nigeria, 1, 64
Drusillas Zoo, Alfriston, U.K., 8, 521522
medicinal leech, 3, 197
mixed exhibit, European beaver and capybara, 8, 521
Dublin Zoo, Ireland, 2, 8288
Dugong, see Dugong dugon
Dugong dugon, Sea World, Surfers Paradise, 1, 57
Duiker, black, see Cephalophus niger
Duikers, breeding and research, Dambari Field Station, 8, 520521
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust (Jersey Zoo), Channel Islands,
breeding, aye-aye, 2, 128129
breeding, Montserrat `mountain chicken' frog, 8, 522
breeding, St Lucia amazon, 8, 532
dietary research, callitrichids, 6, 412
dietary research, Livingstone's fruit bat, 6, 407, 410411
environmental enrichment, Rodrigues fruit bat, 4, 265
honours, Lee Durrell and Jeremy J.C. Mallinson, 5, 330
in situ conservation project, Cuba, 3, 188189
reproductive research, Bali mynah, 3, 191; 6, 414
Dvur Králové Zoo, Czech Republic, breeding, curl-crested aracari, 2, 123
breeding, northern white rhino, 8, 522523
Eagle, Philippine (monkey-eating), see Pithecophaga jefferyi
Edinburgh Zoo, U.K.,
annual report 1999, 6, 389392
environmental enrichment, Barbary and stump-tailed macaques, 8, 537
husbandry and breeding, Egyptian spiny-tailed lizard, 7, 464466
lowland anoa, 3, 191193
nutrition, gorilla, 6, 392
nutrition, Persian leopard, 6, 392
vocalisations, strawberry poison-arrow frog, 6, 391
EEP (European Endangered Species Breeding Programme) Charadriiformes Taxon Advisory Group, 2, 8994
Elephant, African, see Loxodonta africana; African forest, see L. a. cyclotis; Asian, see Elephas maximus
environmental enrichment and sociality, 6, 369371
ivory trade, 3, 186187
reproduction workshop, Riddles Elephant and Wildlife Sanctuary, 5, 318
restraint and stereotypic behaviour, 8, 531532
Alma-Ata Zoo, 8, 518
birth by artificial insemination, Dickerson Park Zoo, 2, 123
breeding, Ramat-Gan, 8, 527
conservation importance of zoo population, 1, 65
exhibit, Kittenberger Zoo, 5, 331332
Port Lympne Wild Animal Park, 2, 119
`rye-grass staggers', Copenhagen Zoo, 7, 455
Emmen Zoo, The Netherlands, breeding, Inca tern, 1, 6768
Endangered Species Breeding Unit, Martin Mere, U.K., 6, 399
breeding, Kerry spotted slug, 8, 539
breeding, Seattle Aquarium, 4, 260261
rescue and rehabilitation, Monterey Bay Aquarium, 7, 469470
Enteroctopus dofleini, Seattle Aquarium, 3, 196
elephants, sociality, 6, 369371
kinkajou, Newquay Zoo, 8, 528
monkeys, aromatic herbs, Newquay Zoo, 4, 259
oriental small-clawed otter, Adelaide Zoo, 2, 7181
parrots, 8, 533534
Rodrigues fruit bat, Jersey Zoo, 4, 265
`sound enrichment' experiments, Heritage Park Zoo, 5, 330331
tiger and jaguar, olfactory enrichment, Heritage Park Zoo, 7, 466467
spectacled bear, Zürich Zoo, 3, 200
Epicrates monensis, reintroduction project, Toledo Zoo, 8, 526
Equus caballus (tarpan), Sababurg Animal Park, 4, 234239
Equus grevyi, behaviour, bachelor group, Cologne Zoo, 7, 460462
Equus przewalskii, foal adopted by domestic mare, National Zoo Conservation and Research Center, 3, 195196
Equus zebra hartmannae, skin tumours, Marwell Zoo, 7, 458459
Erethizon dorsatum, husbandry, Wissel Zoo, 4, 266267
Eudocimus ruber, breeding, Newquay Zoo, 1, 6061
Eulemur macaco, walk-through mixed exhibit with ring-tailed and red-ruffed lemurs, Blackpool Zoo, 8, 483491
Eunectes murinus, circulation problem, Denver Zoo, 6, 388
Exobiology, 3, 138139
Felis silvestris libyca,
born by inter-species embryo transfer, Audubon Zoo, 2, 121
breeding, National Zoo, South Africa, 6, 401
Fishes, diseases (book review), 8, 508513
Flamingo, Andean, see Phoenicoparrus andinus; Caribbean, see Phoenicopterus ruber; Chilean, see P. chilensis
Fort Worth Zoo, Texas, U.S.A.,
breeding Asian forest monitors (Dumeril's, green tree, New Guinea crocodile), 3, 193194
Fossil Rim Wildlife Center, Glen Rose, Texas, U.S.A., introducing male maned wolves to their mates and cubs, 2, 131
Frankfurt Zoo, Germany, South African fur seal, 4, 255256
Franklin Park Zoo, see Zoo New England
Frog, Montserrat `mountain chicken', see Leptodactylus fallax; strawberry poison-arrow, see Dendrobates pumilio
Gallirallus owstoni, breeding, Sedgwick County Zoo, 3, 196197
Gazella dama mhorr, behaviour, bachelor groups, 7, 474
Gazelle, mhorr, see G. dama mhorr
Gelada, see Theropithecus gelada
Geomalacus maculosus, breeding, Endangered Species Breeding Unit, 8, 539
Gibbon, Javan grey (silvery), see Hylobates moloch
Giraffa camelopardalis, social relationships, Zoo Atlanta, 5, 343
Giraffe, see Giraffa camelopardalis
Glasier, Phillip (19152000), obituary, 7, 418
Gorilla, western lowland, see Gorilla g. gorilla
Gorilla g. gorilla,
genetic abnormality, San Diego CRES, 7, 452
genetic analysis, Zoo Atlanta, 3, 198
interactive video website, Zoo New England, 4, 261
island enclosure, Rotterdam Zoo, 5, 343344
male infertility, 7, 436446
milk in diet a cause of regurgitation, Zoo Atlanta, 4, 264
naturalistic exhibit, Blackpool Zoo, 6, 396397
nutrition, Edinburgh Zoo, 6, 392
social interactions, Bronx Zoo, 3, 203204
Göttingen University, time budget study, common marmoset, 2, 135
Graptemys oculifera, breeding, John G. Shedd Aquarium, 1, 61
Grouse, Siberian spruce, see Dendragapus falcipennis
Grus canadensis pulla, hand-rearing and release, 6, 384
Gryllus campestris, release by London Zoo, 2, 123
Guadalajara Zoo, Mexico, visitor's report, 1, 3033
captive breeding and release, 1, 4850
genetic studies, 8, 529
Gyps fulvus, breeding, Wilhelma Zoo, 4, 260
Haematopus ostralegus, European zoos, 2, 91
Hagenbeck Animal Park, Hamburg, Germany, annual report 1999, 2, 115116
Hammerkop, see Scopus umbretta
Handbook of the Birds of the World, 1, 4244
babirusa, Port Lympne Wild Animal Park, 1, 1216
gentoo penguin, John G. Shedd Aquarium, 2, 135
Goeldi's monkey, Brookfield Zoo, 8, 536
okapi, Marwell Zoo, 7, 456
short-eared elephant shrew, Schönbrunn Zoo, 7, 479
Hannover Zoo, Germany, 3, 141147
Harderwijk Marine Mammal Park, food consumption and growth, Californian sea lion, 7, 475476
Healesville Sanctuary, Victoria, Australia,
breeding and reintroduction, orange-bellied parrot, 8, 536
husbandry and breeding, dingo, 1, 5253
Helarctos malayanus, pre- and post-partum behaviour, Wellington Zoo, 5, 284296
Helogale hirtula, St Louis Zoo, 1, 56
Heritage Park Zoo, Prescott, Arizona, U.S.A.,
olfactory enrichment, tiger and jaguar, 7, 466467
`sound enrichment' experiments, 5, 330331
Highland Wildlife Park, U.K.,
annual report 1999, 6, 392393
breeding, pine marten, 8, 523
Himantopus himantopus, European zoos, 2, 91
Himantopus novaezelandiae, breeding, Department of Conservation, New Zealand, 8, 535
Hippocampus spp., husbandry and breeding, 6, 414415
Hippopotamus, common, see Hippopotamus amphibius
Hippopotamus amphibius, first documentation of flehmen, Denver Zoo, 3, 208
Hirudo medicinalis, Drusillas Zoo, 3, 197
History, zoo, 1, 23, 411; 3, 174177; 6, 378381 (book reviews)
London Zoo (book review), 5, 310313
Hog, pygmy, see Sus salvanius
Homarus gammarus, stolen, Anglesey Sea Zoo, 4, 261
Hornbill, great Indian, see Buceros bicornis; Javan rhinoceros, see B. rhinoceros silvestris; writhe-billed, see Aceros leucocephalus
Horse, Przewalski's, see Equus przewalskii; wild (tarpan), see E. caballus
Houston Zoo, Texas, U.S.A.,
breeding, black mamba, 6, 400
introducing male maned wolves to their mates and cubs, 2, 131
Howletts Wild Animal Park, U.K.,
African elephant, 2, 119120
annual report 19981999, 2, 116120
breeding, clouded leopard, 2, 117
twin birth, bongo, 2, 118
Hyaena, spotted, see Crocuta crocuta
Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, mixed exhibit with European beaver, Drusillas Zoo, 8, 521
Hydromys chrysogaster, mixed exhibit with fishes, Poznan Zoo, 8, 492494
Hylobates moloch, breeding, International Center for Gibbon Studies, 6, 400
Hylobates syndactylus, parental behaviour, Poznan Zoo, 7, 427431
Hystrix cristata, Suffolk Wildlife Park, 7, 432434
Ibis, scarlet, see Eudocimus ruber
Impala, black-faced, see Aepyceros melampus petersi
Indianapolis Zoo, Indiana, U.S.A.,
birth by artificial insemination, African elephant, 4, 256257
reproductive research, African elephant, 1, 5354
Inokashira Zoo, Japan, breeding, common kingfisher, 1, 5455
Insectivores as zoo exhibits, 3, 202
International Center for Gibbon Studies, Santa Clarita, California, U.S.A., breeding, Javan grey gibbon 6, 400
International Zoo News, news coverage, 2, 70, 107
aquariums, U.K., website, 2, 129
Good Zoo Guide Online, 7, 451
naming new species in return for donation, 5, 319
reptiles, taxonomic database, 2, 129
ZooNews Digest, 3, 139140
Invertebrates, marine, husbandry, 6, 412413
Jacana, wattled, see Jacana jacana
Jacana jacana, European zoos, 2, 90
Jaguar, see Panthera onca
John G. Shedd Aquarium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.,
Amazon flooded forest exhibit, 7, 467468
breeding, ringed map turtle, 1, 61
hand-rearing, gentoo penguin, 2, 135
seafood and conservation, 4, 257
workshop, erysipelas in cetaceans, 8, 523524
Jurong BirdPark, Singapore, first captive breeding, twelve-wired bird of paradise, 4, 215221
Kangaroo, Matschie's tree, see Dendrolagus matschiei
Kansas City Zoo, Missouri, U.S.A., hip replacement, snow leopard, 3, 194
Kea, see Nestor notabilis
Kingfisher, common, see Alcedo atthis
Kinkajou, see Potos flavus
Kinshasa Zoo, Democratic Republic of Congo, animals relocated to South Africa and Zambia, 2, 129
Kittenberger Zoo, Veszprém, Hungary, Asian elephant exhibit, 5, 331332
Koala, see Phascolarctos cinereus
Komodo dragon, see Varanus komodoensis,
Krefeld Zoo, Germany, breeding, Egyptian plover, 1, 63
La Torbiera Animal Park, Agrate Conturbia, Italy, 1, 55
Lagothrix lagotricha, reproductive biology, 3, 204
Langur, entellus, see Presbytis entellus; François's, see Trachypithecus francoisi
Lapwing, northern, see Vanellus vanellus
breeding, Emmen Zoo, 1, 6768
European zoos, 2, 9293
Leech, medicinal, see Hirudo medicinalis
Lemur, black, see Eulemur macaco; ring-tailed, see Lemur catta; ruffed, see Varecia variegata
nutrition, 4, 262263
walk-through mixed exhibit with black and red-ruffed lemurs, Blackpool Zoo, 8, 483491
Lemurs, conservation consortium, 4, 244245
Leningrad Zoo, St Petersburg, Russia, breeding, yellow-throated marten, 2, 128
Leontopithecus chrysomelas, contraceptive research, Antwerp Zoo, 6, 408
Leopard, clouded, see Neofelis nebulosa; Persian, see Panthera pardus saxicolor; snow, see Uncia uncia
Leopardus pardalis, birth by frozen-thawed embryo transfer, Cincinnati Zoo, 6, 397398
Leopardus wiedi, Ridgeway Trust for Endangered Cats, 2, 124
Leptodactylus fallax, breeding, Jersey Zoo, 8, 522
reproductive research, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, 3, 191; 6, 414
stolen from Bali captive-breeding facility, 3, 187188
Lion, Barbary, see P. leo leo
Lisbon Zoo, Portugal, breeding, black-faced impala, 4, 261
Lizard, Egyptian spiny-tailed, see Uromastix aegyptius
Lobster, see Homarus gammarus
London Zoo, U.K.,
breeding, striped possum, 1, 61
history (book review), 5, 310313
public demonstrations, ruffed lemur, 2, 95103; 5, 309
release, field cricket, 2, 123
parrots, 8, 528
red-faced black spider monkey (44+), Twycross Zoo, 6, 404405
sea anemones (66+), 8, 528
Loris, pygmy slow, see Nycticebus pygmaeus
Loro Parque, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain,
breeding, salmon-crested cockatoo, 8, 536537
free mate choice, red-tailed amazon, 8, 538
penguin exhibit, 6, 400
Los Angeles Zoo, California, U.S.A., breeding, black duiker, 1, 60
birth by artificial insemination, Indianapolis Zoo, 4, 256257
breeding, Ramat-Gan, 2, 124
breeding, Réserve Africaine de Sigean, 6, 402403
Dresden Zoo, 1, 38; 2, 104105
Howletts Wild Animal Park, 2, 119120
nocturnal behaviour, Schönbrunn Zoo, 4, 228233
nocturnal behaviour, Zoo Atlanta, 2, 131132
reproductive research, Indianapolis Zoo, 1, 5354
Loxodonta africana cyclotis, possible separate species, 7, 453
Lycaeides melissa samuelis, reintroduction project, Toledo Zoo, 8, 526
Lycaon pictus, breeding, National Zoo, South Africa, 6, 401
Macaca arctoides, environmental enrichment, Edinburgh Zoo, 8, 537
Macaca silenus, nutrition, 4, 262263
Macaca sylvanus, environmental enrichment, Edinburgh Zoo, 8, 537
Macaque, Barbary, see Macaca sylvanus; lion-tailed, see M. silenus; stump-tailed, see M. arctoides
Macaw, blue-throated (caninde), see Ara glaucogularis; Spix's, see Cyanopsitta spixii
feeding preferences, Schönbrunn Zoo, 2, 136
hand-rearing, Schönbrunn Zoo, 7, 479
Malacochersus tornieri, breeding, Ueno Zoo, 7, 471472
Mamba, black, see Dendroaspis polylepis
Manatee, Caribbean (Florida), see Trichechus manatus
Mandrill, see Mandrillus sphinx
breeding, Zoo Atlanta, 4, 260
Drill Rehabilitation and Breeding Centre, 1, 64
Mandrillus sphinx, behavioural study, Zoo Atlanta, 2, 132
Maned wolf, see Chrysocyon brachyurus
Margay, see Leopardus wiedi
Marmoset, common, see Callithrix jacchus
Marmosets, see Callitrichids
Marten, pine, see Martes martes; yellow-throated, see M. flavigula
breeding, Leningrad Zoo, 2, 128
breeding, Novosibirsk Zoo, 8, 525
Martes martes, breeding, Highland Wildlife Park, 8, 523
Marwell Zoo, U.K.,
annual report 1999, 7, 456459
disease (avian malaria?), penguins, 3, 194195
hand-rearing, okapi, 7, 456
litter of eight cubs, cheetah, 7, 457
reintroduction project, scimitar-horned oryx, Tunisia, 7, 459
skin tumours, Hartmann's zebra, 7, 458459
Menageries, travelling, 3, 180182; 5, 276282; 6, 372374; 7, 448
Miami Metrozoo, Florida, U.S.A., breeding, Matschie's tree kangaroo, 6, 401
Micromys minutus, husbandry and breeding, Newquay Zoo, 8, 524
beaver rat and fishes, Poznan Zoo, 8, 492494
douroucouli, hairy armadillo and lesser spear-nosed bat, Poznan Zoo, 8, 492494
European beaver and capybara, Drusillas Zoo, 8, 521
pygmy slow loris and Asian horned beetle, Poznan Zoo, 8, 492494
ring-tailed, black and red-ruffed lemurs, Blackpool Zoo, 8, 483491
vampire bat and blind cave tetra, Poznan Zoo, 8, 492494
Mongoose, dwarf, see Helogale hirtula
Monitor, Dumeril's, see V. dumerili; green tree, see V. prasinus; New Guinea crocodile, see V. salvadorii
Monkey, black howler, see Alouatta caraya; black spider, see Ateles paniscus; brown capuchin, see Cebus apella; Goeldi's, see Callimico goeldii; northern night (douroucouli), see Aotus lemurinus; woolly, see Lagothrix lagotricha
Monkey World, Dorset, U.K., confiscated apes arrive from Taiwan, 7, 468469
Monkeys, aromatic herbs as enrichment, Newquay Zoo, 4, 259
Monterey Bay Aquarium, California, U.S.A., rescue and rehabilitation, southern sea otter, 7, 469470
Moschus moschiferus, breeding, Berlin Zoo, 2, 121
Moscow Zoo, Russia, non-invasive reproductive monitoring, Pallas's cat, 5, 301307
Mouse, harvest, see Micromys minutus
Myadestes palmeri, breeding in wild after release, Hawaii, 2, 168
Mynah, Bali, see Leucopsar rothschildi
Naja oxiana, breeding, Sedgwick County Zoo, 1, 57
National Aquarium in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A., veterinary treatment, goliath bird-eating tarantula, 4, 257259
National Zoo, Pretoria, South Africa,
breeding, African wild cat, 6, 401
breeding, African wild dog, 6, 401
Komodo dragon, 5, 332
National Zoo, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.,
death at 28, giant panda, 1, 61
National Zoo Conservation and Research Center, Front Royal, Virginia, U.S.A., Przewalski's horse foal adopted by domestic mare, 3, 195196
Neofelis nebulosa, breeding, Howletts Wild Animal Park, 2, 117
Neophema chrysogaster, breeding and reintroduction, Hobart and Healesville Sanctuary, 8, 536
Nestor notabilis, Paradise Park, 8, 539
Newquay Zoo, U.K.,
aromatic herbs as enrichment, monkeys, 4, 259
breeding, scarlet ibis, 1, 6061
environmental enrichment, kinkajou, 8, 528
husbandry and breeding, harvest mouse, 8, 524
off-site animal encounters programme, 6, 401402
Novosibirsk Zoo, Russia, breeding, Siberian nutcracker, Siberian spruce grouse, yellow-throated marten and Pallas's cat, 8, 525
Nucifraga caryocatactes macrorhynchos, breeding, Novosibirsk Zoo, 8, 525
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) Zoo, Germany, escape, polar bear, 4, 260
Nutcracker, Siberian, see Nucifraga caryocatactes macrorhynchos
Nyctereutes procyonoides, Tama Zoo, 6, 404
Nycticebus pygmaeus, mixed exhibit with Asian horned beetle, Poznan Zoo, 8, 492494
Ocean City Aquarium, New Jersey, U.S.A., destroyed by fire, 1, 60
Ocelot, see Leopardus pardalis
Octopus, giant Pacific, see Enteroctopus dofleini
Octopuses, Seattle Aquarium, 5, 333335
Okapi, see Okapia johnstoni
breeding, Cincinnati Zoo, 4, 253
hand-rearing, Marwell Zoo, 7, 456
Orana Wildlife Park, Christchurch, New Zealand, breeding, white rhino, 1, 5556
Orang-utan, see Pongo pygmaeus
Orycteropus afer, breeding, Brookfield Zoo, 8, 519
Oryx, Arabian, see Oryx leucoryx; scimitar-horned, see O. dammah
Oryx dammah, 42:7, 440
reintroduction project, Tunisia (Marwell Zoo), 7, 459
release, Senegal, 3, 197; 6, 382384
breeding, Tisch Family Zoo, 1, 5960
genetics, 1, 66
breeding, Novosibirsk Zoo, 8, 525
kitten mortality, Denver Zoo, 6, 388
management and breeding, Prague Zoo, 1, 67
non-invasive reproductive monitoring, Moscow Zoo, 5, 301307
Otter, oriental small-clawed, see Amblonyx cinereus; sea, see Enhydra lutris
Overpopulation, poverty and wildlife extinction, 4, 210214; 5, 308
Owl, Savigny's eagle, captive status, 7, 452453
Oyster-catcher, Eurasian, see Haematopus ostralegus
Pacarana, see Dinomys branickii
Pan paniscus, Apenheul, 1, 62
Pan troglodytes, social behaviour, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, 7, 473
Panda, giant, see Ailuropoda melanoleuca
Panthera leo leo, breeding, Port Lympne Wild Animal Park, 2, 118
Panthera onca, olfactory enrichment, Heritage Park Zoo, 7, 466467
Panthera pardus saxicolor, nutrition, Edinburgh Zoo, 6, 392
cubs suckled by domestic sows, 7, 453
olfactory enrichment, Heritage Park Zoo, 7, 466467
white, West Midland Safari Park, 3, 197
Panthera uncia, see Uncia uncia
Papio hamadryas, reproductive control, Cologne Zoo, 1, 65
Paradise Park (World Parrot Trust), Hayle, Cornwall, U.K., kea, 8, 539
Parrot, kea, see Nestor notabilis; orange-bellied, see Neophema chrysogaster; Pesquet's, see Psittrichas fulgidus; thick-billed, see Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha
environmental enrichment, 8, 533534
longevity, 8, 528
wild status, 8, 529530
virus diseases, 8, 535
Pelecanus onocrotalus, breeding, Tama Zoo, 5, 335
Pelican, (great or eastern) white, see Pelecanus onocrotalus
Peltophryne lemur, breeding, Sedgwick County Zoo, 1, 57
Penguin, gentoo, see Pygoscelis papua; Humboldt's, see Spheniscus humboldti
Penguins, 5, 316
disease (avian malaria?), Marwell Zoo, 3, 194195
exhibit, Loro Parque, 6, 400
book review, 3, 182183
identical twins born, University of Queensland, 2, 129
Philippine captive-breeding centre, Panay, 3, 188
breeding, Rheine Zoo, 5, 322323
European zoos, 2, 92
Phloeomys spp., see Rats, cloud
Phoenicoparrus andinus, breeding, Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust, Slimbridge, 1, 60
Phoenicopterus chilensis, breeding, Stone Zoo, 6, 403404
breeding, Stone Zoo, 6, 403404
rescue of wild colony, Mexico, 6, 384
Phoenix Zoo, Arizona, U.S.A., temperature-controlled nestbox, thick-billed parrot, 8, 530
Phyllopteryx taeniolatus, breeding, Aquarium of the Pacific, 6, 396
Phyllostomus discolor, mixed exhibit with douroucouli and hairy armadillo, Poznan Zoo, 8, 492494
Pingtung Rescue Center for Endangered Animals, Taiwan, sends apes to Monkey World, U.K., 7, 468469
Pithecophaga jefferyi, history in captivity, 8, 496506
Platytaeniodus degeni, breeding, San Antonio Zoo, 1, 60
Plover, Egyptian, see Pluvianus aegyptius
breeding, Krefeld Zoo, 1, 63
European zoos, 2, 9192
glucose tolerance study, 8, 531
husbandry, welfare and management, 6, 356368
Porcupine, crested, see Hystrix cristata; North American, see Erethizon dorsatum
Port Lympne Wild Animal Park, U.K.,
annual report 19981999, 2, 116120
Asian elephant, 2, 119
babirusa, hand-reared, growth and development, 1, 1216
breeding, Barbary lion, 2, 118
breeding, black rhino, 2, 119
Possum, striped, see Dactylopsila trivirgata
Potos flavus, environmental enrichment, Newquay Zoo, 8, 528
Poznan Zoo, Poland,
mixed exhibits, pygmy slow loris and Asian horned beetle, douroucouli, hairy armadillo and lesser spear-nosed bat, beaver rat and fishes, and vampire bat and blind cave tetra, 8, 492494
parental behaviour, siamang, 7, 427431
Prague Zoo, Czech Republic, management and breeding, Pallas's cat, 1, 67
Prairie dog, black-tailed, see Cynomys ludovicianus
Presbytis entellus, multi-male mixed-sex group creation, Utah's Hogle Zoo, 7, 477
Primates, African forest, extinction threat, 5, 317318
Probosciger aterrimus, breeding, Rotterdam Zoo, 8, 532
Psittrichas fulgidus, breeding, San Diego Zoo, 8, 539
Psophia leucoptera, reproductive biology, 5, 342343
Pteroglossus beauharnaesii, breeding, Dvur Králové Zoo, 2, 123
Pteropus livingstonii, dietary research, Jersey Zoo, 6, 407, 410411
Pteropus rodricensis, environmental enrichment, Jersey Zoo, 4, 265
Puaiohi, see Myadestes palmeri
Pygoscelis papua, hand-rearing, Shedd Aquarium, 2, 135
Raccoon dog, see Nyctereutes procyonoides
Racer (snake), Antiguan, see Alsophis antiguae
Rail, Guam, see Gallirallus owstoni
Rat, beaver, see Hydromys chrysogaster; brown, see Rattus norvegicus
Rats, cloud, (Crateromys and Phloeomys spp.), conservation and captive breeding, 1, 67
Rattus norvegicus, anticoagulant-resistant, threat to zoos, 5, 317
breeding, Ueno Zoo, 2, 126
European zoos, 2, 9192
Redshank, see Tringa totanus
Reintroduction or release
Andean condor, Colombia, 4, 245
black-and-white ruffed lemur, Madagascar, 1, 47
California condor, 1, 4850
field cricket, England, 2, 123
genetic criteria, 1, 6364
Karner blue butterfly, Ohio, 8, 526
Mississippi sandhill crane, U.S.A., 6, 384
orange-bellied parrot, Australia, 8, 536
puaiohi, Hawaii, 2, 168
scimitar-horned oryx, Senegal, 3, 197; 6, 382384
scimitar-horned oryx, Tunisia, 7, 459
Virgin Islands boa, 8, 526
Reptiles, taxonomic database website, 2, 129
Rescue and rehabilitation,
manatee, Columbus Zoo, 7, 462
southern sea otter, Monterey Bay Aquarium, 7, 469470
Réserve Africaine de Sigean, France,
breeding, African elephant, 6, 402403
deaths in flood, springbok, 5, 332333
Rheine Zoo, Germany, annual report 1999, 5, 321323
group formation, gelada baboon, 5, 321322
breeding, ruff, 5, 322323
Rhinoceros, black, see Diceros bicornis; northern white, see Ceratotherium simum cottoni; Sumatran, see Dicerorhinus sumatrensis; white, see Ceratotherium simum
browse survey (book review), 3, 183184
proposed encyclopedia, 3, 172
Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha, temperature-controlled nestbox, Phoenix Zoo, 8, 530
Riddles Elephant and Wildlife Sanctuary, Arkansas, U.S.A., elephant reproduction workshop, 5, 318
Ridgeway Trust for Endangered Cats, Hastings, U.K.,
in situ conservation project, Belize, 2, 124126
margay, 2, 124
Riga Zoo, Latvia, breeding, amphibians, 7, 470471
Riverbanks Zoo, Columbia, South Carolina, U.S.A., 1, 56; 3, 196; 5, 333; 7, 471
migration study, trumpeter swan, 3, 189
recovery project, rocky shoals spider lily, 7, 471
Robin, Seychelles magpie, see Copsychus sechellarum
Rodents as zoo exhibits, 3, 202
Rome Zoo, Italy, 1, 3738; 3, 177178
Rostock Zoo, Germany, breeding, great Indian hornbill, 5, 341342
Rotterdam Zoo, The Netherlands,
annual report 1999, 5, 323328
breeding, palm cockatoo, 8, 532
island enclosure, gorilla, 5, 343344
Ruff, see Philomachus pugnax
Sababurg Animal Park, Germany, 4, 234239
St Louis Zoo, Missouri, U.S.A.,
breeding, Kenya horned viper, 4, 259
dwarf mongoose, 1, 56
San Antonio Zoo, Texas, U.S.A.,
breeding, Feick's dwarf boa, 6, 403
breeding, Lake Victoria cichlid Platytaeniodus degeni, 1, 60
San Diego Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species (CRES), California, U.S.A.
genetic abnormality, gorilla, 7, 452
genetics conference, 7, 460
immune system research, black rhino, 8, 525526
San Diego Wild Animal Park, California, U.S.A.,
planning and development, 2, 109110
reproductive research, white rhino, 2, 134
San Diego Zoo, California, U.S.A.,
breeding, Pesquet's parrot, 8, 539
Dr Charles Schroeder, former director, 2, 109111; 4, 240
San Diego, Zoological Society of,
annual report 1999, 8, 515517
awards gold conservation medal to John Aspinall, 4, 261
San Francisco Zoo, social behaviour, François's langur, 7, 473474
Schönbrunn Zoo, Vienna, Austria,
feeding preferences, short-eared elephant shrew, 2, 136
hand-rearing, short-eared elephant shrew, 7, 479
nocturnal behaviour, African elephant, 4, 228233
Scleropages formosus, breeding behaviour, 5, 320
Scopus umbretta, breeding, Chessington Zoo, 2, 121122
Scyliorhinus canicula, artificial egg sacs, Weymouth Sea Life Park, 8, 526527
Sea dragon, weedy, see Phyllopteryx taeniolatus
Sea lion, Californian, see Zalophus californianus
Sea World, Surfers Paradise, Queensland, Australia, dugong, 1, 57
Seahorses, see Hippocampus spp.
Seal, South African fur, see Arctocephalus pusillus
Seattle Aquarium, Washington, U.S.A.,
breeding, sea otter, 4, 260261
giant Pacific octopus, 3, 196; 5, 333335
octopuses, 5, 333335
Sedgwick County Zoo, Wichita, Kansas, U.S.A.,
breeding, Guam rail, 3, 196197
breeding, Puerto Rican crested toad, 1, 57
breeding, Russian cobra, 1, 57
Seleucidis melanoleuca, first captive breeding, Jurong BirdPark, 4, 215221
Sepia officinalis, egg collection and rearing, Antwerp Zoo, 6, 395396
Sex ratio, mammals, 5, 338339
Shrew, short-eared elephant, see Macroscelides proboscideus
Siamang, see Hylobates syndactylus
Singapore, zoos, 1, 1722
Slug, Kerry spotted, see Geomalacus maculosus
conservation and captive breeding, 2, 107108
feeding, Denver Zoo, 7, 463464
Solenodon, Cuban, see Solenodon cubanus
Solenodon cubanus, 3, 188189
Spheniscus humboldti, increasing genetic diversity in Japanese zoos, 5, 318319
Spider, goliath bird-eating, see Theraphosa blondi
Spiders, phobia courses, Bristol Zoo, 1, 60
Springbok, see Antidorcas marsupialis
Starling, Bali, see Leucopsar rothschildi
Stilt, black (kaki), see Himantopus novaezelandiae; black-winged, see H. himantopus
Stone Zoo, Stoneham, Massachusetts, U.S.A., breeding, Caribbean and Chilean flamingos, 6, 403404
Suffolk Wildlife Park, Kessingland, U.K., crested porcupine, 7, 432434
Sus salvanius, captive-breeding project, 6, 411
Swan, trumpeter, see Cygnus buccinator
Tallinn Zoo, Estonia, tropical house, 1, 5758
Tama Zoo, Tokyo, Japan,
breeding, white pelican, 5, 335
raccoon dog, 6, 404
Tamarin, golden-headed lion, see Leontopithecus chrysomelas
Tamarins, temporal patterns of gummivory, 4, 264
Tamarins, see also Callitrichids
Tanzania, zoos, 4, 222227
Tapir, Malayan, see Tapirus indicus
Tapirs, public perceptions and misconceptions, 3, 148160
Tapirus indicus, eczema treatment, Copenhagen Zoo, 7, 455
Tarantula, goliath bird-eating, see Theraphosa blondi
Tarpan, see Equus caballus
Tern, Inca, see Larosterna inca
Tetra, blind cave, see Astyanax mexicanus
Theraphosa blondi, veterinary treatment, National Aquarium in Baltimore, 4, 257259
Theropithecus gelada, Rheine Zoo, 5, 321322
Thick-knee, Eurasian, see Burhinus oedicnemus
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde, Germany, 1, 59
annual report 1999, 4, 246
breeding, caninde macaw, 6, 404
new parrot aviary, 4, 259260
Tiger, see Panthera tigris
Tisch Family Zoo, Jerusalem, Israel, breeding, Arabian oryx, 1, 5960
Toad, Puerto Rican crested, see Peltophryne lemur; Wyoming, see Bufo hemiophrys baxteri
Toledo Zoo, Ohio, U.S.A.,
arctic exhibit, 1, 59
breeding and release project, Wyoming toad, 8, 526
reintroduction, Karner blue butterfly, 8, 526
reintroduction, Virgin Islands boa, 8, 526
Tortoise, pancake, see Malacochersus tornieri
breeding, Belfast Zoo, 1, 51
social behaviour, San Francisco Zoo, 7, 473474
Tragelaphus eurycerus, twin birth, Howletts Wild Animal Park, 2, 118
Tremarctos ornatus, environmental enrichment, Zürich Zoo, 3, 200
Trichechus manatus, rescue and rehabilitation, Columbus Zoo, 7, 462
Tringa totanus, European zoos, 2, 92
Tropidophis feicki, breeding, San Antonio Zoo, 6, 403
Trumpeter, white-winged, see Psophia leucoptera
Turtle, ringed map, see Graptemys oculifera
Turtles, Asian, conservation and captive breeding, 7, 450451
bongo, Howletts Wild Animal Park, 2, 118
koala (identical), University of Queensland, 2, 129
Twycross Zoo, U.K.,
annual report 1999, 6, 393394
possible longevity record (44+), red-faced black spider monkey, 6, 404405
Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan,
breeding, pancake tortoise, 7, 471472
breeding, pied avocet, 2, 126
Uncia uncia, hip replacement, Kansas City Zoo, 3, 194
University of Queensland, Australia, identical twin koalas born, 2, 129
Uromastix aegyptius, husbandry and breeding, Edinburgh Zoo, 7, 464466
breeding and nutrition, Denver Zoo, 6, 387
escape, Nuremberg Zoo, 4, 260
exhibit, Cincinnati Zoo, 5, 329
Utah's Hogle Zoo, Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A., multi-male mixed-sex group creation, entellus langur, 7, 477
Vallèe des Singes, Romagne, France, 2, 126; 5, 297300
Vanellus vanellus, European zoos, 2, 92
Varanus dumerili, breeding, Fort Worth Zoo, 3, 193
attempted breeding, Denver Zoo, 4, 254255
National Zoo, South Africa, 5, 332
Varanus prasinus, breeding, Fort Worth Zoo, 3, 193
Varanus salvadorii, breeding, Fort Worth Zoo, 3, 193
reintroduction, Madagascar, 1, 47
use in public demonstrations, London Zoo, 2, 95103; 5, 309
walk-through mixed exhibit with black and ring-tailed lemurs, Blackpool Zoo, 8, 483491
Victoria's Open Range Zoo, Werribee, Victoria, Australia, white rhino, 2, 128
Viper, Kenya horned, see Bitis worthingtoni
Vultur gryphus, release, Colombia, 4, 245
Vulture, Eurasian griffon, see Gyps fulvus
Wassenaar Wildlife Breeding Centre, The Netherlands, birth weight and neonatal growth rate, cheetah, 2, 131
Wellington Zoo, New Zealand, pre- and post-partum behaviour, Malayan sun bear, 5, 284296
West Midland Safari Park, Bewdley, U.K., 5, 314316
white tiger, 3, 197
Wetland Centre, Barnes, London, U.K., 7, 419425
Weymouth Sea Life Park, Dorset, U.K., artificial egg sacs, lesser spotted dogfish, 8, 526527
Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust, Martin Mere, Lancashire, U.K., 7, 472
Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust, Slimbridge, U.K., breeding, Andean flamingo, 1, 60
Wildlife Park Kirkcudbright, Scotland, U.K., 2, 127
Wilhelma Zoo, Stuttgart, Germany, breeding, griffon vulture, 4, 260
Wissel Zoo, The Netherlands, husbandry, North American porcupine, 4, 266267
Wolf, see Canis lupus; maned, see Chrysocyon brachyurus
Wolong Research Centre, China,
encouraging maternal care, giant panda, 5, 344
videos used to encourage giant pandas to mate, 4, 261
Wuppertal Zoo, Germany, annual report 1999, 4, 252
Xylotrupes gideon, mixed exhibit with pygmy slow loris, Poznan Zoo, 8, 492494
Yaounde Zoo, Cameroon, primate rescue centre, 3, 190
Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, social behaviour, chimpanzee, 7, 473
Zacango Zoo, Toluca, Mexico, visitor's report, 1, 2829
food consumption and growth, Harderwijk Marine Mammal Park, 7, 475476
training to accept veterinary treatment, Chessington Zoo, 2, 122
Zebra, Grevy's, see Equus grevyi; Hartmann's mountain, see E. zebra hartmannae
Zoo Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A.,
breeding, drill, 4, 260
genetic analysis, gorilla, 3, 198
giant panda, 2, 127128
mandrill, behavioural study, 2, 132
milk in gorilla diet a cause of regurgitation, 4, 264
nocturnal behaviour, African elephant, 2, 131132
social relationships, giraffe, 5, 343
Zoo Negara, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 6, 405
Zoo New England (Franklin Park Zoo), Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
insectivorous plants, 6, 399400
interactive video website, gorilla, 4, 261
Zoological Center Tel Aviv, Ramat-Gan, Israel,
breeding, African elephant, 2, 124
breeding, Asian elephant, 8, 527
ZOOMAT, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Mexico, visitor's report, 1, 3336
arguments for and against, 4, 240
Canadian, conservation and science, 6, 347354
Chinese, ban on use of live animals as food, 1, 61
history, 1, 23, 411; 3, 174177; 5, 310313
Singapore, 1, 1722
Tanzania, 4, 222227
Zürich Zoo, Switzerland, environmental enrichment, spectacled bear, 3, 200