International Zoo News Vol. 46/8 (No. 297) December 1999
The Role of Domestic Animals in the Zoo
Donna Fitzroy Hardy
Elephant Breeding in Berlin
Introducing Gorillas to a Naturalistic Environment
Visits to Some Latin American Zoos: Part 1 Peru and Colombia
The New Tundra Aviary Complex at Dresden Zoo
Letter to the Editor
International Zoo News
Index to Contributors, Vol. 46
Index to Books Reviewed, Vol. 46
Subject Index, Vol. 46
Six years ago, fresh from seeing the film Jurassic Park, I wrote an editorial (I.Z.N. 40:7, p. 2) on the theme of the resurrection of extinct species. Re-reading it today, I have an odd sense of déja vu. Films of dinosaurs, breeding back the quagga, obtaining viable genetic material from frozen mammoths. . . Nothing seems to have changed. Along with millions of other people, I recently watched a BBC television series in which a combination of various ingenious techniques had been used to produce convincing natural history `documentaries' about life in the Mesozoic period. Earlier this year, David Barnaby reported in I.Z.N. (46:2, pp. 9498), with some persuasive photographic evidence, on the South African project to breed back the quagga. And a few days ago I learned that Bernard Buigues, whose expedition to Siberia was briefly reported in I.Z.N. 46:6 (p. 370), has succeeded in excavating a complete, well-preserved mammoth from the permafrost, and is keeping it safely stored for the winter at Khatanga airport before starting to examine it next year. Buigues's primary aim is pure research into the species, but inevitably newspaper speculation has seized on the possibility of using modern techniques of assisted reproduction to breed from the animal.
In my earlier editorial, I questioned whether the resources required to re-create quaggas, mammoths and much more hypothetically dinosaurs would not be more usefully employed conserving the species we've still got. Now, though, I'm not so sure. All arguments about the allocation of resources are liable to collapse in the face of human beings' obstinate determination to invest in the things they individually think important. If the idea of making the mammoth live again captures enough people's imagination as I suspect it will the thing will be tried. And if it's tried, won't we all feel just a little hopeful that it may succeed? It seems probable that hunting by man played a major part in the mammoth's extinction, so restoring the species would be in some sense an act of reparation. And on a less idealistic level the first collection to exhibit a living mammoth would have a crowd-puller whose effect on attendance figures would be unprecedented in zoo history!
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By the time you read this, the premature millennium celebrations will be over. But the year 2001, besides being the real beginning of the 21st century and the third millennium, will have a special significance for International Zoo News, for with the February issue of that year the magazine will complete its first half-century of publication. To commemorate this anniversary, I hope to include in that issue some items on the magazine's history. I would be glad to hear from any readers with comments or reminiscences on this theme or, of course, suggestions on I.Z.N.'s possible role in the next half-century. . .
THE ROLE OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN THE ZOO
BY DONNA FITZROY HARDY
Zoos have always had a profound influence on how people regard animals. In the 19th century, many Americans received their first exposure to wild animals through traveling circuses and menageries that often displayed them in small, cell-like exhibits separated from the public by heavy cage bars. Since the behavior of wild animals in captivity is greatly influenced by their housing, our great-grandparents were probably introduced to many confined creatures that nervously paced back and forth and appeared to be unfriendly to people. The iron bars reinforced the common assumption that wild animals are dangerous to people, a view that fit in very well with the general attitude that nature was something first to be conquered, then tamed in the service of mankind. As zoos gradually changed from menageries to zoological gardens, the animals were moved from their cramped cages to large, open-air exhibits, and the bars were replaced by chain-link fences and moats. Concrete enclosures were made to look more natural by the addition of rockwork and grass. With the lessening of their confinement, captive animals came to behave more as they would in the wild, and public attitudes toward wild animals began to change. With the advent of television, the zoo-going public began to be exposed to wild animals in nature documentaries, and zoo visitors began to expect more from zoo exhibits. Indeed, modern zoo exhibits are attempts to present wild animals to the public in naturalistic settings, for the benefit of the animals on display as well as the zoo visitors.
We must not forget that the public perception of wild animals is still being shaped by zoos. The idyllic settings of modern exhibits, however desirable in the modern zoo, may be presenting as distorted a picture of wild animals as did the Victorian menagerie. The `invisible barriers' between exhibit animals and public viewing areas have allowed zoo visitors to get `up close and personal' with even the most exotic and potentially dangerous of species. It is possible that the modern zoo exhibit may be giving the public the impression that these now-familiar exotic animals are less dangerous to people than they actually are. The changing public perception of wild animals may be part of the reason why so many people now desire exotic animals as pets. While owning a lion cub may spur some people into becoming zoo directors, as chronicled so well by the late Guy Smith of Knoxville Zoo in A House for Joshua (1985), the more common experience of exotic pet ownership is far less gratifying. And although the position of zoos is that wild animals should not be kept as pets, it is possible that zoos themselves may inadvertently be contributing to this problem by the way they display animals.
The move from `hard' exhibits of concrete and gunite to more naturalistic `soft' exhibit habitats took place at the same time as the American public began to develop environmental awareness. The publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson (1962) perhaps more than any other single event brought to the American consciousness that the future of animals in the wild is in serious jeopardy. The American public began to perceive the zoo as an ark that could prevent extinction of animals by preserving in captivity the species that were threatened in the wild. During the last 30 years, however, the public has come to understand that environmental catastrophes are not inevitable, and that at least some of the problems caused by humans can be prevented and possibly reversed. With this increased awareness of wildlife and habitat conservation, the zoo is coming to be perceived as a lifeboat rather than an ark, the message of the book Lifeboats to Ararat (1978) by the late Sheldon Campbell of San Diego Zoo. Conservation has joined preservation as the mission of the modern zoo and aquarium.
Conservation is now a significant theme in zoo education. It is commonly incorporated in programs on vanishing species, as well as in a variety of other ways in increasing public environmental awareness. One important means that zoo educators use in increasing public appreciation of and respect for nature is by giving zoo visitors a personal experience with living animals. Connections between people and animals in zoos commonly include adoption programs and naming individual animals, as well as keeper talks and special `behind the scenes' visits. Developing appreciation of wild animals is an integral part of efforts by zoos to increase environmental awareness and to gain support for worldwide conservation, and close proximity to animals is provided to the zoo visitor in elephant rides, animal nurseries and children's petting zoos, as well as in various animal shows. In cultivating this personal appreciation for wild animals, however, it is possible that zoos may be presenting a mixed message to the public: while they may be telling the visitors that wild animals do not make good pets, in using exotic species as contact animals, zoos may inadvertently be contributing to the desire of the zoo-going public to own wild animals. Indeed, people today may now be so in love with some species that this very love may be contributing to extinctions in the wild. Import bans on vulnerable or endangered species have not ended the illegal importation of many kinds of animals, and as long as there is a market for wild animals as pets, smugglers will meet that demand. The illegal importation of exotic animals and the exploitation of native species for the pet market would come to a rapid halt if there were no longer any public demand for these animals. But who can be expected to hear the message that wild animals should not be kept as pets while they are admiring animal babies in a zoo nursery?
Thus, rather than reinforcing the fear of wild animals as in the past, the modern zoo may now be cultivating a love affair between the zoo-going public and exotic species. But just as fear of wild animals contributed to the persecution of large carnivores like the puma in the past, desire to own exotic pets may now be spelling the doom of the puma's small spotted relatives! The use of exotic cats and other `desirable' species as contact animals by zoos may in fact be sending out the message that at least some wild animals might make good pets. Furthermore, the common practice of giving individual zoo animals human names may also be contributing to the tendency to give human traits to non-human animals, just as is done with household pets. Of course, the solution to this potential dilemma is not for zoos to put wild animals back behind bars or to eliminate contact animals and zoo nurseries. Clearly the best solution is through public education: zoo educators can help the public come to understand why wild animals should stay out of private hands by using the resources that most zoos already have in their collections living domestic animals. In order to accomplish this, however, zoo professionals may have to rethink the way that domestic animals are currently used in most zoos.
Domestic animals are commonly found in children's zoos and in the 'Farm in the Zoo' section, and many domestic species (e.g., sheep, miniature goats, baby chicks, rabbits, etc.) are used primarily as contact animals for small children. Farm animals that are easy to maintain often make ideal contact animals, since they do not present a serious risk to most zoo visitors. Furthermore, since many domestic animals are ideal for the zoo visitors to feed, selling animal food for this purpose has become profitable for many zoos. The message wild animals do not make good pets can be promoted by incorporating domestic animals into conservation programs with a new message: many domestic animals make good pets. With an emphasis on the differences between domesticated and exotic animals, the domesticated species can become a valuable tool in the effort to reduce the demand for non-domesticated animals by the public. One excellent way to bring this new message to the public is through educational programs on the history of domestication.
The origins of animal domestication
Throughout history, animals have been exploited for the purpose of bettering human existence. This exploitation comes from hunting wild forms as well as through breeding animals in captivity. The process of domestication began during the Neolithic period about 10,000 years ago, and recent developments in genetic engineering continue this process to the present. Domestication is defined as a condition in which the breeding, care, and feeding of animals are, to some degree, subject to continuous control by humans. (It differs from taming in that the process of taming affects only individual animals, whereas domestication affects whole populations.) Whether the relationship between humans and the species is concentrated (as is the case of cattle) or weak (as with reindeer and llamas), some degree of biological change (morphological, physiological, and/or behavioral) in the animal is usually involved.
Many theories have been put forward in attempting to explain why humans began the process of domestication. Most anthropologists believe that animals were originally domesticated for economic reasons, and nearly all of the theories of domestication have in common the basic assumption that humans engaged in a purposeful procedure rather than that domestication occurred by chance. It is thought that early humans needed a supply of certain animals and therefore contrived to domesticate these species. Another theory put forth by Stephen Budiansky in his book Covenant of the Wild: Why Animals Chose Domestication (1992) is that animals (as well as plants) chose domestication because of the benefits of living in close contact with humans. Just as reindeer are inclined to stay in the vicinity of humans because of their attraction to the minerals found in the soil near human habitation, it is presumed that cattle, sheep and goats were originally attracted to human habitation because of advantages of lack of predators, more stable food supply, etc. The disadvantage of individuals occasionally being eaten by humans is thought to have been outweighed by the overall advantages conferred upon the group. Only after a long period of this original loose association did people take direct control of the breeding of domestic animals, and selective breeding for uniform characteristics seems to be a relatively recent practice. Indeed, many present-day breeds of domestic livestock originated about the middle of the 19th century or later.
Prolonged contact with humans has produced three general kinds of animals: `tamed' wild species, semi-domesticated forms, and fully domesticated breeds. Animals on these three levels differ in the amount of reliance and closeness of ties they have to humans. In the taming of wild species, animals maintain loose ties to humans but continue to breed with wild individuals of the same species. Consequently, most tamed species are morphologically no different from their wild counterparts. (Exceptions to this rule are found in a number of species of birds e.g., peafowl and guinea fowl which have been separated from wild populations but are commonly classified as tame.) The white-tailed gnu (Connochaetes gnou) is an example of a species that is in the process of being tamed in Africa. Another example of this level of domestication is the reindeer of the Lapps in northern Scandinavia. Reindeer are a tame form of Rangifer tarandus, the `caribou' of North America that are included in many zoo collections. Reindeer and caribou could be compared in public education programs about domestication, and while reindeer might not be allowed to wander freely in public areas (even the Lapps remove the antlers from the tame reindeer before they are used in racing!), young reindeer might be useful as contact animals. Rather than coming to the zoo as seasonal `Santa's helpers', reindeer could be used with other species in demonstrations of the degree to which the process of domestication has influenced the form and behavior of animals. Zoos might even wish to incorporate cultural anthropology into their programs by demonstrating the differences between Inuits and Lapps in their exploitation of this species.
In the simplest form of domestication, the animals that are maintained in captivity undergo physiological and/or biological changes. By definition, these semi-domesticated animals are usually kept separate from their relatives in the wild. However, while they are genetically isolated from wild populations, no special effort may be made to select specific characteristics for breeding. One exception to this is the selection of coat color in ranch-bred mink, and a comparison of wild and semi-domesticated minks would make an interesting zoo exhibit. Breeding semi-domesticated animals differs from captive propagation of tame forms in that prolonged contact with humans has resulted in some kind of change in the species, particularly in behavior. For example, the young of semi-domesticated forms have less tendency to avoid humans than the young of wild or `tamed' species that are being raised in captivity. (The many species of wild birds and mammals that have long been bred in captivity as pets are not classified as either tamed or domesticated, and individuals may be indistinguishable from their wild counterparts. Similarly, many exotic animals bred for exhibition in zoos remain as `wild' as the same species not in confinement.)
While many examples of semi-domesticated animals can be found in zoo collections, the Asian elephant is often used as an example of this level of domestication. Although in some parts of the world this species is used in every way as a domestic animal, its breeding is not subject to human control. Nor does the morphology of a domesticated elephant differ from its wild relatives. (Since this species in Asia is not genetically isolated from its wild relatives, it is sometimes considered to be a tamed species rather than a semi-domesticated form.) Other zoo animals that are now commonly bred by humans and may be termed semi-domesticated include the plains bison, wood bison, wisent, musk ox, fallow deer, red deer, wild boar, mongoose, chinchilla, wild turkey, common pheasant, and guinea fowl. In addition, ostriches are widely bred in captivity for their leather and other products, and as well as the mink, a number of other species of carnivore have semi-domesticated varieties that are bred for their pelts. The genetic isolation of these semi-domesticated species may eventually produce forms that have some morphological differences from the same species in the wild. The degree of success of breeding semi-domesticated species for commercial exploitation depends, of course, upon the species chosen. For example, the temperament of red deer makes this species easier to herd through fenced alleys and runways than fallow deer, which have a greater likelihood of panicking under the same conditions.
A more advanced level of domestication includes animals that are fully domesticated as the result of selective breeding for specific purposes usually size, color or behavior. Most animals in this category are easily recognized as being `non-wild' forms, such as most breeds of domestic dogs, cats, rabbits, sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, horses, hamsters, and chickens. This category also includes species that appear to be no different from wild forms and may be exhibited at the zoo along with other exotic species. An excellent example of a fully domesticated animal with a very `wild' appearance that would fit very well into zoo collections is the yak. Indeed, this species would not appear to be a domestic animal when compared to most wild bovids. Yaks have been utilized by humans for meat, milk and even as a beast of burden for many hundreds of years, and are said to be excellent pack and riding animals for mountain travel. Other fully domesticated animals that are commonly exhibited at zoos as exotic species include Arabian camel or dromedary, Bactrian camel, water buffalo and llama. While camels and water buffalo are not much different in appearance from their wild ancestors, the great color variation that is exhibited by domesticated llamas differentiates them considerably from their wild ancestors, which were agouti in color.
The most highly domesticated species have resulted from the planned development of breeds that have certain desirable properties, and the persecution or extermination of the wild ancestors has commonly paralleled this long process of domestication. For example, the spread of domestic cattle throughout the world eventually led to the extinction of its wild counterpart and ancestor, the aurochs. Similarly, the ancestral Equus caballus disappeared from the wild following the domestication of the modern horse. In some cases, however, a species may secondarily return to the wild state following full domestication, when individuals escape or are freed from captivity and begin to reproduce in the wild as feral animals. Feral forms have evolved for nearly all domesticated species, most notably horses, sheep, goats, dogs and cats. One example of an animal that some consider to be a feral domestic form and that is exhibited in many zoo collections is the dingo of Australia. While dingos are sometimes classified as a separate species, Canis dingo, rather than as a subspecies or breed of Canis familiaris, they are thought to have accompanied humans to that continent as fully domesticated dogs. Other feral animals that might also be included in zoo collections are the feral mustang, a breed descended from horses brought to the New World by the Spanish, and Texas longhorn cattle, which were descended from Spanish cattle that had escaped in Mexico. While wild-caught mustangs are commonly tamed and trained for riding, Texas longhorn cattle are said to be more difficult to maintain in captivity. During centuries of surviving in the feral state, longhorn cattle seem to have lost many characteristics of domestic cattle (e.g., docility).
Domesticated animals in zoo collections
There are several approaches to discouraging the public from acquiring exotic animals as pets. One approach, of course, is to concentrate on the plight of endangered species and attempt to gain public support for worldwide conservation programs. An important part of worldwide conservation is protection of endangered species from capture for the pet market, as well as from habitat degradation, over-hunting, poisoning or pollution, competition with domestic livestock, etc. One might assume that a citizen who supports conservation efforts would also refrain from acquiring exotic animals as pets, but this may be an incorrect assumption. The zoo visitor who would not dream of wearing a leopard coat may have no qualms in acquiring a margay cat as a pet, and thus unknowingly be contributing to the extinction of an endangered species without even realizing it! Many people today who purchase even legally imported exotic species as pets (e.g., large lizards and snakes) may have no awareness of the toll that commercial harvesting of these species may take on wild populations. In these ways, people today may not be much different from Americans a hundred years ago who never questioned where their `buffalo' blankets might be coming from! The need to educate the public about conservation is very great, and zoos are in a unique position to reach people in a very personal way. Perhaps the conservation message is just not as clear as it could be.
An innovative approach to conservation education may be to explain the advantages of domestic animals as pets. Through the long process of domestication, humans have selected animals with certain desirable characteristics. The more of these characteristics or behaviors that are present in a species, the more likely it is that it has been the object of successful domestication. General characteristics which humans have selected include:
1. docility (a behavioral trait that is inherited);
2. adaptability and fitness for different domestic environments (such as living in close proximity to humans);
3. specific characteristics of economic importance (e.g., high fertility, rapid growth, efficient conversion of food into meat or into other useful products such as milk, eggs, feathers, leather);
4. a reduction in the time between birth and maturity while retaining certain infantile characteristics;
5. reduction of wild characteristics (especially the aggressive and sexually-related display structures such as horns); and
6. hybrid vigor through crossbreeding. (This may result in resistance to disease and a high percentage of young surviving to maturity, etc.)
The only one of these characteristics that is an important requirement for a good pet is docility. There is clearly an advantage in owning a pet that has a low likelihood of harming humans or other animals. Thus, most breeds of domestic dog make far superior pets in this regard than do wolves, coyotes, or even wolfdog or coyotedog hybrids. (Some breeds of domestic dog are naturally more aggressive than others. However, most of us would not want a pet that dines on the poodle next door, a real possibility with a wolfdog hybrid!) An educational program on domestication that compares the domestic dog (an excellent contact animal!) to wild canids in the zoo collection might emphasize differences as well as similarities in their behavior. Along with the dingo of Australia, zoos might want to acquire other types of feral dog, such as the pariah dog that is found from Japan to North Africa or the New Guinea singing dog. Other dog-like species that are in many zoo collections (e.g., the Cape hunting dog of Africa, the maned wolf of South America, the dhole or Indian wild dog) can also be compared to the domestic dog. Similar comparisons could be made between other fully domesticated species and their wild counterparts; the domestic chicken and the red jungle fowl is one obvious example.
Feral domestic animals might play an important role in conservation education. Since zoos commonly exhibit the dingo, it might be quite appropriate and even desirable for zoos to consider adding other feral domestic species to their collections. The brumby, the feral horse of Australia, might join the dingo as part of an Australian exhibit, as could the European rabbit and water buffalo that are also feral on that continent. Zoos could make use these four feral Australian species in conservation programs that illustrate the competition between feral animals and native marsupials.
Although it is assumed that most visitors are expecting to see more exotic species at the zoo, visitors to the Amarillo Zoo in Texas are no doubt delighted to find the mustang, our `wild' (actually feral) horse of the great American West, in its collection. Participation in the Wild Horse and Burro Adoption Program of the Department of the Interior by adopting wild-caught horses and burros (feral donkeys) might be an excellent way that American zoos could inaugurate an educational program on Domestication of Animals. With feral mustangs, feral burros and Texas longhorn cattle, zoos could bring to the zoo visitor a picture of the Old West that is seldom presented the interdependence of humans (cowboys and Indians, early settlers and prospectors) and their domestic animals. Domestic horses could even be exhibited side-by-side with the Przewalski's horse to show the differences between the two species, and young colts born at the zoo might be desirable contact animals. (Clearly these colts would be very different from hand-raised Przewalski's colts, which would be as `wild' as hand-raised zebra colts!) To further distinguish between domestic and non-domestic species, zoos might want to adopt the policy of naming only the domestic forms domestic horse colts would receive names but Przewalski colts would not.
The use of domesticated animals in zoo education can meet several goals of the zoo educator. The history of domestication is a fascinating subject in itself, and a zoo educator has the ability to make living comparisons between domestic species and their wild relatives and ancestors. The use of domestic animals as contact animals can be a very rewarding experience for zoo visitors, and comparing the feel of the fur of a living angora rabbit to that of most domesticated rabbit breeds is one way to demonstrate how special traits have been selected through domestication. A program on domestication can compare a `tame' species like a reindeer to a semi-domesticated species like the bison to a fully domesticated species like the llama. Through this kind of program, zoo visitors can come to understand why and how animals have become domesticated, as well as the desirability of domesticated over exotic animals as pets.
The place of rare breeds of domestic livestock in zoo collections
Many breeds of farm livestock that were common in the first half of this century fell from favor because of changes in society and agriculture. However, people are generally unaware that these breeds of sheep, cattle, poultry, pigs and horses are now on the brink of extinction or have disappeared altogether. Teams of draft horses pulling farm implements and wagons have been replaced by tractors and trucks. The great variety of livestock of the past has given way to the relatively few breeds now favored by modern agri-business, and the result has been hybridization and demand for uniformity of stock at the expense of genetic variability. (Many of the old breeds combined desirable production traits with distinct table properties, and the literature of the past frequently commented on the differing flavors of various farm breeds, e.g., Houdan fowl. Today, I would wager that our `factory-farmed' poultry Cornish cross in the U.S.A. tastes exactly the same around the world!)
Since we may need to call upon old breeds of livestock for specific traits (e.g., longevity, disease resistance, adaptability, structural soundness), they may be viewed today as a kind of insurance for future trends in agriculture and in consumer demand. Unfortunately, the world has entered a period during which an increasing number of domestic farm animals and poultry are vanishing forever. And once this `living gene bank' is lost, it may be difficult or impossible to meet future changes in market demand. However, there has been increasing interest in the plight of rare and endangered livestock breeds. While one objective is to preserve these breeds in the interest of genetic diversity, another objective is to preserve them because of their special characteristics. (North Ronaldsay sheep, for example, are valued because of their distinctive adaptation to a diet of seaweed an ability not shared by other sheep.)
In addition to their scientific and economic values, traditional livestock breeds form part of the cultural heritage of many countries they are remnants of our agricultural past. Indeed, these livestock breeds can be regarded as a kind of `living history.' For example, native livestock breeds such as Soay sheep, Bagot goats, Dorking poultry, Exmoor ponies and white park cattle are an integral part of British history. Lastly, many people have found that old domestic farm animal breeds are docile, easily managed and attractive in appearance. They even report that the various breeds have differing personalities!
Many zoo professionals that I have met believe that these fascinating animals can play an important role in every zoo collection. But why would people who are familiar with domestic livestock want to go to zoos to see these same species? Before we address this question, perhaps we need to ask `Why do people visit zoos?' The answer to this latter question is probably the same today as it was a hundred years ago when people went to menageries to see animals that they had never seen the rare, exotic animals from faraway lands. And just as there are rare, exotic wild animals, there are also rare, exotic domestic animals. While many people may not be especially interested in seeing common breeds of domestic animals, they can be attracted to zoos that display unfamiliar domestic animals: the rare (and endangered) breeds of livestock. The inclusion of rare breeds of domestic animals in zoo collections can serve the dual function of expanding the zoo audience and preserving these breeds. The rich history of domestication of livestock and the historical role of many (now rare) livestock breeds would be a valuable addition to educational programs that focus on the relationship between people and animals. And by linking these animals to their living relatives (e.g., domestic horses to zebras, wild asses, and Asian wild horses), zoos can promote an appreciation for conservation of wild species.
Budiansky, S. (1992): Covenant of the Wild: Why Animals Chose Domestication. William Morrow, New York.
Campbell, S. (1978): Lifeboats to Ararat. Times Books, New York.
Carson, R. (1962): Silent Spring. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
Smith, G. (1985): A House for Joshua: The Building of the Knoxville Zoo. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville.
[For more information on domestication of animals, I recommend:
Clutton-Brock, J. (1987): A Natural History of Domesticated Animals. University of Texas Press, Austin.
More information about rare livestock breeds can also be obtained through the following:
Rare Breeds Survival Trust, National Agricultural Centre, Stoneleigh Park, Kenilworth, Warwickshire CV8 2LG, U.K. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
American Livestock Breeds Conservancy, P.O. Box 477, Pittsboro, North Carolina 27312, U.S.A. E-mail: email@example.com
Australian Rare and Minority Breeds Association Inc. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Rare Breeds Canada, c/o Trent University Environmental and Resource Studies Program, Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B8 Canada. E-mail: email@example.com]
Donna FitzRoy Hardy, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California 91330-8255, U.S.A. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
[Dr Hardy will be visiting Britain in April 2000 while researching a book on rare breeds of horses and ponies. She would particularly like to hear from any British zoos which keep such breeds, or any other rare domesticated animals.]
ELEPHANT BREEDING IN BERLIN
BY BERNHARD BLASZKIEWITZ
[Translation of a lecture given at the meeting of the Union of German Zoo Directors (VDZ) in Rostock on 3 June 1999]
Berlin started to keep elephants in 1857, when the Berlin Zoo acquired the male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), Boy. The first African elephant (Loxodonta africana), the cow Jenny, caught by Lorenzo Casanova for Hagenbeck, came to Berlin Zoo in 1868. The splendid elephant pagoda, one of the impressive stylistic buildings which were erected during the era of director Bodinus, was finished in 1873, and housed both Boy and Jenny (Klös, 1969). Four calves were born in the pagoda, all of them E. maximus. On 18 December 1906 a female calf was born to the cow Toni I, who came to Berlin from Cairo via Hagenbeck together with the bull, Harry. The little Editha was sired by Harry during the pair's stay at Hagenbeck Zoo. As the mother did not accept her calf, hand-rearing was attempted, but without success, and Editha died after 24 days. She was the third elephant born in Europe, following a stillbirth in London in 1902 and a female calf at Schönbrunn, Vienna, in July 1906 (who survived until 1944). On 20 October 1928 a second calf was born in Berlin. The father was again Harry, and the mother Toni II. The female calf, Kalifa, was a zoo sensation, and visitors thronged to see her a newspaper carried the appropriate headline, `Lining up for Kalifa.' She lived for 11 years, but died in 1939 from foot injuries caused by the prongs used at that time to mark off the moat of the outdoor enclosure.
The next Berlin elephant was born on 8 April 1936. The male calf, Orje, was born to the cow Aida, who was pregnant at the time of purchase. The mating had taken place with Omar at Hannover Zoo. Orje died aged two and a half in 1938. A bronze sculpture created by Anny Beck, which shows him on his first day of life, is still exhibited in front of the elephant house. Omar was also the father of the fourth Berlin calf. At Hannover Zoo he covered the cow Jenny, who thereafter came to Berlin Zoo and gave birth to a female calf, Indra, on 27 November 1938 (Blaszkiewitz, 1993a). Indra was killed on 22 November 1943, at almost five years old, together with six other elephants, when the pagoda was destroyed during an air attack. Only Siam, the Asian bull, housed in a corner stable, survived the inferno. He died in 1947.
Only when Pandit Nehru donated the Asian cow, Shanti, to the children of Berlin in 1951, did Berlin Zoo start to keep elephants again. A new elephant house was erected in 1954, which in the main still exists today (Heinroth, 1959). But in spite of the temporary presence of bulls, Berlin Zoo did not succeed in breeding elephants again after 1938. The African bull, Salim, as well as the Asian Benjamin an animal with wonderful tusks turned out to be incapable of breeding. Sixty years were to pass before elephants in Berlin had offspring again.
The Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde, which opened on 2 July 1955, had already acquired two elephants in the preceding June, so the Tierpark's first visitors could observe the Asian females, Dombo and Bambi. The first L. africana, the bull Hannibal, arrived at the Tierpark in 1956. For the time being, however, the animals had to live in temporary accommodation. It was only in the 1980s that the director, Professor Dathe, was able to get approval for a custom-built elephant house. This was one of the largest elephant houses ever built; the indoor floor space measures 6,000 m2, and the outdoor area 11,000 m2. On 29 October 1989 approximately five weeks prior to the fall of the Berlin Wall Heinrich Dathe opened this house to the Tierpark's visitors (Blaszkiewitz, 1992). Beforehand four (1.3) two-year-old African elephants had been acquired from Zimbabwe. They were delivered by the animal dealer Werner Bode. A pair of Asian elephants, Ankhor and Kewa, arrived at the Tierpark from Burma via Van den Brink in 1989 and 1990 respectively. In spite of the difficulty of keeping elephant bulls in zoos in 1962 the Asian Radjah had to be killed because of his unpredictability Prof. Dathe had decided to acquire a young male of each species for the new house, which was fitted with the necessary safety equipment for keeping bulls. This foresight was to pay off ten years later. (There are, of course, no objections to exhibiting elephant cows only, particularly if a zoo's management system is unable to guarantee the necessary safety when keeping bulls.)
We at the Tierpark often expressed our hope for elephant offspring in articles in our journal Milu (Blaszkiewitz, 1993b, 1996). This hope finally became a certainty when regular tests of the hormone values in the blood of the Asian females, Kewa and Louise (Strauss, 1996), showed that they were pregnant by Ankhor. We expected the births in 1998, and looked forward with keen interest to the first little elephant in our city after 60 years. On 17 January 1998 a male calf was stillborn to the 15-year-old Kewa after brief contractions. The body of the calf, which weighed 117 kg, as well as its mucous membranes and tongue, were covered with pustules approximately 20 mm in diameter. Virological tests proved that the cause was a pox infection. In spite of the fact that all adult elephants at the Tierpark had been vaccinated against pox, the virus could develop in the foetus. The cow had no difficulties after the birth and returned to the herd. The 25-year-old Louise had her first contractions on 25 July 1998, but the birth did not make progress. On 27 July we treated her with drugs to promote and regulate the contractions, but without success. Finally, on 31 July, we decided to carry out a vestibulotomy, and in this way a dead female calf, weighing 110 kg, was delivered. The relatively advanced age of the cow at the time of her first birth obviously protracted the birth process and contributed to the death of the calf. It is not clear whether earlier action could have saved its life. All known cases of elephant births by vestibulotomy, or even Caesarean section, have resulted in dead calves, and the latter method has also caused the death of the female. Afterwards Louise took a month to deliver the placenta, and only then began visibly to recover. Both births are described in Milu (Czupalla et al., 1998; Strauss et al., 1998).
Our optimism regarding future elephant breeding at the Tierpark was naturally rather diminished now. Early in 1998 we diagnosed an increase in the abdominal girth of our smallest African cow, Sabah, particularly around the vulva. After investigation an oedema was suspected, which led us to think of cardiovascular disease, but an ECG did not confirm this suspicion. Since Sabah's general state of health was poor, and the vulval oedema grew to the size of a football, we decided on a sonographic test. The result indicated that she was pregnant, and we now began to fear that this very small cow would also have a stillbirth. Early in 1999 the girth of her abdomen clearly increased. Bibi, Sabah's contemporary, was as plump as ever, and a pregnancy seemed to be possible, but not certain. All the same we took blood from both cows for hormone tests. Sabah's hormone curve confirmed her pregnancy, but Bibi's counts were not clear. On 15 January at 7.15 a.m., a female calf was born to Bibi. The cow was somewhat nervous, but not so very excited as many other elephant cows are described as being on the occasion of their first birth. Thirty minutes after the birth the young elephant stood on its legs for the first time, and after one hour it was walking around, even though still a bit shaky. Bibi, who was chained up, grasped repeatedly behind her, but we don't know whether she was trying to reach the calf or the keeper. After the delivery of the placenta she became very excited, throwing the placenta up and piercing it with her tusks, so we gave her a sedative. It is worth mentioning that Sabah was standing on the same floor next to the mother and her baby, but was obviously not interested in the event.
Now the little calf, a female, went around looking for something. Two hours and 55 minutes after the birth we heard a sucking noise the mother's milk source had been found! We wanted to put the baby on the scales to weigh it, but it cried so loudly that Bibi got very excited, and we therefore refrained from weighing it. We estimated its weight at 90 kg. But we could measure it 88 cm high. Due to the cold season the mother and her child, which was named Matibi after a little place in the south of Zimbabwe, were only able to make their first trip into the outdoor enclosure at Easter (Blaszkiewitz, 1999).
After the birth of Matibi, we were all convinced that Sabah was pregnant, too. The oedema of the abdomen and vulva seemed to be growing. Anxious waiting and the question of when our keepers should start night watches were the main points in our discussions. But on 9 April 1999 our waiting came to an end. At 5.25 in the morning, Sabah gave birth to a rather small (79 cm) but active male. Because the little bull had difficulty reaching his mother's teats, the keepers finally put a fruit box under his forelegs. With this help the calf reached the mother's breast and could drink. After more than three weeks he still needed this aid. At only 60 kg the baby was extremely light.
I am indebted to Lothar Dittrich for comparative values of some new-born African elephants. They weighed between 75 and 113 kg, and their heights ranged from 85 to 98 cm. Since his birth, however, the little bull his name is Tutume, after a town in Botswana has been catching up. At the time of writing (June 1999) he is 84 cm high and weighs about 100 kg. Born at a more favourable time of the year, Tutume and his mother were able to go outside in the month of his birth.
Matibi and Tutume are the seventh and eighth African elephants born in Germany. The first L. africana birth in captivity anywhere in the world took place at Hellabrunn Zoo, Munich, in April 1943. Unfortunately the calf, Adam, died the same year during an air-raid. A sculpture of him stands in the Haus der Natur natural history museum in Salzburg. Two (1.1) calves were born at Opel-Zoo, Kronberg, in 1965 and 1968; they lived till 1981 and 1982 respectively. At Hannover Zoo the gigantic bull, Tembo, (weight 6,600 kg!) had 2.1 calves with the cows Iringa and Beira in 1968, 1973, and 1977. The female calf died after a fortnight, but the males grew up. (In addition, Iringa had an early miscarriage in 1974.) Three births at Basel Zoo, Switzerland, should also be mentioned for the German-speaking territories the female calf, Ota (the third African born in captivity) in 1966 (died 1982), a stillbirth and the male, Pambo, in 1992 (now at Schönbrunn) (Blaszkiewitz, 1993a).
Both the African calves in Berlin are developing well, and they are crowd-pullers, just as Kalifa was in 1928.
Blaszkiewitz, B. (1992): Das neue Elefantenhaus im Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde. Der Zoologische Garten 62 (4): 212221.
Blaszkiewitz, B. (1993a): Elefantengeburten in Zoologischen Garten ein Überblick. Bongo 22: 4756.
Blaszkiewitz, B. (1993b): Friedrichsfelder Elefanten-Chronik. Milu 7 (5): 518531.
Blaszkiewitz, B. (1996): Friedrichsfelder Elefanten-Chronik Nachtrag 19931996. Milu 9 (1): 1014.
Blaszkiewitz, B. (1999): Erstmals ein Afrikanischer Elefant in Berlin geboren. Der Zoofreund 112: 1112.
Czupalla, O., Strauss, G., and Wisser, J. (1998): Tierärztliche Aspekte zur Geburt des ersten Elefanten im Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde. Milu 9 (4): 346353.
Heinroth, K. (1959): Das neue Elefantenhaus im Berliner Zoologischen Garten. Der Zoologische Garten 25: 126136.
Klös, H.-G. (1969): Von der Menagerie zum Tierparadies. Berlin.
Strauss, G. (1996): Weitere Untersuchungen zum Ovarialzyklus Asiatischer Elefanten im Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde. Milu 9 (1): 5156.
Strauss, G., Czupalla, O., Lange, A., and Hildebrandt, T. (1998): Der Dammschnitt als geburtshilfliche Massnahme bei einem Asiatischen Elefanten. Milu 9 (5): 483495.
Dr Bernhard Blaszkiewitz, Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde, Am Tierpark 125, D-10307 Berlin, Germany.
INTRODUCING GORILLAS TO A NATURALISTIC ENVIRONMENT
BY MIKE DOWNMAN
Loro Parque currently houses western lowland gorillas in a bachelor group. The group was founded in 1992 and contains six individuals. The gorillas are, in order of age, Schorsch (26), Noël (12), Ivo (11), Maayabu (10), Pole Pole (8), and Rafiki (7). The group is housed in a complex covering a total area of 3,700 m2. The inside accommodation comprises nine sleeping dens, each measuring 2.77 m ΄ 5.9 m ΄ 2.62 m high . All the dens have ropes, a sleeping shelf, and an automatic water dispenser similar to a drinking fountain. The dens are interconnected by manually-operated shifts, with electrically-operated shifts leading to the exit corridor. Access to the outdoor terraces is via the exit corridor, and three electric shifts lead from there to the terraces themselves. Eight dens are connected to the exit corridor, with the ninth leading to holding and quarantine areas (see Figure 1). The holding and quarantine areas are concreted structures containing climbing frames made from tree trunks, and have suspended tyres for play activities. These areas are used mainly when one or more animals are off-exhibit through illness or injury, etc. They are also used for the introduction of new animals (Downman, 1998). Both areas are open to the elements. Lighting is available in all dens, with natural light provided by skylights (one per den), and windows in the service passage. The service passage runs the length of the building and connects to a kitchen and storage area incorporating a keepers' rest room. The roof of the building is flat, and provides an ideal observation platform, as well as allowing the keepers to dispense scatter feeds.
The terraces are a multi-level exhibit, with several outstanding features, the most notable being the large waterfall and stream in the west terrace. The terraces have three waterfalls in total, two in the west, and one in the east, all utilising recirculated water. Large rocks are placed in various areas, mainly towards the back. A large fallen tree trunk bridges the stream from the main waterfall, whilst smaller tree trunks are distributed in both terraces. Both areas have climbing trees, small caves, palm and ficus trees, free-access planted areas, and protected areas (hot-wired). The terraces are viewed from four points, two open areas at opposite ends, and two windows at the narrowest point (see Figure 1). The terraces have roughly a 60:40 split, with the west terrace being the larger of the two.
The planted terraces
In July 1997 we were forced to close off the west terrace after the large 2.1 ΄ 5.66 m viewing window cracked. Whilst awaiting a replacement from mainland Spain, we took the opportunity to plant out the terrace. Two criteria would have to be met for this to be effective. Firstly it shouldbenefit the gorillas, and secondly it should create an aesthetically pleasing enclosure. With that in mind the gardening department was asked to plant the terrace in as naturalistic a style as they could. The suitability of plants was discussed between the curator, keeping staff, veterinarians and gardeners before arriving at the final choice. There are too many to mention all here (see Table 1), but they include acanthus, bamboo, canna, cortaderia, euphorbia, hibiscus, melaleuca and yucca. Due to the logistics of getting such a large and heavy (1,250 kg) piece of glass from mainland Spain, the plants had about two months to become established.
When planting was finished the result was better than we had anticipated. Standing in the open viewing area, you look up into a hillside forest clearing, with the impressive waterfall and stream in front. From the window you get the effect of a forest edge, with stands of herbaceous plants, shrubs and trees in front and in the distance a stand of palm trees. Given the terraced nature of the enclosure, the gorillas can be fully visible, or screened by the plants. A jumble of pathways through the vegetation completes the scene. The screening and pathways are important. In captivity a lack of cage space can cause problems of victimisation. Although our group had integrated well, we were still cautious with this new environment. The design should resemble the situation in the wild as far as possible, and should incorporate escape routes, and plenty of opportunity for rivals to remain out of sight of each other (Harcourt, 1988; Porton and White, 1996).
It looked as natural as a captive situation could be, and even before we put the gorillas in we were getting favourable comments from the visitors arguably the most important critics a zoological collection could have. We were pleased with the results, the visitors were pleased with the results, and we hoped that the gorillas would be too.
Introducing the gorillas
When it came time to introduce the gorillas to the `new' terrace they already had an advantage. When we were forced to close off the west terrace we did it with electric fencing, which gave them an unimpeded view of the work in progress, so there was no real surprise awaiting them.
It is an inevitable fact that when primates and plants are mixed there will be some damage. And so it was with us, although it wasn't as bad as we had feared. Amongst the first to go were the yuccas, and they were destroyed with remarkable dedication by Rafiki, the smallest one. I think it was part play, part curiosity, and part `devil in him'! But he was by no means alone in this labour of love, as Maayabu and Pole Pole also found the temptation too great. However, Maayabu started off in a small way, and progressed from twig and branch removal to pulling over shrubs and small trees. Once the initial euphoria of such acts had worn off, they then checked out the rest of the enclosure before settling down. The others explored the terrace and investigated some of the plants, but didn't exhibit the same degree of curiosity. They removed leaves and flowers, but either found them too bland, or perhaps not as palatable as they had imagined.
Bedding material in the form of palm fronds, banana leaves, and bamboo are supplied on a daily basis, and this meant that the gorillas had no need to collect their own. This almost certainly minimised the damage; why expend energy collecting bedding material off plants when there is ample scattered on the floor? The only long-term damage was to the grass. As we had created paths through the plants the animals used them a lot, with the result that they killed off the grass in these areas.
As the west terrace looked so good, it was decided to plant out the east terrace as well. This time, because of the smaller size, it was to prove more difficult to achieve the desired effect. A similar mix of plants was used, but reduced in number. Some of the larger plants could not be used as they would have taken up too much space, and possibly impeded the gorillas' movements. Instead, small to medium plants were obtained and introduced into the terrace. Unfortunately these plants did not enjoy the same establishing time as those on the west terrace only one month with fairly predictable results. When the dividing fence was removed, and the gorillas came in to inspect this latest enhancement, some plants, notably bamboo, were the first to suffer. Root systems were still quite shallow, offering little resistance to the gorillas, and medium-sized trees (1.52 m) were pulled over and had to be staked in place. It sounds as though the east terrace was decimated, but thankfully this was not so: as before, the gorillas' curiosity was quickly satisfied.
It was a few weeks later that we had our only major problem with animals and plants. Eleven-year-old Ivo is a gorilla with big ambitions. He wants to be number one. Obviously to do this he has to challenge the silverback Schorsch, and this he tried. Normally Schorsch is a very placid and laid-back gorilla, and very rarely gets upset. However, Ivo insisted on testing him, and as time went on Schorsch started to get irritated. He has always had a relationship with Maayabu, although this was probably initiated and sustained by Maayabu rather than Schorsch, and with Ivo's relentless attempts to usurp the silverback, Maayabu formed a coalition with Schorsch, and together they saw off this challenge with very little physical contact. Ivo by this time was a very upset and frustrated gorilla. He had tried to displace the dominant male, and had failed, and in an act of redirected aggression took his anger out on the vegetation. Having had little time to establish themselves the plants, especially the bamboo, were pulled up with ease. Not content with this, Ivo then started to throw them around. Eventually his anger subsided, but by then the east terrace resembled a building site! Happily there has been no repetition of that incident, and the plants now have a good enough root system to put up a resistance. Since then the gorillas have used rather than abused the plants. Both terraces are constantly changing, however, as plants are replaced or `altered'. This is especially true of the west terrace, where the gorillas spend most of their time.
Overall we are pleased with the way things have worked out, and the vegetation is being used by the animals in different ways. Schorsch uses some of the bamboo as a screen, especially near the east terrace window. As I have already mentioned, he is a fairly solitary animal, although he tolerates the others. The screening effect of the plants seems to give him a sense of privacy and security, but we are unsure if he is `hiding' from the visitors or the other gorillas. Before the terraces were planted he made no effort to hide, nor showed any need to though this may have been because there was nothing big enough to hide him. Also, prior to this introduction, he was very keen to conserve his energy, moving only to obtain food or to urinate and defecate. Since we reopened the terraces, however, he has been fairly active, but has only utilised about 50% of the west terrace. He has taken more of an interest in the happenings of the group, and intervenes if things get too boisterous or aggressive. He has always moved in a relaxed and confident way, and continues to do so.
There has been an increase in interactions between the rest of the group, particularly in playing. Rafiki and Pole Pole have always integrated well, and now use the plants during their chases. One area in the east terrace was a favourite place for a while. Here the bamboo forms a small hedge along the end wall, and is approximately 1.25 m high, with a gap between it and the wall. It is deep enough to envelop the youngsters, and the gap allows them to run along behind the bamboo, so the chaser never knows where the other one will emerge from. Maayabu, Ivo and Noël have used it too, but not to the same extent.
Of all our gorillas Maayabu is without doubt the most sociable, and he is the only member of the group to have been mother-reared. Formal and informal observations of the St Louis (Missouri) bachelor group showed that parent-reared males were more socially competent (Porton and White, 1996). Maayabu sometimes encourages play behaviour from the others, or they solicit it from him. He is quite energetic and really enjoys the chasing and wrestling, etc. Apart from socialising, there is one activity which keeps him occupied for up to 20 minutes at a time. In some of the fallen tree trunks we have inserted dip-pots, which the gorillas can access from slits in the tops of the trunks. These work in a similar way to chimpanzee termite mounds. Various food items such as yoghurt, jam, honey and a chocolate drink mix are placed in the pots fresh every day, and the gorillas have to use twigs to obtain these food treats. To help them locate the dip-pots we inserted some twigs into the slits, and left them so that they were visible. Maayabu started to use them almost straight away, no doubt remembering similar devices from his time at Stuttgart (A. Neuwald, pers. comm.). The others tried to follow his lead, but quickly became bored or frustrated when they failed to get their twigs back in the pots (as well as the slits in the tree trunks, each pot had holes drilled in the top through which the twigs had to pass before reaching the food). By observing Maayabu in action they gradually learned these skills, and could then supplement their diet themselves. At first they relied on keeper-provided twigs, but soon learned to improvise. It is quite interesting to watch them make their own `twigs' from palm fronds or bamboo. The only gorilla who doesn't use the dip-pots is Schorsch, who never really picked up the skill.
Just recently Maayabu has initiated a new activity, one which the other gorillas seem reluctant to follow. Every morning he takes a shower! He goes to the small waterfall in the west terrace, wades into the pool, and sits directly underneath the cascading water. When the water is falling directly onto his back he will often pat his shoulders or upper back, then sit down again and allow the water to fall onto his head. This can last for ten minutes or more, and when he finally emerges, after splashing a lot of water over any other gorilla in the area, he goes straight into a play session with the first available gorilla.
Ivo, despite his rough nature, has at times played with Rafiki, and been quite gentle with him, too. They go through the usual repertoire of games, chasing and wrestling, etc., and Rafiki really seems to enjoy this contact with the older male. On a few occasions we have witnessed some homosexual behaviour between Ivo and Rafiki, and Ivo and Pole Pole, but this may be a dominance display by Ivo over the younger animals. Ivo also tries to dominate the others by obtaining high vantage points within the enclosure, mainly large rocks, and stands on these in a very erect manner whilst lip-tucking. If the others ignore these displays, he will usually make a bluff charge through the foliage, sometimes using palm fronds to hit it and thus making a lot of noise.
Noël was fairly quiet in the planted terraces at first, almost to the point of being anonymous. He did not seem to socialise as much as the others, and was slightly wary of Ivo, trying to avoid a confrontation with him. A few days after the introduction his favourite `activity' was sleeping. He would spend long periods in the small cave near the stream; occasionally Maayabu would keep him company, but usually he was on his own. This was somewhat out of character, as previously he was often sought out by the others for his company, and he could be considered a father figure to the youngsters. Quite why this change occurred is unclear, but at that time the other gorillas were exploring the new terrace and feeding from the dip-pots, and so contact with him was minimal. Happily Noël is now over his apparent lethargy, and often interacts with the others. He is now in his 13th year, and already has a silverback saddle. According to Harcourt's (1988) classification of gorillas by age, juveniles are from three to six years old, sub-adults from six to eight, blackbacks from eight to 13, and silverbacks 13 years plus.
The prospect of having two silverbacks in the group should not cause any problems for us. We believe that Schorsch can safely defend his position, especially thanks to his coalition with Maayabu. Also Noël has never shown any desire to displace Schorsch, and we feel that this situation will not change. However, the situation between Noël and Ivo is different. Both are very similar in stature, and there are regular stand-offs between them, with the balance of power swinging from one to the other. They naturally do all they can to avoid any physical contact, and there is often a feeling of tension when there is visual contact. Each animal in turn appears confident for a week or so, only to become less so the following week. We watch the power struggle with great interest, but cannot yet decide which way it will go.
The planting of the terraces has brought about an improvement in the social lives of our gorillas, and even Schorsch has benefited. Social interactions, play behaviour and feeding activity, especially with the dip-pots, have all increased in the amount of time the animals devote to them. The way they use and interact with the plants is both interesting and satisfying to see. Their reaction to the visitors has not changed, but the visitors' reaction to them and their enclosure has. They seem to spend more time at the observation points, especially if the gorillas are deep in the vegetation.
Although the west terrace has now been thoroughly explored, there is still one area which is rarely used by most of the group. The raised piece of land across the stream can be accessed by the large tree, or by crossing the bed of the stream itself, but only Rafiki and Pole Pole use it regularly. Maayabu is now a regular visitor too, but only to gain access to the waterfall and pond. Here the vegetation is at its densest, and when sitting in it the two youngsters are completely hidden from view. Owing to the reluctance of the others to utilise this space, it creates a refuge for the youngsters, and they take advantage of it.
The stability of the group is very good, and a major factor has to be enclosure design. Allowing the animals the opportunity to remain out of sight of one another lessens the chances of potentially aggressive conflicts, and leads to a more relaxed atmosphere for the group in general. It will be interesting to watch the group mature, especially the current situation between Noël and Ivo, and observe any effects on its dynamics.
The changes in behaviour, comparing the unplanted with the planted terraces, has not been drastic, but there have been changes. In terms of enrichment it has been a complete success, and has provided our gorillas with the opportunity to show natural behaviour responses in a group situation, and in a naturalistic setting.
Downman, M. (1998): The formation of a bachelor group of gorillas at Loro Parque. International Zoo News 45 (4): 208211.
Harcourt, A.H. (1988): Bachelor groups of gorillas in captivity: the situation in the wild. Dodo 25: 5461.
Porton, I., and White, M. (1996): Managing an all-male group of gorillas: eight years of experience at the St Louis Zoological Park. AZA Regional Conference Proceedings 1996: 720728.
[Mike Downman was formerly Assistant Curator, Loro Parque, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain. He may now be contacted at 29 Bradwell Grove, Burford, Oxford OX18 4JH, U.K.]
Table 1. Plant list for Loro Parque gorilla terraces.
Pampas grass (Cortaderia sp.) [Gramineae]
Coral tree (Erythrina sp.) [Leguminosae]
Acalypha sp. [Euphorbiaceae]
Croton sp. [Euphorbiaceae]
Codiaeum variegatum [Euphorbiaceae]
Duranta sp. [Verbenaceae]
Yucca sp. [Agavaceae]
Bamboos (Arundinaria chino and A. japonica) [Gramineae]
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis [Malvaceae]
Weeping fig (Ficus benjamina) [Moraceae]
Canna sp. [Cannaceae]
Canary date palm (Phoenix canariensis) [Palmae]
Washingtonia sp. [Palmae]
Brachychiton sp. [Sterculiaceae]
Bottlebrush (Melaleuca sp.) [Myrtaceae]
Cape honeysuckle (Tecomaria capensis) [Bignoniaceae]
Megaskepasma erythrochlamys [Acanthaceae] (endemic)
Angel's trumpet (Brugmansia versicolor) [Solanaceae] (endemic)
VISITS TO SOME LATIN AMERICAN ZOOS: PART 1 PERU AND COLOMBIA
BY RICHARD WEIGL
[Between 5 and 26 April 1999 Richard Weigl, a keeper at Frankfurt Zoo, visited a number of animal collections in three countries of Latin America Peru, Colombia and Mexico. (This brought the total number of countries he has visited to 42, in five continents.) In this and the next issue of I.Z.N. we publish some of his notes on the trip.]
On arrival in Lima, Peru, I booked into a small hotel; nearby was the much larger Hotel Delfins. I did not know the reason for its name until I walked over to it and was shocked to see a blue pool about 12 metres long and five metres wide, in which live a pair of dolphins. I was told that these animals, the male Yaku and the female Wayra, had been there for almost two years.
Parque de las Leyendas, Lima, Peru
This zoo was founded on 20 March 1964 with the main goal of offering visitors a pleasant experience of recreation and culture. The `Park of Legends' (as its name means in translation) has 97 hectares of land available for the care and protection of the animal and plant species exhibited. In front of the zoo entrance I saw a great yellowish-brown archaeological monument; there are several others around the zoo. The park is a pleasant place, well cared for and with many opportunities for visitors to buy drinks or snacks. The general curator, Enrique Castillo, told me it had 1.8 million visitors last year. Mr Castillo, who some years ago studied animals at Jersey and several U.S. zoos, has been working at Lima Zoo since 1991. The zoo has about 50 staff and 2,500 animals of 135 species; almost 80% of the animals are native to Peru.
Near the entrance is a small parrot house displaying yellow-faced parrotlet (Forpus xanthops) from northern Peru, black-capped parrot (Pionites melanocephala), blue-and-yellow macaw, and blue-headed macaw (Ara [Propyrrhura] couloni) from eastern Peru, western Brazil and northern Bolivia. In a big grassed deer park with a wooden viewing bridge for visitors lives a large herd of Peruvian white-tailed deer. In a rocky pool were many Humboldt penguins, three brown pelicans and four guanay cormorants (Phalacrocorax bougainvillei). A free-flying black vulture seemed very glad to be stroked by a keeper. A small circular cage housed a striped owl, and two enclosures held a large number of Harris's hawks and red-backed hawks (Buteo polyosoma).
The children's zoo unfortunately had very small glass cages for Florida soft-shelled turtles (Apalone ferox), peach-fronted conures (Aratinga aurea), two species of tanager (Tangara cyanicollis and T. schrankii), owls, three American fruit bats (Artibeus sp.), the squirrel Sciurus spadiceus from the Peruvian highlands, green acouchy and Peruvian mountain viscacha (Lagidium peruanum). Also in the children's zoo was an enclosure with grass and a pool housing many red-footed tortoises (Geochelone carbonaria), a white-winged trumpeter, helmeted guineafowl, three gulls of two species, macaws and amazons. On the wall I saw a free-ranging squirrel; Castillo said it was Sciurus s. stramineus, and that the species is very common only in the zoo. In a beautiful tree a tiny bird whizzed about it was a hummingbird, the first wild one I have ever seen.
Three exhibits (unfortunately very shady) housed black vulture, red-backed hawk, three mountain caracaras (Phalcoboenus megalopterus) from the Andes of Peru through Bolivia to northern Chile and Argentina, and two species of South American fox, grey zorro (Pseudalopex griseus) and Sechuran zorro (P. sechurae), sharing an enclosure; the latter is only found in north-west Peru and south-west Ecuador. An open enclosure held many yellow-footed tortoises (Geochelone denticulata).
I now came to the zoo's International Zone, consisting of mostly plain enclosures for exotic animals. Two Galapagos tortoises had a nice grass enclosure with a swampy area, and Indian peafowl were on an open island. Other animals here included pairs of hamadryas baboons and mandrills, and six green monkeys, all from Barquisimeto Zoo in Venezuela; an overweight female chimpanzee about 30 years old from a Peruvian circus; two crab-eating raccoons; an old spectacled bear; two young American black bears from Canada and a pair of adult Siberian brown bears, said to be from a Russian circus, in new grassed enclosures with rocks; a female leopard from a circus, about 18 years old; four lionesses; four tigers; a pair of southern sea lions in a small pool; a female Asian elephant, Cobus, donated in August 1986; nine water buffaloes; capybaras; and a male giraffe who came from Santiago Zoo, Chile, ten years ago after the rest of his family died in a fire.
An aquarium had many small tanks for turtles, axolotls and fish, including seahorses. Nearby was the Amazon Jungle, a pleasant green area. There were large, plain aviaries for macaws, again blue-headed, amazons and several parrot species from Peru. Natural enclosures held South American tapirs with young, red and grey brockets (both native to Peru), and many collared and white-lipped peccaries with young. On a large, well-planted island with many high trees had large groups of brown and white-fronted capuchins, about seven ring-tailed coatis and two sooty agoutis (Dasyprocta fuliginosa). A mixed exhibit for white hawks (Leucopternis albicollis) of the black-backed race, great black hawks (Buteogallus urubitinga) and savanna hawks (B. meridionalis) also had a pool with seven common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). Two very plain cages housed a night heron and two night monkeys.
There was a nice new glass-fronted exhibit with six enclosures, with artificial stonework, many trees to climb, and natural substrate. Here were anacondas and boas; a single brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus) who has lived in the zoo since 1996 (several South American zoos have told me that this species is extremely difficult to keep in captivity); two male red howler monkeys; and a pair of sakis of a species new to me. Both were confiscated in Peru, the male in 1994 and the female in 1996, so their place of origin is unknown. Castillo suspects that the male is Pithecia aequatorialis, but his face is very pale, not like the photo of this species in Rowe (1996). The female has white hands and feet, but her face is like that of P. pithecia. These sakis are kept in with two titis (Callicebus sp.) and three more night monkeys, again of uncertain species.
An open enclosure housed greater grisons (Galictis vittata). There were three pools for common caimans and a single American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus), said to have lived here since soon after the zoo opened. Four glass cages held pygmy marmosets, saddleback tamarins, and one moustached tamarin. Six horrible cages with heavy gratings housed many woolly monkeys of various races, black-faced spider monkeys (Ateles chamek), three pumas from Amazonas and two jaguars. Next were some nice glass exhibits with natural substrate and plants for the following birds: one Cuvier's toucan; two plate-billed mountain toucans (Andigena laminirostris), two collared aracaris (Pteroglossus torquatus), three curl-crested aracaris (P. beauharnaesii), a male Andean cock of the rock (Rupicola peruviana this bird, together with a vicugna, is featured in Lima Zoo's logo); two blue-crowned motmots; three rufous-capped motmots (Baryphthengus ruficapillus); and one white-tailed jay (Cyanocorax mystacalis) from south-west Ecuador and north-west Peru. There followed an open enclosure with a pool for a pair of spectacled bears, a circular cage for two king vultures, and several plain cages holding many conures, coatis and agoutis, three oncillas and an ocelot.
The next part is the Andes Region. Here were four more mountain caracaras and four great horned owls in rocky aviaries. In similar aviaries were a pair of Andean condors (the female hatched at Lima Zoo in 1990) and a pair of Andean pumas. Several plain enclosures held alpacas, guanacos, llamas, and white- tailed deer together with two puna ibis, a Peruvian and Bolivian species. In another aviary were many grey buzzard-eagles (Geranoaetus melanoleucus). An open, fenced enclosure held a single culpeo (Pseudalopex culpaeus). There was a rather small aviary for six puna hawks (Buteo poecilochrous); these birds occur in many colour phases from south-west Colombia to northern Chile and north-western Argentina. The last two enclosures were a very large one for a big herd of vicugnas and a nice little grassed one with a pool for one Andean goose and a rare Peruvian huemul, or guemal (Hippocamelus antisensis), a medium-sized deer found in the high Andes from Ecuador to north-west Argentina. This male came to the zoo in 1995 from the Ayacucho region at about two months of age, and his antlers are now fully developed. The last captive Peruvian huemul outside of South America died at the Bronx Zoo, New York, in 1943. Castillo believed the present huemul was the first in the history of Lima Zoo, but according to the International Zoo Yearbook's censuses of rare animals in captivity, there was a female there from 1969 to 1977. Accurate data for the zoo only go back to 1992; according to Castillo, the previous management was no good.
Parque Jaime Duque, Bogotá, Colombia
A three-hour flight took me from Lima to Bogotá. Colombia is still not open for tourists, as travel is very risky in some areas, with conflicts (involving guerrillas, drug traffickers, paramilitaries and government) almost everywhere. But the Colombian fauna and flora are still remarkable, and there are beautiful national park landscapes. The metropolis, Bogotá (population about eight million), is 2,600 metres above sea level, so the weather is cool.
The zoo, about ten hectares in area, opened in 1990 as part of the amusement park. Most of the exhibits are very plain but well cared for. Next to the entrance is a nice grassed enclosure with a pool for many flamingos, scarlet ibises and great egrets, and two northern screamers (Chauna chavaria) from northern Colombia and north-western Venezuela, a species very rarely shown in zoos. After a semicircular enclosure for three collared peccaries comes a very large grassed one with a large pond for a South American tapir, many capybaras with young, one Orinoco goose, many whistling ducks and a cormorant. From then on my notes record the following: an adult male lion, two tigers, a male jaguar, three pumas, many ocelots, one spectacled bear, two grey foxes, one salmon- crested cockatoo, one African grey parrot, two collared aracaris, two dark exhibits for kinkajous and night monkeys, many tortoises, boas, iguanas, three American kestrels (Falco sparverius), common caimans, two cotton-top tamarins, one saddleback tamarin with a very rare endemic silvery-brown bare-faced tamarin (Saguinus leucopus) which can probably not be seen in any zoo outside Colombia, two tropical screech owls (Otus choliba), many agoutis, one mountain paca, many neotropical red squirrels (Sciurus granatensis), two squirrels of a species I could not identify (with a white belly and very attractive fox-red body), one raccoon (very thin), many amazons, several races of domestic pigeon from around the world, one emu from Cali Zoo, blue-and-yellow macaws, toucans, six king vultures, one common caracara, three yellow-headed caracara (Milvago chimachima), two roadside hawks (Buteo magnirostris), two great horned owls, three barn owls, three grey buzzard-eagles, two carunculated caracaras (Phalcoboenus carunculatus) brought from Cali Zoo in 1995 (this species from the Andes of Ecuador and south-western Colombia is only rarely seen in zoos), one savanna hawk and one great black hawk, one white hawk (L. albicollis) with a black back, two ring-tailed coatis, many white-tailed deer, a male rufous brocket (Mazama rufina) from the Andes of Ecuador and southern Colombia (a very beautiful animal with a reddish body, yellowish throat and black face), a llama and many domestic sheep.
On four grassy islands surrounded by a water- filled moat, which visitors can observe from a wooden bridge, are many neotropical monkeys brown and white-fronted capuchins, black-faced spider monkeys, and five woolly monkeys of two subspecies. A big cafeteria provides the only refreshments in the zoo, and there is a small children's play area. There are two plain exhibits for two rhesus macaques and a pair of hamadryas baboons, both from Cali Zoo, and a large enclosure for a single lar gibbon. Then, finally, two more grassy islands for white-throated capuchins and common squirrel monkeys.
Zoologico de Cali, Colombia
After a 50-minute flight from Bogotá, I arrived in Cali to find the weather very humid (90%). This, Colombia's second biggest city, is about 1,000 metres above sea level and has a population of about two million. It is unfortunately still a centre of the drug trade.
In front of the zoo entrance stands an attractive sign with the name of the zoo and a logo of a jaguar, eagle with snake, frog and monkey, looking like an old Red Indian picture. The zoo was founded in 1968 and opened to the public in 1971 as a simple, privately-owned collection. In 1981 its administration was handed over to a Zoological Society and it was granted some financial aid from the city. Since then it has become very progressive and is now probably the best zoo in Colombia. (Colombia has six recognised zoos Cali, two in Bogotá, Medellin, Barranquilla and Pereira as well as two aquariums in Cartagena and Santa Marta.) Cali Zoo has about 60 staff (17 of them keepers) on a 21-ha site, and last year received about 500,000 visitors. The collection consists of around 900 animals of 200 species, and about 85% of the stock are Colombian animals.
On my arrival I had a chat with the director, a young lady named María Clara Domínguez Vernaza. She has visited many zoos in the U.S.A. and Europe, and is especially interested in birds. She presented me with a guidebook, prospectus and posters. I then walked a short distance to a big building with a tiled mural of the Amazon forest on one outside wall, and a waterfall coming down in front of the mural into a pool below. This was the aquarium, opened in December 1997, which displays only Colombian fishes in 21 very attractive tanks. Then came some large, plain aviaries for two king vultures, a long-billed corella (one of the few exotic animals, which came on exchange from San Diego Wild Animal Park, where it hatched in 1992), many macaws (one severe macaw had two young in the nest), amazons, two red-billed toucans (Ramphastos tucanus) and some agoutis. A large walk-through aviary with many plants and a pond contained many species of Colombian birds, including some chachalacas, ducks, a male capped heron (Pilherodius pileatus), a big cocoi heron, four scarlet ibises, many amazons, conures and doves, and a nice blue-winged mountain tanager (Anisognathus flavinuchus). A round aviary with stonework housed a pair of Andean condors who arrived from San Diego in 1990, though the male hatched in 1981 at the U.S. government's Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, Maryland, and the female in 1978 at the Bronx Zoo (which released two of her chicks in the Colombian Andes years ago). Flamingos were nesting on a large pond, with one roseate spoonbill and two free-living striated herons, but there were too many free-flying cattle egrets in the trees; these birds of African origin can today be seen almost everywhere in the world.
Six good glass-fronted exhibits for monkeys, with artificial trees, rocks and natural substrates, were opened in 1995; they house eight brown-headed spider monkeys, many capuchins (white- fronted, white-throated and brown), and squirrel monkeys. In the past they also had red howler monkeys, but found them rather difficult to keep. I was told this by Germán Corredor, who has worked as a zoologist at Cali Zoo since 1991. He is very friendly and pleasant, and has studied in the U.S.A., Britain, at Jersey Zoo and in the Hawaiian Islands. He told me that the zoo has a master plan which will bring big changes in the next ten years. The idea is that it will be divided into five geographical zones corresponding with Colombian areas (Andean, Pacific, Amazonian, Orinoco and Caribbean). Corredor said I was the first German zoo person to come to Cali Zoo; most of the zoo professionals who visit them are from the United States.
There were many blackbuck in a large enclosure. Two very old, plain exhibits housed a pair of woolly monkeys with a young one born in 1997, and five (2.3) adult hamadryas baboons. In a very large enclosure with a swampy area were a South American tapir and an old male Galapagos tortoise, Carlitos; this animal probably arrived soon after the zoo was founded in 1968. There were two ponds for two American crocodiles and some caimans with tortoises. A circular reptile house, opened in 1989, had glass tanks for frogs, snakes and lizards. In another large enclosure were three Grant's zebras.
The zoo has an animal hospital and a breeding station not open to the public. I enjoyed meeting the zoo's veterinarian (since 1982), Dr Jorge Alberto Gardeazábal Delgado, who studied at Jersey Zoo. He showed me over the breeding station, where I saw several species of guan, chachalaca and curassow, including the blue-billed curassow (Crax alberti), found only in northern Colombia, which unfortunately does not breed well at present. There were also macaws, amazons, toucans (not breeding), many cotton- top tamarins, a very young red howler monkey (confiscated), a paca, a giant anteater, a young male spectacled bear (confiscated and hand-reared), and several cages for pacaranas (Dinomys branickii). This is the biggest captive-breeding centre in the world for pacaranas; at the time of my visit, there were 32 animals, 30 born there and only two wild-caught. Since 1986 they have had 58 births, including twins born five days earlier; they now have four bloodlines, promising well for the future.
Returning to the main zoo, I visited the nocturnal house for Colombian animals, opened in 1992. I saw spectacled owls, more pacaranas, margays, great horned owls, two two-toed sloths in with some night herons, kinkajous, night monkeys, tropical screech owls, barn owls, black-eared opossums (Didelphis marsupialis), olingos (Bassaricyon gabbii), and striped owls. Outside again, there were a male Siberian brown bear from a Russian circus, seven emus (which breed here), four pumas, a pair of spectacled bears (the male born here in 1980), 1.3 lions (the male castrated), a pair of Asiatic black bears (the female here since 1979), collared peccaries, capybaras and two common rheas. In a palm tree about 20 metres high some free-flying severe macaws were busy nest-building, the first free macaws I have seen in any zoo. Three Colombian jaguars were in a large enclosure, while the mother with her cubs, a few days old, were in a separate box. There were attractive enclosures, built in 1990, for a mother and daughter ocelot, an oncilla, coatis and a male greyish-black jaguarundi. Two female tigers, both born here, were in a large open enclosure.
Three more large enclosures held many llamaalpaca hybrids, many white-tailed deer and a pair of dromedaries from San Diego Zoo. In another open enclosure were 1.2 American black bears, a pair who came via San Diego Zoo in 1991 and a female who arrived in Cali in 1979. Another monkey exhibit had more woolly monkeys (two subspecies), pygmy marmosets, one Geoffroy's tamarin and a male white-footed tamarin. A small mammal exhibit, opened in 1996, had nice glass-fronted enclosures with large pools among rocks for coatis, a pair of giant otters, tayras, La Plata otters (Lutra longicaudis) and crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous). A female Abyssinian ground hornbill, hatched in 1989 at San Diego Zoo, was in a small enclosure. More South American tapirs shared an enclosure and large pond with four jabirus. A well-planted island had cotton-top and saddleback tamarins with brown pelicans. Finally, there was a circular aviary for two grey buzzard-eagles and another pacarana exhibit.
Rowe, N. (1996): The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates. Pogonias Press, New York.
Richard Weigl, Frankfurt Zoo, Alfred-Brehm-Platz 16, 60316 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
THE NEW TUNDRA AVIARY COMPLEX AT DRESDEN ZOO
BY HUBERT LÜCKER
Keeping and breeding European birds, and especially passerines, has always been a focus of attention at Dresden Zoo throughout its history. Therefore we decided during the reconstruction of the zoo to increase our keeping and breeding of birds from Europe and Siberia. Adjacent to the existing aviaries for birds of prey and ibises was enough space to construct a complex of aviaries for birds from the north of Europe. We found a capable architect and entered into close cooperation with the botanical garden of the University of Dresden. The new aviaries were financed by the local zoological society Zoo-Freunde Dresden e.V., with help from the Umweltstiftung der Allianz-Versicherungen (an environmental foundation sponsored by the insurance industry). Dresden Zoo, the society and the architect designed a single big aviary, which covers 1,200 m2. The total height is 6.6 m. The roundish form is similar to that of the neighbouring aviaries, which date back to the beginning of this century and are legally protected for their cultural importance. The aviary contains five sections. One of approximately 350 m2 displays arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and snowy owl (Nyctea scandiaca) together in one aviary. Three small aviaries of approximately 40 m2 each are inhabited by black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) and hawk owl (Surnia ulula). One walk-through aviary of approximately 760 m2 is inhabited by passerines, arctic waders, and eiders (Somateria mollissima). The aviary complex was officially opened on 1 April 1999.
The outline of the aviary complex shows an irregular roundish shape. The first two metres above ground level are covered with 15 mm square galvanized steel mesh, painted a dull black. Above the steel mesh we fastened 14 mm square plastic mesh of a type produced in France which has extremely high tensile strength and is also inert and very flexible. All these factors give good results in winter time snow falls through the mesh and hardly ever freezes onto the material. The supporting steelwork is on the outside of the aviary, with the mesh hanging inside it, so that birds cannot hurt themselves by flying against the steel bars. Because hardly any snow ever lies on top of the mesh, the statics of the big aviary are simple. The steel structure is not colossal, but instead has a light and transparent appearance.
The aviary is intended to give an impression of the transitional zone between taiga and tundra. A central rock formation, resembling a natural one and made of sandstone, is surrounded by a small stream which flows from the arctic fox enclosure into the walk-through aviary. Here it overflows into a small swamp area. The vegetation consists of plants that grow in the European tundrataiga transition zone. The university botanical garden was of great help in drawing up the horticultural plans. They also helped in the provision of the tundra plants: some of these could not be obtained easily, as only a few highly specialized nurseries had them. All the aviaries were provided with both dead and live birches and arctic fir trees, in which the birds can roost. All the plants are described on small panels.
Visitors enter the walk-through aviary through lock-gates and walk along a peat-laid path, crossing the small swamp by means of a wooden bridge. A small hut contains all the graphic displays about the animals, including descriptions of the birds and information about bird migration (why, how, the importance of stepping-stone sanctuaries for migratory birds, etc.). The hut also offers people a chance to rest and serves as a shelter from rain.
Arctic fox and snowy owl, as the main predators of the tundra biome, are presented together in one big aviary. In order to prevent difficulties we decided to breed only the foxes and not the owls. Therefore only two male owls were brought into the aviary. The arctic foxes are pure-bred ones which we obtained with the help of Helsinki Zoo, Finland. It was interesting to learn that most of the arctic foxes in collections in Europe seem to be either of unknown origin or descended from fur-farm stock. As we did not wish to exhibit foxes of this type, Helsinki Zoo supplied us with `real' arctic foxes. The foxes have the opportunity to retreat into two indoor facilities hidden in the rock formation. Outdoors they stay mostly on the ground, but in some places they have the chance to climb on rocks or tree trunks. They use the fallen trunks and climb among the rocks especially around dawn and early in the morning. It is a curious sight to see a fox balancing on thin branches several metres above ground, obviously without problems.
The owls have several roosting points in the rock formation as well as in trees to which the foxes do not have access. At first the birds spent most of their time on the ground. Interactions between foxes and owls were observed, and for the first few days threat behaviour was frequently seen in both species, but this never ended in serious aggression. Very soon the animals settled down, and after two weeks the foxes inhabited the lower part of the aviary and the owls the upper part. The two species are aware of each other, but aggression is at a very low level: we sometimes observe threat behaviour from either species, but no real attacks. The animals are fed separately, the owls on the rock formation, where the foxes have no access, and the foxes either on the ground or in their indoor hiding places. Sometimes, however, a member of either species steals a rat or a rabbit. Such a theft results in a threatening posture from the animal being robbed, but never in an actual attack.
The walk-through aviary is dedicated to the passerines and waders. The aviary shows different types of habitat: swamp, heather, areas covered with sand and pebbles, scrub. In two locations dead fallen trees offer a perfect cover for some species. The following waders live in this aviary: 2.2 corncrake (Crex crex), 2.2 ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula), 3.2 golden plover (Pluvialis apricaria), 1.1 turnstone (Arenaria interpres), 1 whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), 2.2 dunlin (Calidris alpina) and 1 curlew sandpiper (Calidris ferruginea). With the exception of the whimbrel all these birds were obtained from private breeders, zoos or bird parks in Germany. The whimbrel was found completely exhausted in a village near Dresden and is unable to fly.
It is too early to see good breeding results. However, the corncrakes, one pair of ringed plovers and the turnstones are already active. Both corncrake males called in spring, but in vain. The turnstones produced two clutches. We also found eggs of the ringed plover. Unfortunately the whimbrel was seen destroying the first clutch of turnstone eggs, so we removed it for the breeding season. Then another bird opened part of the plovers' first clutch, but we never found out which bird it was. The turnstones' and plovers' eggs were therefore incubated artificially. The plants are growing fast, giving more and more shelter, so we hope that in future years the problem of the destruction of eggs will stop, as the nests get more cover from the vegetation. It is interesting to see where the different species spend most of their time. The ringed plovers and turnstones are mostly in the sand and pebble area, plus parts of the adjacent heather. The golden plovers stay mostly in the heather, and the corncrakes in the vicinity of the fallen trees. The turnstones made both their nests directly under small heather bushes, the plovers in the sand.
The passerines are sometimes hard to detect, as there are only small flocks or pairs in the walk-through aviary: arctic redpoll (Acanthis hornemanni), brambling (Fringilla montifringilla), redwing (Turdus iliacus), pied wagtail (Motacilla alba), and a flock of waxwings (Bombycilla garrulus). Again, all these are young birds either previously bred in Dresden Zoo, like the arctic redpolls and wagtails, or from private breeders and zoos in Europe and Russia. None of these species showed breeding behaviour in the first spring. We assume that they have not yet had enough time to settle down. However, we bred these species in aviaries in another part of the zoo, so we expect that it will only be a matter of time before we can report the first successful breeding in the walk-through aviary as well.
In the three adjacent smaller aviaries black grouse will be able to establish an arena display (`lek') next spring. Already this spring we saw some activity by the cocks, but the display was not yet a very intense one we assume for the same reasons as in the passerines. The cocks are kept singly, accompanied by females, but can see and hear each other, so they should form an arena in early spring. We will offer special guided tours during that time, early in the morning, presenting `The Arena of the Black Cocks'.
The visitors' response to the new complex has been remarkable. In particular, those who enter the walk-through aviary spend a significantly longer time there than the average visitor to other exhibits. They also make use of the graphic panels. To sum up, then, we have built not only an attractive aviary complex from the point of view of animal husbandry, but also an exhibit which has been fully accepted by the visitors.
Hubert Lücker, Director, Zoologischer Garten Dresden, Tiergartenstrasse 1, 01219 Dresden, Germany.
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
I very much enjoyed reading Spartaco Gippoliti's article on pygmy hippos, and several of the points he raised produced food for thought.
At the 1999 EAZA Conference, held in September at Basle Zoo, there was much discussion about pygmy hippo husbandry. The pygmy hippo EEP, coordinated from Basle, is working on husbandry guidelines for the species, and these will be ready for use before too long. Other work undertaken has been looking at the high proportion of female babies born in the captive population. A survey of husbandry protocols from within the EEP suggests that where animals are kept in close proximity to each other with correspondingly higher stress levels, it is more likely that female offspring will be produced. This hypothesis needs further investigation I personally find it a difficult one to believe and the EEP will continue its investigations. It was interesting to note from Spartaco's article that there is only a slightly favourable slant towards female babies born in Rome in what appear to be highly stressful husbandry circumstances i.e., hippos living closely together.
Husbandry protocols differ considerably from zoo to zoo. Some places are able to keep pairs together all the time; others can only mix adults when the females are in oestrus. The fact is that we still know very little about this animal's habits in the wild and, right now, it is impossible to investigate further. At the end of 1998 there were 347 (136.209.2) pygmy hippos listed in the European studbook (Wirz-Hlavacek, 1999), and the time has come to manage this population a little more vigorously. Breeding recommendations will be issued by the coordinator, with a small number of the more genetically important pairs being allowed to breed. Studies on the sex ratio of babies will continue and a post mortem protocol will be developed so that more can be learned about the species. Male babies are very important to this managed population (which makes quite a change from the usual needs of hoofed mammal management), and it will be interesting to see whether `stress-free' environments will indeed produce more males.
What is certain is that the captive population of the pygmy hippopotamus may be even more important than we realise. There may be very few left in the wild. This year's pygmy hippo EEP meeting was very productive, creating a good deal more work for the coordinator, but the information is needed for the future security of this most interesting species.
Bristol Zoo Gardens,
Bristol BS8 3HA,
Wirz-Hlavacek, Gabriele (1999): International Studbook for the Pygmy Hippopotamus (10th edition). Zoo Basel, Switzerland.
MY GORILLA JOURNEY: LIVING WITH THE ORPHANS OF THE RAINFOREST by Helen Attwater. Sidgwick and Jackson, 1999. xvii + 297 pp., hardback. ISBN 028306336X. £16.99.
Regular readers of I.Z.N. will know in broad outline the story of Howletts and Port Lympne's gorilla rescue and rehabilitation project in central Africa. The latest news is encouraging, with more than 30 rescued gorillas currently living some in protected, semi-wild conditions at two sites in the Congo and Gabon. On the present showing, then, this project is certainly a landmark in zoo-sponsored in situ conservation. But anyone who assumes it has all been simple and straightforward will quickly be disabused by reading My Gorilla Journey. Helen Attwater, who helped her husband Mark to run the project from 1989 to 1995, tells the story from the inside view of one leading participant a story of casual brutality, endemic inertia, and frightening tropical diseases affecting both gorillas and humans, all set against a background of the civil violence which was to erupt, after the Attwaters' departure, into full-scale war.
For most readers, though, the main charm of the book will be the deep love and empathy the author felt for the gorillas in her care. The entrancing photographs of some of the orphans make her response easy to understand. At times she seems to feel that this species is almost too gentle and sensitive `ill-equipped psychologically to cope with a changing, threatening world.' She describes movingly the struggle, often unsuccessful, to keep newly-rescued orphans alive in the face of appalling physical and emotional trauma. The latter is often harder to cure, so love is every bit as vital as food and medical care. Later, the gorillas can show a remarkable capacity to pay back the affection they have received. There is a touching story of how several of them sensed the distress of an African helper who had suffered hideous ethnic violence, and gently and affectionately `coaxed him back to life.'
Helen Attwater, I must emphasise, tells a very personal story, as her title implies; My Gorilla Journey is not an objective history of the project. Sadly, one recurrent theme is the difficulties, misunderstandings and conflicts between the people involved, in England and Africa. Perhaps such problems are inevitable in a project of this kind; the possibility of them is certainly a factor those planning such work should take into consideration. But the book's final message is one of hope this project has been a success, and the Attwaters are among the many participants who can take pride in that.
WORKING WITH ANIMALS THE UK, EUROPE AND WORLDWIDE by Victoria Pybus. Vacation Work Publications (9 Park End Street, Oxford OX1 1HJ, U.K.), 1999. 254 pp., paperback. ISBN 1854582240. £11.95 or US$19.95.
One of the side-effects of my job as editor of I.Z.N. is that every few weeks, on average, I receive a letter from a student or schoolchild asking for advice about making a career in zoos. In the past I have found these letters difficult to answer in a constructive way; I have done my best, but always with an apology for my lack of concrete proposals. But that aspect of my life has suddenly become a whole lot simpler all I need to do now, in response to such a letter, is to tell the inquirer to buy a copy of Working with Animals. I have already done so several times since the review copy landed on my desk.
Zoos and similar institutions naturally form a relatively small part of the book's subject-matter. `Working with animals' is a term that embraces a wider range of activities than most of us can spontaneously envisage from veterinary practice and agriculture right through to the arcane worlds of the canine beautician and the `showbiz animal agent'. Victoria Pybus has cast her net wide, and the result is a compact and reasonably-priced little reference volume which will be of use not merely to young people hoping to work with animals, but also to many of those who already have jobs in this field. Zoo offices and education departments probably receive as many requests for career advice as I do; so even if they don't feel the need to buy Working with Animals for themselves, I suggest they make a note of its details to pass on to all those hopeful youngsters.
Rhinoceros library established
As part of the Rhino Museum at Melkrivier, South Africa, the Rhino and Elephant Foundation is establishing a library of publications concerning the rhinoceros. This will be a unique place where all old and new work done on rhinos will be available. Already over 5,200 references are immediately accessible. The material covers all five living species, both Asian and African, and has no limits in date, language or subject matter. There are books written only about the rhinoceros, many articles in specialist as well as popular journals, and also several smaller chapters, sections or even sentences in publications of a more varied nature. A collection like this can never be complete, because new papers appear continuously, and some older papers were overlooked or are very rare and hard to find. However, if one is interested in a certain topic of rhinoceros biology, maintenance, hunting, history, veterinary care, parasites, or art and culture, this should be your first place to come and look. There is no area which is intentionally left out. About 80 references were written in Roman times, 500 before 1800, 700 in the 19th century, while over 1,200 were produced during the last fifteen years.
All works mentioned in my Bibliography of the Rhinoceros published in 1983 are available. Visitors are welcome to study in the library itself, but we will attempt to help scholars, field workers, journalists and others throughout the world who want specific publications, using fax and the internet. We also welcome contributions to the library, any book or paper on the rhinoceros itself, but also more general works on nature, especially on elephants and on the natural and cultural history of the Waterberg Mountains where the museum is located. All contributions will be acknowledged.
Connected with the library we will establish a database on all aspects of rhinoceros biology, including classification, distribution and status through the years, behaviour and social structure of the five rhinoceros species. This database will be continuously updated, and we hope that we can make the information available through the internet. For further information, contact Dr Kees Rookmaaker, Curator, The Rhino Museum, P.O. Box 157, Vaalwater 0530, South Africa (Fax: ++14765
0116; E-mail: email@example.com).
Dr Kees Rookmaaker in The Rhino and Elephant Journal Vol. 12 (December 1998), the journal of the Rhino and Elephant Foundation (P.O. Box 381, Bedfordview 2008, South Africa)
Talking to elephants
Research at Pittsburgh Zoo in the 1980s revealed that three-quarters of elephant language is subsonic. A British zoology student is now following up this knowledge by developing a method of communicating with elephants using a didgeridoo (a hollow wooden wind instrument invented by Australian aborigines). James Gordon of Leeds University believes that the low-frequency sounds from his specially enlarged version of the instrument, which produces frequencies that are inaudible to the human ear over long distances, can be used to warn the animals of danger. He thought of the idea while working in Zimbabwe. `Elephants trample farm fields,' he says. `The only way of stopping them is to run out in front of them, which is dangerous, or to shoot them, which obviously isn't good. The idea is to be able to reproduce sounds warning them away from certain areas. The didgeridoo can create an infrasonic sound that elephants are able to detect from up to two kilometres away. The whole project rests on being able to train elephants to recognise this sound and realise that it means they are approaching danger.'
Mr Gordon has tested his didgeridoo communicator at Howletts Park, playing it to the elephants from a mile away. `They reacted by pricking up their ears and looking around them. This shows that the sound was recognisable.' He is now conducting further experiments at Blackpool Zoo, and hopes to return to Africa next year to try out his ideas on wild elephants in the game parks.
Aristotle and the vanishing amphibians
In his History of Animals, the Greek polymath Aristotle (384322 B.C.) claimed that no croaking frogs existed in Cyrene (near Al Bayda in modern Libya). Today two calling anurans (Bufo viridis and Rana saharica) are found in this area. David Chiszar and Hobart M. Smith discuss this conundrum (apparently for the first time in 2,300 years) in an article in the
Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society (Vol. 34, No. 8, pp. 192193, 1999). Aristotle can here be described, they say, as asserting the `null hypothesis, a position that any logician, statistician, or scientist would call hazardous.'
Chiszar and Smith suggest three hypotheses to account for Aristotle's statement. B. viridis and R. saharica might not have occurred in Cyrene during Aristotle's lifetime, but be relatively recent invaders of this area; this seems unlikely, since both species range across North Africa from Morocco to Egypt. They could have been present but not detectable during Aristotle's visit and for some years before and after, because of an extended drought or for some other equally unfavourable climatic or biological reason, leading observers to conclude that frogs were not present. A third possibility is that a relatively localized extinction of frogs may have occurred in an area that included Cyrene, and then some years later, presumably after Aristotle's visit, the area was reinvaded from the west or east or both.
Hypotheses one and three would justify the conclusion that croaking frogs were absent from Cyrene, but only temporarily. Hypothesis two would debunk Aristotle's assertion. But all three scenarios, the authors claim, reveal the danger of claiming the null hypothesis to be true, and they `wonder about the applicability of these ideas to certain contemporary cases of amphibian declines.'
INTERNATIONAL ZOO NEWS
Almaty (Alma-Ata) Zoo, Kazakhstan
The zoo has had many years of excellent breeding results with diverse birds of prey, and currently houses 42 raptor species (239 specimens). An impressive six Steller's sea eagles (Haliaeetus pelagicus) were produced by three breeding pairs in 1999. The eggs, two from each pair, were naturally incubated and all the young have been parent-reared. Two pairs have bred regularly at the zoo since 1992 and 1996 respectively; the third pair bred for the first time in 1999, but reared their chicks without problems. In 1998 the oldest pair (both birds hatched in 1983) raised three chicks a rare occurrence in the wild. One of the breeding males was himself hatched at Almaty Zoo, while the other 2.3 are wild-caught. Steller's sea eagle breeds in only three zoos worldwide Moscow [see below, p. 509], Sapporo (Japan) and Almaty. The last is the most successful, having hatched a total of 21 chicks to date.
Between 1997 and 1999, 36 pairs of raptors at the zoo reproduced, of which 16 pairs of 13 species successfully reared chicks, including Himalayan griffon vulture, tawny eagle, golden eagle, white-tailed sea eagle, European black vulture, bearded vulture, saker falcon and Barbary falcon. Another rare breeding success was the hatching of two great black-headed gulls (Larus ichthyaetus) in June 1999. The eggs were artificially incubated and the chicks were hand-reared by the keepers. Almaty, first successful in 1995, is the only zoo in the world to breed great black-headed gulls, and is currently seeking funds for a new aviary in order to obtain better breeding results with this species.
Kumek Almenbayev in EAZA News No. 28 (OctoberDecember 1999)
Aquarium for Wildlife Conservation (New York Aquarium), Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A.
Visitors to the aquarium's main public toilets are declaring that they are as dazzling as the dolphin show. Walls formerly painted institutional white are now azure-blue expanses where red-striped guppies dart around the hand dryer, barracudas knife their way above the sinks and white birds flutter above a row of urinals. Toilet stalls, once stainless steel, are now aquamarine water caves where schools of colorful, exotic fish swim above paper dispensers and marine plants seem to sprout from toilet bowls. The lush lavatories were created by Hatsuko Matsunaga, 52, a Japanese artist. She and about 100 volunteers, mostly art students, took six weeks to complete this transformation. With financing already promised from Japanese corporations, she offered to do the job free, and the aquarium's director, Louis E. Garibaldi, gladly accepted. The new design deters graffiti, he says, and users much prefer it to the `normal institutional refurbishing' done in 1997.
New York Times (11 July 1999)
Bristol Zoo, U.K.
In October the zoo launched the `Save it Programme', a major conservation initiative designed to support some of the most important in situ conservation projects with which it is involved both here in the U.K. and abroad. The zoo has initially selected six conservation projects for the programme, helping gorillas and chimpanzees in Cameroon, birds in the Philippines, Livingstone's fruit bats in the Comoro Islands, okapis in the rainforests of the Democratic Republic of Congo, endangered native invertebrates in the U.K., and lion tamarins in Brazil. These are all projects to which the zoo already contributes by providing funds and expertise, but it is hoped that the new scheme will enable them to do much more. One or all of the projects in the Save it Programme can be supported for a minimum of £10 donation per project. Supporters will receive many benefits, including information on the species and project, regular updates from the wild, a free lecture ticket, and access to an information line and special web site to find out the latest information.
Bristol Zoo press release
Chester Zoo, U.K.
The zoo recently received a pair of red birds of paradise (Paradisaea rubra) on loan from the New York Zoological Society. This was the culmination of many years' planning and the fulfilment of a personal dream to work with these most charismatic birds.
Chester Zoo's first association with birds of paradise was in its headiest phase of development and expansion in the 1960s. In May 1965, a consignment of 29 birds of paradise of nine different species were received at Chester from Sir Edward Hallstrom. A further 13 birds representing five of these species were received from the same source in December 1966. The avicultural highpoint of this period at Chester was the successful fledging of the superb bird of paradise (Lophorina superba) in June 1968. In February 1971, four of the remaining 11 birds of the Hallstrom consignments were stolen, leaving Chester with three Lawes' six-plumed birds of paradise (Parotia lawesii) and singletons of four other species. In 1973, by purchase and exchange, the zoo acquired two Wilson's birds of paradise (Diphyllodes respublica) and a red bird of paradise from Rotterdam Zoo to pair with a bird purchased the previous year, but by 1977 Chester no longer held any birds of paradise.
Whereas many of those birds had died shortly after arrival, a few survived longer. One brown sicklebill bird of paradise (Epimachus meyeri) received in 1965 or 1966 remained in the collection until September 1973, when it was transferred to Rotterdam Zoo. The exchanges and moves at this time clearly indicated the need for international cooperation in managing birds of paradise. Concerns over both acquisition and husbandry for these birds convinced me that if Chester was to try again with any of them, this must be as a partner with other collections in a coordinated breeding programme, and that husbandry concerns first needed to be addressed.
The Bronx Zoo had built a reputation for successful and sustained propagation of several species of birds of paradise. This was because they had researched husbandry needs in terms of diet (iron storage disease, or haemochromatosis, is known to be a problem in Paradisaea spp.), had provided off-exhibit breeding facilities dedicated to these birds, and had invested in staff time and effort to work up protocols for husbandry and rearing. They had also concentrated on working with larger numbers of a few species, and linked this to in situ conservation support in New Guinea. This was a model to be emulated.
Preliminary discussions with Don Bruning some years ago had established his willingness for Chester to receive captive-bred birds of paradise from New York, depending on the Bronx Zoo's continued successful breeding and on Chester's agreement to commit to working cooperation with these birds and to provide suitable off-exhibit and on-exhibit facilities. I was able to visit the Bronx Zoo in 1996 and see first-hand their bird of paradise facilities. The planned demolition of our old bird house and replacement with a new `Islands in Danger' complex was then the opportunity to advance this possibility by featuring birds of paradise as a major exhibit species with the required off-exhibit back-up breeding area factored into the design and costs.
Discussions between Mark Pilgrim, who is responsible for the new development at Chester, and Kurt Hundgren, who is responsible for the care of birds of paradise at the Bronx, enabled the design of our facilities to benefit from New York's experience. The off-exhibit area includes five interconnecting aviaries and its own kitchen. The on-exhibit facility in Islands in Danger has also been designed as a breeding facility, and will have three separate but interconnecting areas providing the possibility of holding two males and a breeding female. Chester has joined the Bird of Paradise Species Interest Committee and looks forward to continuing international cooperation with other members.
Following the completion of our off-exhibit breeding area in June 1999 and its approval for the birds' quarantine, two of our keeping staff travelled to New York. They spent a week working with the keepers at the Bronx before returning as personal escorts for the two birds. Both were captive-bred and are already well settled in the off-exhibit area. They will be transferred to Islands in Danger upon its completion, now scheduled for early 2000. This will of course leave the presently occupied off-exhibit accommodation available. We will then again be looking towards cooperating with the Bronx Zoo and other far-sighted collections, and if possible also with organisations in New Guinea, committed to sustaining birds of paradise in our zoos and in the wild.
Roger Wilkinson in EAZA News No. 28 (OctoberDecember 1999)
Dresden Zoo, Germany
Dresden kept three cow elephants (one Asian about 40 years old and two Africans about nine years old) until the arrival of two three-year-old African females in January 1999. The zoo then opened a new elephant house, but unfortunately without suitable accommodation either to keep a bull or to house a social group.
Some months before moving to the new house, one of the African cows (Gustl) started attacking the keepers. In the following months the situation escalated, luckily with no serious injuries to the keepers. After the move to the new house (January 1999), Gustl was restricted to her individual box for five months, with no access either to an outside yard or to the other elephants. Luckily the Parque de la Naturaleza de Cabarceno, Spain, showed interest in Gustl as a welcome addition to their breeding group of African elephants. On 24 June 1999 Gustl arrived in Spain on permanent loan and was introduced to the group in the following days. The elephants in Cabarceno are managed in a no-contact system and have an extensive outside area of about 50 acres (20 ha). Five elephants have been born in the park in the last four years, of which four are still alive. Gustl is now integrated into the big herd of 15 (5.10) animals and very promisingly the breeding bull Chisco has accepted her very well. Hopes are high for a baby from Gustl in about two or three years.
European Elephant Group
[For more information on the Parque de la Naturaleza de Cabarceno, see I.Z.N. 45:5, pp. 317318, and 46:5, p. 319 Ed.]
Edinburgh Zoo, U.K.
The 1999 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) Zoo Animal Welfare Innovation Award has been won by Edinburgh Zoo for their imaginative Penguin Cone Feeder. The feeder uses the ubiquitous traffic cone to deliver fish in a controlled manner to the zoo's population of gentoo, king, macaroni and rockhopper penguins whilst they are underwater. Seeking to get away from hand-feeding on land and interested in encouraging their penguins to show natural underwater feeding, keepers hit on the idea of modifying a traffic cone so that its tip is just large enough to allow their fish of choice, e.g. a herring, to pass through. The cone is then filled with fish and suspended upside down in the main penguin pool, allowing the head of the first fish to protrude slightly from the hole in the tip. To feed, a penguin has to swim underneath the cone and remove each fish individually.
The feeder reduces the problem of unwanted fish sinking to the bottom of the pool and polluting the water, which commonly happens if numbers of fish are thrown in, and stops herring gulls competing with the penguins for the fish. The feeder has proved very successful, and studies before and after its introduction have shown that the penguins spend more time in the water, and display increased natural feeding and foraging behaviour such as `porpoising'. Indirectly, it also appears to have increased the fitness of the birds. This is one of a number of devices which the zoo has worked on to enrich the lives of their penguins, and more are being evaluated. Their simple but ingenious designs could easily and cheaply be adopted for any penguin exhibit.
UFAW press release
Emmen Zoo, The Netherlands
On 25 October the series of common hippopotamus births at Emmen reached a climax. At about 6 a.m., ten-year-old female Jetje gave birth to her first infant, the sixth and we assumed last of the current succession of babies. But a few hours later, to everyone's great surprise, Jetje gave birth to another baby. Twin births in hippos are very unusual.
Initially everything seemed to be going well, though Deliwe, the younger of the twins, was clearly weaker than his sister Bulaula and drank less of his mother's milk. On 28 October, to give the mother and twins more peace and quiet, the hippopotamus house was closed to the public, but in vain Deliwe, who was being treated with antibiotics for an umbilical inflammation, died that afternoon.
A new-born hippo normally weighs from 40 to 50 kilograms, but in the case of twins, each infant weighs 25 kg at most, and they are consequently much more vulnerable. There is a high likelihood that one or both will not survive, as has unfortunately proved to be the case on this occasion. Luckily, though, all seems to be going well with Bulaula; she stands firmly on her feet and feeds well from her mother. And all the other five hippos born this summer at Emmen are doing extremely well.
Translated and abridged by Nicholas Gould from Emmen Zoo press releases
Endangered Species Breeding Unit, Martin Mere, Lancashire, U.K.
This year has been particularly successful. The Caucasian salamander (Mertensiella caucasica), a Red Data Book species, bred for the first time in the U.K. (and probably only the second time in captivity), producing 14 eggs all of which hatched. The males are unusual in bearing a vertical rhino-like horn at the base of the tail. The rare subspecies of the fire salamander bred for the second time in this collection, producing 30 offspring, whilst breeding of the Danube crested newt (Triturus dobrogicus), another Red Data Book species, took place for the first time here. Other significant births were those to Bosnian alpine newts, Greek smooth newts, ladybird spiders and mud snails. The Kerry slugs produced more offspring, 358, than in any previous year.
New arrivals included five Hynobius sp. salamanders, probably H. amjiensis, six Iranian salamanders (Neurergus kaiseri), nine gold-striped salamanders (Chioglossa lusitanica), long-term captives which have been added to our existing colony of this Vulnerable species, and seven Maltese painted frogs.
The unit continued its work with threatened plants, being involved in the recovery plan, led by Kew Gardens, for the extinct endemic grass Bromus interruptus (it still exists in cultivation!). Other threatened native species were successfully propagated, including star-fruit, ivy-leaved crowfoot and grass poly. A collection of threatened endemic Sorbus trees arrived, as did a collection of pitcher plants (Sarracenia) from destroyed U.S. sites.
Lisbon Oceanarium, Portugal
In August a male sea otter (Enhydra lutris) was born here. His experienced mother, Mali, is doing a great job of looking after this second pup. Her first young, a female called Maré, was born in May 1998, and she proved a good and extremely attentive mother. Maré's birth is the first breeding success with this species in Europe. Shortly before the expected birth of the second pup, Maré was successfully transferred to the sea otter display at Antwerp Zoo. The tremendous success of both births could not have been achieved without the dedication and cooperation of the exhibit designers, curators, keepers and administrative staff.
Abridged from Mark F.L. Smith in EAZA News No. 28 (OctoberDecember 1999)
Mystic Aquarium, Connecticut, U.S.A.
Scientists at the aquarium are grappling with a mystery after a seemingly healthy beluga whale suddenly died. A post-mortem was performed on the whale, named Winston, but initial tests were inconclusive. Life expectancy for a beluga is generally over 20 years, and he was 17. There is no indication that whatever killed him is contagious his three pool-mates, all females, are not exhibiting signs of any physical illness or emotional loss. Winston came to Mystic in October 1996 from the New York Aquarium on breeding loan, but none of the females became pregnant. He had previously fathered two calves in New York, one of whom survived. His death came very quickly. A routine blood test on 6 October showed no signs of any problem. He began refusing food three days later and died three days after that.
New York Times (13 October 1999)
Nuremberg Zoo, Germany
The zoo's little elephant group lost its matriarch on 25 June 1999: Buka, the old Asian cow and possibly the oldest elephant in Europe, was unable to get up in the morning and had to be euthanized at the age of 55. She had suffered for a long time from foot and nail infections, which rapidly got worse in the last three months before her death. Buka was a big, calm elephant and a really great character, always reliable with humans and never incompatible with other elephants. She arrived at the zoo in 1950 from Karnataka in southern India at the age of six or seven years as a `riding elephant', and lived in the same house for 49 years, since 1962 in the position of matriarch. Unfortunately Buka never had a chance to breed or to live in a social group, as the zoo only keeps cow elephants in its pre-war facilities, which are not suitable for larger groups or to keep a bull elephant. There are now only two fairly old female elephants left in the zoo (one Asian, one African), but there are plans to change the existing elephant house and give the elephants more room and more freedom by reducing the chaining time.
On 8 October the zoo's first rhinoceros birth took place. The female Indian rhino Purana (eight years old, born at Basel Zoo) delivered a healthy male calf which she immediately accepted. The father, 13-year-old Noël, was born at Stuttgart Zoo. The calf's birth weight was estimated at about 70 kg. The parents are the first Indian rhinos ever kept at the zoo, but the city of Nuremberg has a long-standing historical link with this species perhaps the best-known of all portrayals of an Indian rhino are the drawing and woodcuts made by the Nuremberg artist Albrecht Dürer in 1515. To commemorate this connection, the new calf has been named Albrecht.
European Elephant Group
Red River Zoo, Fargo, North Dakota, U.S.A.
The Red River Zoo opened to the public on 1 May 1999. The facility is owned and operated by the Red River Zoological Society, and has been under construction since October 1996. The living collection highlights the flora and fauna of eastern Asia and the American great plains. Eight acres (3.2 ha) of an eventual 30-acre (12 ha) facility have been developed. In addition to naturalistic wildlife exhibits, the zoo features a refurbished 1928 carousel. Funding for the project has been raised through philanthropic giving and earned revenue.
A male white-lipped deer (Cervus albirostris) was born at the zoo on 5 June 1999. The calf is being reared by its mother and has acclimated well into the herd of 2.2 adults. The adult deer are on loan to the zoo from the Zoological Society of San Diego. This poorly-known taxon is potentially threatened in western China and Tibet and is rare in captivity. The Red River Zoo participates in a breeding program for the species with seven other North American zoos. Currently, only 42 white-lipped deer exist in the Western Hemisphere.
For more information on the Red River Zoo call ++ (701) 2779240.
Riverbanks Zoological Park, Columbia, South Carolina, U.S.A.
The following births and hatchings took place during the period July to September 1999: 3 keel-billed toucan, 1 toco toucan, 2 pink-necked fruit dove (1 DNS), 4 ruddy duck (2 DNS), 4 roulroul (3 DNS), 2 horned sand viper, 2 giant leaf-tailed gecko, 18 Henkel's leaf-tailed gecko, 11 Arizona chuckwalla, 2 crocodile skink, 2 Madagascar giant day gecko, 2 radiated tortoise.
The following were acquired: 0.1 diana monkey, 1.1 hoatzin, 0.1 Leadbeater's cockatoo, 1.0 thick-billed parrot, 1.1 spectacled owl, 0.2 golden-breasted starling, 1.0 black-necked swan, 1 albino American alligator, 2 quince monitor, 4 Pine Barren tree frog, 1 two-toed amphiuma, 1 grunt sculpin, 1 tidepool sculpin, 10 black-eyed goby, 1 red Irishi lord, 6 striped perch, 2 painted greenling, 19 flashlight fish, 2 blood star, 1 decorator crab, 1 cancer crab, 1 kelp crab, 3 emerald crab, 5 hermit crab, 125 blue-legged hermit crab, 23 spot prawn, 1 painted tealia, 36 plumose anemone, 1 sea cucumber, 1 scallop, 3 giant barnacle, 979 turbo snail, 0.1 giant Pacific octopus, 9 trochus snail, 50 berghia.
Alan H. Shoemaker
San Antonio Zoo, Texas, U.S.A.
The zoo has acquired eight Japanese giant salamanders (Andrias japonicus) from Asa Zoo, Hiroshima, Japan. The 4.4 animals were captive-born at Asa Zoo in 1990. Considered a natural treasure in their native Japan, giant salamanders can grow to nearly five feet (1.5 m) in length and weigh up to 88 pounds (40 kg). In the wild, they populate cold, fast-moving mountain streams, having a high oxygen content. Though governmentally protected since 1952, their numbers in the wild have dwindled as their habitat has been destroyed. Clearing of the forests, dams and cemented riverbanks have contributed to their decline, as well as the insecticides and herbicides that have killed the fish, frogs and crabs that make up their natural diet.
The zoo is exhibiting one of its salamanders in `The Pad', a facility devoted exclusively to the display and management of amphibians. The other seven are housed off-exhibit in the zoo's new Conservation Research Center in environmentally controlled and filtered holding tanks. San Antonio joins just two other U.S. zoos to display this unique amphibian.
AZA Communiqué (November 1999)
Staten Island Zoo, New York, U.S.A.
On 24 October a ceremony took place to honour Dr Patricia O'Connor, who was the zoo's veterinarian from 1942 to 1970. Dr O'Connor, 84, was America's first full-time woman zoo veterinarian; when she graduated in 1939, only 0.8% of veterinarians in the U.S. and Canada were women. And when she joined the staff of Staten Island Zoo in 1942, there were very few full-time zoo veterinarians of either sex. As late as 1955, there were only six in the entire United States at San Diego, Detroit, Brookfield, National, Bronx and Staten Island Zoos.
From 1946 to 1957, Dr O'Connor served as the first president of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. During World War II she was an advisor to the U.S. government on primate research, and her recommendations resulted in the establishment of a network of regional primate centers across the U.S.A., several of which now play an important role in captive breeding and conservation.
In the 1940s and 1950s, zoo animal medicine was a discipline with no textbook, and those who were charged with treatment of wild animals had difficulty locating relevant literature. Dr O'Connor took on the job of indexing such literature. More than ten years' work, involving more than 8,000 cross-indexed references garnered from over 900 publications in several languages, resulted in the publication in 1955 of a definitive 465-page work, the Bibliography of References to Diseases of Wild Mammals and Birds, the first book of its kind in the world.
Recently, Staten Island Zoo published a 15-month journal calendar to commemorate Dr O'Connor's distinguished service. The calendar, produced from a collection of newspaper accounts and photos from the zoo's archives, is available for US$8.00, including mailing. A check or money order may be sent to: Staten Island Zoo, 614 Broadway, Staten Island, New York 10310, U.S.A.
News in Brief
Pittsburgh Zoo, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., is celebrating the birth of a female African elephant, the first successful elephant birth in the zoo's 101-year history, and also the first successful birth to a female herself captive-born in North America. For more than 60 days, Pittsburgh Zoo staff and docents maintained a 24-hour watch on the mother. The healthy calf was born on 13 September after a 22-month pregnancy and one hour and 15 minutes of labor. Both parents came to the zoo in 1994. The mother was born at San Diego Zoo and is 17 years old. The bull, one of only a few breeding male African elephants in the country, is 19 years old, and this is his second offspring the first was stillborn at Pittsburgh Zoo in April 1998.
AZA Communiqué (November 1999)
* * * * *
Moscow Zoo was again successful in breeding Steller's sea eagle. The breeding pair laid one egg which was naturally incubated and hatched in April 1999. While some zoos remove eggs in order to increase the number of offspring, Moscow did not, in order to avoid imprinting of the chicks. This decision was rewarded with the first parent-reared Steller's sea eagle at the zoo. Both parents arrived in Moscow in 1980 as fledglings; this is the third time they have bred here, and a total of five young have been reared. Moscow was the first zoo in the world to breed this species in 1987.
Lubov Kurilovich in EAZA News No. 28 (OctoberDecember 1999)
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A seven-year-old male hippopotamus at Pessac Zoo, near Bordeaux, France, broke through the electrified barrier of his enclosure and killed the zoo director, who was cycling past. Jean Ducuing, in his sixties, had personally trained the animal. Posters for the zoo show a photograph of the hippo with M. Ducuing's head in his mouth.
* * * * *
A litter of eight cheetah cubs was born at Marwell Zoological Park on 10 May 1999. All the young survived and have been mother-reared. Very few litters of eight cheetahs have ever been recorded. The mother, born at Belfast Zoo in 1992, came to Marwell in 1997. The father was born at Pretoria Zoo in 1990 and arrived in early 1999 from Whipsnade.
Marwell Zoo press release
* * * * *
Singapore Zoo now has nine (3.6) Asian elephants, including two male calves born on 24 March and 23 July this year. The mothers are 14 and 15 years old respectively. All the elephants including the 23-year-old breeding bull are handled by free contact.
* * * * *
Four giant eland (Taurotragus derbianus gigas) calves were born this summer at Cincinnati Zoo, Ohio, U.S.A., three in June and one in July. Forty-two giant elands have been born at the zoo since 1987.
AZA Communiqué (November 1999)
Abramson, C.I., and Carden, M.: The use of the ethogram to assess enrichment experiences for elephants. Journal of the Elephant Managers Association Vol. 9, No. 3 (1998), pp. 206209.
Bassenge, A., Geers, E., and Kolter, L.: Wirkung von verschiedenen Methoden des Environmental Enrichment auf Katzen (Felidae). (Effect of various forms of environmental enrichment on cats.) Zeitschrift des Kölner Zoo Vol. 41, No. 3 (1998), pp. 103131. [German, with very brief English summary.]
Brown, J.L.: Difficulties associated with diagnosis and treatment of ovarian dysfunction in elephants the flatliner problem. Journal of the Elephant Managers Association Vol. 10, No. 1 (1999), pp. 5561.
Callaghan, E.: Breeding the bearded barbet. Avicultural Magazine Vol. 105, No. 2 (1999), pp. 4953. [Lybius dubius.]
Doyle, C., York, B., and Whiteley, A.: A survey of Asian elephant births from 19621998. Journal of the Elephant Managers Association Vol. 10, No. 2 (1999), pp. 146148. [Analyses data from 74 births at 21 institutions.]
Harrington, P., Ferguson, A., and Joseph, P.: Hand-rearing a superb fruit dove Ptilinopus superbus at London Zoo. Avicultural Magazine Vol. 105, No. 2 (1999), pp. 5764. [Probably the first successful hand-rearing of a Ptilinopus fruit dove straight from hatching.]
Herrmann, H.-W.: Der Hühnerfresser Spilotes pullatus im Kölner Aquarium am Zoo Haltung und Reproduktion. (Husbandry and reproduction of the tiger ratsnake in Cologne Zoo's aquarium.) Zeitschrift des Kölner Zoo Vol. 41, No. 3 (1998), pp. 139144. [German, with very brief English summary.]
Horton, J.: A trip to see the Bali starling. Avicultural Magazine Vol. 105, No. 2 (1999), pp. 5456. [Leucopsar rothschildi; at the time of the author's visit to Bali (June 1999), there were 37 birds in the wild, ten at a pre-release site and 81 at the in situ captive-breeding centre in the Bali Barat National Park.]
Joseph, L.: A curious quandary concerning questionable curassows: can the DNA toolbox solve a century-old problem? WPA News No. 60 (1999), pp. 911. [Crax viridirostris and C. estudilloi were both described as new species in 1875 and 1977 respectively on the basis of single known specimens. The author describes a current DNA study of material from the two birds aimed at establishing their true status.]
Low, R.: The value of the Parrot Society breeding register. Parrot Society Magazine Vol. 33, No. 6 (1999), pp. 184186. [Comments on some trends in psittacid captive breeding in the U.K.]
Low, R.: Three species of Brotogeris parrakeets. Parrot Society Magazine Vol. 33, No. 7 (1999), pp. 226232. [Notes on wild status and aviculture of B. sanctithomae, B. chrysopterus and B. pyrrhopterus.]
Müller, M.: Husbandry and breeding of the Papuan mountain pigeon Gymnophaps albertisii at Vogelpark Walsrode. Avicultural Magazine Vol. 105, No. 2 (1999), pp. 7276. [Walsrode has reared eight birds in the past four years, and now has four pairs, two of which are breeding.]
Olson, D.: Recipe for a successful artificial insemination. Journal of the Elephant Managers Association Vol. 10, No. 1 (1999), pp. 2131. [Illustrated summary of the procedure used with elephants at Indianapolis and Dickerson Park Zoos.]
Screech, C.: Boris. Tyto Vol. 4, No. 1 (1999), pp. 1113. [Account of a successful cataract operation on an elderly eagle owl (Bubo bubo).]
Sevenich, M., Upchurch, B., and Mellen, J.: The science of animal management: evaluating the effects of training and enrichment on elephant behaviour. Journal of the Elephant Managers Association Vol. 9, No. 3 (1998), pp. 201205.
Shepherdson, D.: Environmental enrichment for elephants: current status and future directions. Journal of the Elephant Managers Association Vol. 10, No. 1 (1999), pp. 6977.
Smith, C.: Hand-rearing puna ibis at the Oklahoma City Zoological Park. Avicultural Magazine Vol. 105, No. 2 (1999), pp. 6571. [Plegadis ridgwayi.]
Sweeney, R.G.: The red-browed amazon Amazona rhodocorytha. Avicultural Magazine Vol. 105, No. 2 (1999), pp. 8689. [Loro Parque.]
Walker, S.: Mammals in need of attention Rodentia and Insectivora of India: conservation status and needs. Zoos Print Vol. 14, No. 11 (1999), pp. 514. [Includes notes on 27 taxa.]
Wilkinson, R.: Chester Zoo bird review 1998. Avicultural Magazine Vol. 105, No. 2 (1999), pp. 7785.
Wilkinson, R.: The African fishing owls with particular reference to historical records from European zoos. Tyto Vol. 3, No. 6 (1999), pp. 166178. [Scotopelia spp.]
Wright, C.: The Philippine or red-vented cockatoo (Cacatua haematuropygia). Parrot Society Magazine Vol. 33, No. 10 (1999), pp. 337340.
Zimmermann, W., Kolter, L., Sándor, I., and Dukát, Z.: Naturschutzprojekt Hortobágy Jahresbericht 1998. (Hortobágy Conservation Project, 1998 report.) Zeitschrift des Kölner Zoo Vol. 42, No. 1 (1999), pp. 3745. [German, no English summary; the project (in Hungary) includes the release of Przewalski horses into semi-wild conditions.]
Publishers of the periodicals listed:
Avicultural Magazine, Avicultural Society, c/o Bristol Zoo, Bristol BS8 3HA, U.K.
Journal of the Elephant Managers Association, Indianapolis Zoo, 1200 West Washington Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46222, U.S.A.
Parrot Society Magazine, Parrot Society, 108b Fenlake Road, Bedford MK42 0EU, U.K.
Tyto, International Owl Society, Sheraton Lodge, Station Road, Southminster, Essex CM0 7EW, U.K.
WPA News, World Pheasant Association, P.O. Box 5, Lower Basildon, Reading, Berkshire RG8 9PF, U.K.
Zeitschrift des Kölner Zoo, Zoologischer Garten, Riehler Strasse 173, D-50735 Köln, Germany.
Zoos Print, Zoo Outreach Organisation, Box 1683, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 004, India.
Index to Contributors, International Zoo News Volume 46 (1999)
Abelló, M.T., Velasco, M., & Esteban, F., 7, 418420
Abene, J., see Lee, S.
Abra, Lyn, 3, 184
Almenbayev, Kumek, 8, 502
Ames, Alison, & Cronin, Jim, 4, 214220
Anscombe, Chris, 4, 241
Asa, C.S., 1, 52
Badgley, D., 1, 46
Ball, Philip, 6, 372373
Banks, Chris, 1, 3335; 3, 178; 6, 365366
Banks, Kerry, 2, 124125
Barnaby, David, 2, 9498
Bartosová, Romana, 3, 179
Baskar, N., Krishnakumar, N., & Manimozhi, A., 2, 9093
Bath, Colin, 3, 172173
Beattie, Jane, & Darwin, Michaela, 5, 317
Beck, Benjamin B., & Martins, Andreia Fonseca, 6, 366367
Bedin, Eric, & Ostrowski, Stéphane, 1, 3536
Behler, J., see Castellano, C., & Lee, S.
Bemment, Neil, 3, 171172
Benirschke, Kurt, 1, 3940
Berthier, Jean-Luc, & Schlee, Marsha, 2, 117
Bircher, Peter, 4, 234236
Bisselink, Annemarie, see Luttenberg, Christiaan
Blaszkiewitz, Bernhard, 1, 57; 2, 122; 4, 247; 6, 382383; 8, 470474
Blomqvist, Leif, & Gregorius, Sune, 1, 4143
Blyde, David, 3, 183
Blyde, David, Cameron, Phillip, & Thorne, Andrew, 5, 270278
Bockheim, Congdon & Stevens, 5, 316
Bueno, Miguel, 7, 421423
Burge, Beverly, Mumcuoglu, Madeleine, & Simmons, Tal, 1, 1619
Cameron, Phillip, see Blyde, David
Carlstead, Kathy, & Kleiman, Devra G., 6, 368
Casteel, K., 1, 58
Castellano, C., & Behler, J., 2, 124
Challis, Mark, & Stronge, John, 3, 174
Christie, B., 4, 243
Clark, Peter, 2, 120121
Congdon, see Bockheim
Conners, Steve, 1, 4950
Cook, Michael, 4, 231
Corder, John, 6, 376
Cornejo, Juan, 5, 290293
Cronin, Jim, see Ames, Alison
Daltry, Jenny, 3, 166167
Darwin, Michaela, see Beattie, Jane
de Ruiter, Maarten, 1, 2729, 5859; 6, 353355
de Wit, Waalewijn, 1, 45
Dixon, Katherine, see Lanjouw, Annette
Dorrian, Anthony, 7, 445
Downman, Mike, 8, 476484
Dretzka, Neil, see Grittinger, Thomas
Ebel, Gerda, see Wicker, Rudolf
Ellis, John A., see Gates, Luke
Ellis, Susie, & Heredia, Borja, 1, 36
Embury, Amanda, 3, 130133
Esteban, F., see Abelló, M.T.
Fainstein, Vladimir, & Miljutina, Tatiana, 1, 5556
Feijen, Roos, 1, 4748
Furnweger, Karen, see Knapp, Chuck
Gates, Luke, 2, 115; 4, 241; 7, 437438
Gates, Luke, & Ellis, John A., 6, 340342
Gibson, Richard, 3, 175176
Gippoliti, Spartaco, 7, 390391, 442
Gippoliti, Spartaco, & Leoni, Alfiero, 6, 335339
Gold, Kenneth, 2, 114
Goto, N., see Kodo, H.
Gould, Nicholas, 1, 2; 2, 66, 100102, 105106; 3, 159164, 183; 5, 297303; 6, 330, 361, 369; 8, 458, 498499
Gregorius, Sune, see Blomqvist, Leif
Gregson, Jo, 1, 5051
Grittinger, Thomas, Dretzka, Neil, John, Christopher, & Werner, Valerie, 5, 279285
Guthrie, Patricia, 1, 4445
Hackney, R., 4, 244
Hanken, J., 4, 233
Hardy, Donna Fitzroy, 8, 459469
Hemon, Stephane, 1, 31
Hennache, Alain, 6, 364365; see also Saint Jalme, Michel
Henson, T., 6, 382
Herold, Henrik, 6, 377378
Hewitt, J., 3, 174
Hiddinga, Bart, 2, 125
Hildebrandt, Thomas, see Montali, R.J.
Hobbs, Patricia, 1, 5355
Holland, Glen, 2, 117119
Hornsey, Terry, 7, 407417
Horton, Marnie, 4, 228
Hosoda, Takahisa, 4, 248
Inomata, Y., see Kodo, H.
Irven, Paul M., 3, 177178; 5, 318
Ishikawa, T., see Kodo, H.
James, Trevor, 4, 246247
Johann, Achim, 4, 238240
John, Christopher, see Grittinger, Thomas
Jones, Carl, 1, 4849
Joppe-Blindenhöfer, Marlies, see Wicker, Rudolf
Jurke, Mike, 7, 443444
Kapic, Tomás, 2, 120
Katayanagi, M., see Sato, S.
Katzen, S., 1, 46
Kawata, Ken, 2, 6874
Keeling, Clinton, 4, 194196; 6, 359360
Keen, Rod, 4, 244245
Kibbey, Christopher, 2, 7585
Kikuchi, F., 7, 444445
Kitchener, Andrew C., 4, 221224
Kleiman, Devra G., see Carlstead, Kathy
Knapp, Chuck, & Furnweger, Karen, 7, 439441
Kodo, H., Inomata, Y., Goto, N., Ishikawa, T., & Natsusaka, M., 1, 5758
Krishnakumar, N., see Baskar, N.
Kumamoto, Arlene, 1, 3738
Kunze, K., & Stoops, G., 5, 317318
Kurilovich, Lubov, 8, 509
Langwell, J., 1, 58
Lanjouw, Annette, & Dixon, Katherine, 4, 228229
Lee, S., Abene, J., & Behler, J., 3, 184
Leoni, Alfiero, see Gippoliti, Spartaco
Lindburg, Donald G., 3, 180181
Logg, Diane, 6, 374375
Long, Trevor, 3, 181
Louwman, Jan W.W., 3, 181182
Lücker, Hubert, 8, 493496
Lukas, J., 2, 122
Luttenberg, Christiaan, & Bisselink, Annemarie, 5, 314315
Mallinson, Jeremy J.C., 5, 260269
Manimozhi, A., see Baskar, N.
Mansard, Pat, 2, 121122
Marshall, Ian, 1, 2526
Martin, Esmond, see Vigne, Lucy
Martins, Andreia Fonseca, see Beck, Benjamin B.
Marx, Nick, 6, 357358
Meier, D., 3, 183184
Meshik, Varvara A., 2, 8689
Miljutina, Tatiana, see Fainstein, Vladimir
Miller, D., 1, 59
Montali, R.J., Richman, L.K., & Hildebrandt, Thomas, 4, 233
Montemaggiori, Alessandro, & Waters, Siân S., 6, 383
Moore, D., 3, 183; 4, 247248
Moriyama, S., see Terahara, M.
Morris, Patrick J., 5, 320
Müller, Martina, 6, 380381
Mumcuoglu, Madeleine, see Burge, Beverly
Natsusaka, M., see Kodo, H.
Oliver, William, 7, 429430
Ostrowski, Stéphane, see Bedin, Eric
Owen, R.G., 8, 509
Partridge, John, 8, 497
Pastorello, Linda, 6, 381382
Pawley, Ray, 4, 205207
Payne, D., 2, 123124
Pickard, John, 3, 134140; 4, 248
Piropato, Cheryl, see Pryor, Warren W.
Plantenga, Henriëtte, 2, 113114
Plouzeau, Eric, see Saint Jalme, Michel
Plowman, Amy, 3, 173
Power, Vicki, 4, 245246
Pryor, Warren W., & Piropato, Cheryl, 3, 147153
Pywell, Michelle, 5, 315316
Racicot, C., 6, 382
Rao, R.J., 1, 3233
Reichenbach, Herman, 2, 102105; 7, 426427
Reininger, K., 4, 244
Renson, Joseph R., 6, 376
Richman, L.K., see Montali, R.J.
Rinke, Dieter, 3, 184
Robertson, Helen, 3, 184
Rookmaaker, Kees, 8, 500
Ryboltovsky, Evgeny, 6, 347352; 7, 392397
Saint Jalme, Michel, Hennache, Alain, & Plouzeau, Eric, 6, 371372
Sato, S., Sekii, T., Katayanagi, M., & Tobita, E., 1, 5657
Schilfarth, Jürgen, 1, 4546, 50, 58; 2, 113, 124, 125; 5, 319; 6, 371, 373, 383; 8, 504505, 506507
Schlee, Marsha, see Berthier, Jean-Luc
Schürer, Ulrich, 2, 122123
Schwammer, Harald, 6, 331334
Schwitzer, Christoph, 7, 425
Sekii, T., see Sato, S.
Shipley, B., 2, 116
Shoemaker, Alan H., 1, 52; 4, 246; 5, 319; 8, 507508
Simmons, Tal, see Burge, Beverly
Smith, Mark F.L., 8, 506
Smith, Pamela, 1, 5152
Snyder, Tim, 6, 362
Spencer, Warren, 2, 114115
Stevens, see Bockheim
Stoops, G., see Kunze, K.
Taylor, Peter, 6, 378379
Terahara, M., & Moriyama, S., 3, 177
Terkel, Amelia, 5, 310312
Thorne, Andrew, see Blyde, David
Tobita, E., see Sato, S.
Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale, 5, 286289, 296; 6, 343346
Turner, Ian, 6, 376377
Tuson, John, 4, 197204; 5, 258259, 295296
van Bruggen, A.C., 4, 226227
van Herk, Robert, see Westerveld, Ben
Vansteenkiste, Steven, 2, 124
Velasco, M., see Abelló, M.T.
Vigne, Lucy, & Martin, Esmond, 7, 398406
Vilá, C., & Wayne, R.K., 7, 429
Vloon, Michel, 2, 119
Vogt, Paul, 6, 375376
Volodin, Ilya A., see Volodina, Elena V.
Volodina, Elena V., & Volodin, Ilya A., 4, 208209
Wakenshaw, Val, 1, 315
Waters, Siân S., see Montemaggiori, Alessandro
Weigl, Richard, 8, 485492
Welch, Bryan, 3, 154156
Werner, Valerie, see Grittinger, Thomas
Westerveld, Ben, & van Herk, Robert, 3, 179180
Wicker, Rudolf, Ebel, Gerda, & Joppe-Blindenhöfer, Marlies, 3, 176177
Wielgosz, Sandy, 7, 436437
Wilkinson, Roger, 7, 438439; 8, 503504
Winstel, D., 4, 242243
Wisniewski, Pat, 8, 506
Woodfine, Tim, 4, 236237
Woollard, Stephen P., 1, 2024; 3, 141146; 6, 359
Yonetani, Yoshi, 2, 116117
Index to Books Reviewed, International Zoo News Volume 46 (1999)
Allin, Michael: Zarafa: the True Story of a Giraffe's Journey from the Plains of Africa to the Heart of Post-Napoleonic France, 4, 226227
Attwater, Helen: My Gorilla Journey: Living with the Orphans of the Rainforest, 8, 498
Burton, John A.: Wild Animals of Britain and Europe, 5, 300303
Croft, David B., & Ganslosser, Udo (eds.): Comparison of Marsupial and Placental Behaviour, 3, 161164
de la Peña, Martín R., & Rumboll, Maurice: Collins Illustrated Checklist: Birds of Southern South America and Antarctica, 5, 300303
Dittrich, Lothar, & Rieke-Müller, Annelore: Carl Hagenbeck (18441913) Tierhandel und Schaustellungen im Deutschen Kaiserreich, 2, 102105
du Toit, J.G.: Rhino Ranching: a Manual for Owners of White Rhinos, 2, 101102
Faust, Ingrid: Zoologische Einbanddrucke und Flugschriften vor 1800, Band 1: Wirbellose, Reptilien, Fische, 7, 426427
Field, David A. (ed.): Guidelines for Environmental Enrichment, 2, 105106
Ganslosser, Udo, Hodges, J. Keith, & Kaumanns, Werner (eds.): Research and Captive Propagation, 3, 161162
Harrison, Colin, & Castell, Peter: Collins Field Guide: Bird Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of Britain and Europe, 5, 300302
Hürter, Hans-Arnold: Die Wissenschaftlichen Schmetterlingsnamen, 7, 426427
King, Brian, & Green, Brian: Monitors: the Biology of Varanid Lizards, 6, 361
Low, Rosemary: Hancock House Encyclopedia of the Lories, 5, 297298
Moynihan, Martin H.: The Social Regulation of Competition and Aggression in Animals, 5, 298299
Olney, P.J.S., Fisken, Fiona A., & Davolls, Linda J.: International Zoo Yearbook 36, 3, 159160.
Pelc, Ortwin, & Gretzschel, Matthias: Hagenbeck Tiere, Menschen, Illusionen, 2, 102105
Pybus, Victoria: Working with Animals the UK, Europe and Worldwide, 8, 498499
Rieke-Müller, Annelore, & Dittrich, Lothar: Der Löwe Brüllt Nebenan Die Gründung Zoologischer Garten Im Deutschsprachigen Raum 183318690, 2, 102105
Rookmaaker, L.C.: The Rhinoceros in Captivity, 2, 100101
Sample, Geoff: Bird Call Identification, 5, 300302
Svensson, Lars, & Grant, Peter J.: Collins Bird Guide, 5, 300302
Tomasello, Michael, & Call, Josep: Primate Cognition, 5, 298300
Subject Index, International Zoo News Volume 46 (1999)
[Primary references to species and genera are under scientific names, with cross-references from common English names. The name of a single species is normally given in the singular, even where the reference is to a number of individuals of that species: thus, e.g., `Cercopithecus neglectus, mixed exhibit with gorilla, Melbourne Zoo' does not imply that the exhibit contains only a single gorilla; but `Hornbills, captive breeding' will refer to an item about more than one species of hornbill. The terms `Zoological Gardens' and `Zoological Park', and their equivalents in other languages, are abbreviated to `Zoo', except in cases where confusion might result.]
Aardvark, see Orycteropus afer
Aceros corrugatus, breeding, Burgers' Zoo, 5, 314315
breeding, San Diego Wild Animal Park, 1, 5253
breeding and fostering, Wassenaar Wildlife Breeding Centre, 3, 181182
litter of eight, Marwell Zoo, 8, 509
Acipenser gueldenstaedti, Bergen Aquarium, 4, 248
Actophilornis africanus, breeding, Disney's Animal Kingdom, 5, 316
Aegypius monachus, breeding, Buffalo Zoo, 7, 437
birth, San Diego Zoo, 7, 445446
reproductive research, San Diego Zoo, 3, 180181
Zoo Atlanta, 2, 123
Alaska SeaLife Centre, Seward, Alaska, U.S.A., 1, 4445
Alligator, American, see Alligator mississippiensis; Chinese, see A. sinensis
death of white individual, Aquarium of the Americas, 4, 247
thermoregulation study, St Louis Zoo, 1, 52
Alligator sinensis, wild status, 4, 254
Allwetterzoo, Münster, see Münster Zoo
Almaty (Alma-Ata) Zoo, Kazakhstan,
breeding, great black-headed gull, 8, 502
breeding, Steller's sea eagle, 8, 502
Amersfoort Zoo, Netherlands, breeding, Asian elephant, 6, 371
newly discovered species, 4, 233
Philippine, status assessment, 6, 365366
Amsterdam Zoo, Netherlands,
breeding, crested seriema, 1, 45
breeding, European spoonbill, 2, 113114
Andrias davidianus, stolen from Chongqing Zoo, 6, 383
Andrias japonicus, San Antonio Zoo, 8, 508
Animal rights, great apes, 6, 330
Anser erythropus, breeding, Nordic Ark, 1, 41
Antwerp Zoo, Belgium, breeding, Vietnamese pheasant, 2, 124
Aonyx cinerea, mixed exhibit with François's langur, San Diego Zoo, 1, 5355
Apenheul Primate Park, Netherlands, breeding, bonobo, 2, 114
Apogon kauderi, breeding, Danmarks Akvarium, 5, 316
Apteryx australis mantelli, husbandry and breeding, Frankfurt Zoo, 3, 176177
Aquarium of the Americas, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.,
breeding, poison-arrow frogs, 3, 174
death of white alligator, 4, 247
Ara rubrogenys, confiscated, Santa Cruz Zoo, 4, 231
Aragón Zoo, Mexico, visitor's report, 2, 6870
Arignar Anna Zoo, Madras, India, Indian python, 2, 9093
Auckland Zoo, New Zealand, disease-free rearing, New Zealand dotterel, 3, 154156
Audubon Zoo, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A., breeding, McGregor's pit viper, 7, 436
Auklet, parakeet, see Cyclorrhynchus psittacula
Australian Reptile Park, Gosford, New South Wales, Australia, research, redback spider, 3, 184
Avian malaria, outbreak in U.K. zoo penguins, 7, 447
Aye-aye, see Daubentonia madagascariensis
Babirusa, see Babyrousa babyrussa
Babyrousa babyrussa, orthopaedic disorders, 5, 326
Balaeniceps rex, wild status, 4, 230231
Baltimore Zoo, Maryland, U.S.A., environmental enrichment, giraffe, 7, 436437
Barcelona Zoo, training male gorilla to give semen samples, 7, 418420
Bat, Egyptian fruit, see Rousettus aegyptiacus; Livingstone's fruit, see Pteropus livingstonii; Rodrigues fruit, see P. rodricensis
Bateleur, see Terathopius ecaudatus
Bats, fruit, see Pteropus spp.
Bear, brown, see Ursus arctos; polar, see Thalarctos maritimus; sun, see Helarctos malayanus
Bear, rabies infection, U.S. zoo, 7, 446
Belfast Zoo, U.K., 3, 174
Bergen Aquarium, Norway, Russian sturgeon, 4, 248
Berlin Zoo, Germany,
annual report 1998, 7, 431432
death from herpes virus infection, Asian elephant, 1, 4546
history, elephants, 8, 470
Bioacoustics in zoos, 4, 208213
Birds, threatened, new comprehensive book (BirdLife International), 6, 367
Bird of paradise, red, see Paradisaea rubra
Birds of paradise, Bronx and Chester Zoos, 8, 503504
Birds of prey, possibly trained by Stone Age man, 6, 369370
Birdworld, Farnham, U.K., breeding, white-crested turaco, 2, 124125
Boa, Round Island, see Casarea dussumieri
Bogotá Zoo (Parque Jaime Duque), Colombia, visitor's report, 8, 488489
Bonobo, see Pan paniscus
Bramble Park Zoo, Watertown, South Dakota, U.S.A., breeding and release, trumpeter swan, 1, 59
Bristol Zoo, U.K.,
breeding, giant Peruvian centipede, 2, 114115
breeding, Livingstone's fruit bat, 4, 248
breeding, pink-backed pelican, 6, 371
in situ conservation projects, 8, 502503
naked mole-rat, 2, 7585
new seal and penguin exhibit, 5, 314
Bronx Zoo (Wildlife Conservation Park), New York, U.S.A.,
birds of paradise, 8, 503504
breeding, New Guinea crocodile skink, 2, 124
breeding, ornate Nile monitor, 3, 184
Brookfield Zoo, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.,
breeding, African wild dog, 1, 46
breeding, klipspringer, 1, 46
hand-rearing and release, green sea turtle, 6, 382
Buceros bicornis, factors in failure to breed, 6, 368
Budorcas taxicolor tibetana, breeding, Minnesota Zoo, 7, 447
Buffalo, African, see Syncerus caffer
Buffalo Zoo, New York, U.S.A., breeding, European black vulture, 7, 437
Bufo viridis, breeding and release, Nordic Ark, 1, 43
Burgers' Zoo, Arnhem, Netherlands, breeding, wrinkled hornbill, 5, 314315
Bushmeat trade, threat to African primates, 6, 362363
Bustard, houbara, see Chlamydotis undulata
Butterfly and Wildlife Park, Long Sutton, Lincolnshire, U.K., breeding, brushtail possum, 7, 446
Cacatua moluccensis, breeding, Nordic Ark, 1, 41
Cali Zoo, Colombia, visitor's report, 8, 489492
Callithrix geoffroyi, captive management, 1, 315
Callithrix pygmaea, infants carried by male golden-headed lion tamarin, The Zoo, Gulf Breeze, 6, 381382
Callitrichidae, incest, 5, 326327
Camelids, hybrid, 6, 369
Camels, captive, 6, 369
breeding, U.K. Wolf Centre, 7, 447
hybridisation with domestic dogs not a threat, 7, 429
Canis lupus baileyi, setback to reintroduction programme, 4, 230
Capra falconeri, breeding, Nordic Ark, 1, 4243
Capricornis crispus, 7, 454
Japan Serow Center, 2, 116117
Captivity, possible beneficial effects for animals, 1, 2
Cardinal fish, see Apogon kauderi
Cariama cristata, breeding, Amsterdam Zoo, 1, 45
Casarea dussumieri, captive breeding and conservation, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, 1, 4849; 3, 175176
Cat, sand, see Felis margarita
Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species (CRES), San Diego, California, U.S.A., reproductive research, bonobo, 7, 443444
Centipede, giant Peruvian, see Scolopendra gigantea
Central Park Wildlife Center, New York, U.S.A., breeding, chinstrap penguin, 3, 183
Ramat-Gan, 5, 312
release of captive-born individual, Namibia, 4, 249
wild population density and reproduction, 1, 63
Ceratotherium simum cottoni, wild status, 4, 231
Cercocebus aterrimus, social behaviour, Rheine Zoo, 4, 238239
Cercopithecus nigroviridis, social interactions, Edinburgh Zoo, 5, 323
Cervus albirostris, breeding, Red River Zoo, 8, 507
Chapultepec Zoo, Mexico, visitor's report, 2, 7072
Charadrius obscurus, disease-free rearing, Auckland Zoo, 3, 154156
Cheetah, see Acinonyx jubatus
Chelonia mydas, hand-reared and released, Brookfield Zoo, 6, 382
endangered, South-East Asia, 1, 3334
environmental sex determination, Paignton Zoo, 4, 245
Chessington Zoo (Chessington World of Adventures), U.K., 2, 115; 4, 241; 7, 437438
Chester Zoo, U.K.,
birds of paradise, 8, 503504
fostering, ring-tailed lemur, 2, 127
hybrid elephant (1978), 7, 446
in situ conservation project, Polillo Islands, the Philippines, 7, 438439
red bird of paradise, 8, 503504
Rodrigues fruit bat, 4, 242
Children's Zoo, Vsevolozhsk, Russia,
biology, management and breeding, Annamese flying frog 7, 392397
biology, management and breeding, Vietnamese frog Theloderma corticale, 6, 347352
Chiloscyllium sp., breeding, Danmarks Akvarium, 5, 316
Chimpanzee, see Pan troglodytes
captive breeding, National Wildlife Research Centre, Saudi Arabia, 1, 31
pre-release anti-predator training, 7, 455
Choloepus didactylus, behavioural study, Copenhagen Zoo, 3, 170
Chongqing Zoo, China, theft of giant salamanders, 6, 383
Ciconia boyciana, breeding, Shanghai Zoo, 3, 185186
Cincinnati Zoo, Ohio, U.S.A.,
breeding, giant eland, 8, 509
breeding, Indo-Chinese tiger, 7, 447
Florida manatee, 2, 116
`Manatee Springs' exhibit, 3, 174175
Clères Zoo, France, breeding by artificial insemination, Blyth's tragopan and mikado pheasant, 6, 371372
Cobra, Asian, see Naja kaouthia; king, see Ophiophagus hannah
Cockatoo, Moluccan (salmon-crested), see Cacatua moluccensis
Coenocorypha aucklandica, captive-breeding project, Mount Bruce National Wildlife Centre, 2, 117119
Cognition, primates (book review), 5, 298300
Colchester Zoo, U.K., environmental enrichment, Humboldt's penguin, 5, 315316
Columbus Zoo, Ohio, U.S.A.,
breeding, amethystine python, 1, 46
breeding, stripe-necked leaf turtle, 1, 46
caesarean birth, gorilla, 4, 242
environmental enrichment, gorilla, 2, 127
Condor, California, see Gymnogyps californianus
Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark,
annual report 1997, 3, 168171
behavioural study, two-toed sloth, 3, 170
breeding, tomato frog, 1, 4647
death from gastrointestinal infection, Asian elephant calf, 3, 168
death from necrobacillosis, giraffe calf, 3, 168169
euthanasia, aggressive male chimpanzee, 3, 170
tomato frogs, distinguishing species by calls, 1, 47
Crane, red-crowned, see Grus japonensis; white-naped, see G. vipio; whooping, see G. americana
Cricket St Thomas Wildlife Park, U.K., natural woodland enclosure, black-and-white, red-fronted and ring-tailed lemurs, 6, 372373
Crocodile, freshwater, see Crocodylus johnstoni
Crocodylus johnstoni, breeding, Melbourne Zoo, 3, 178
breeding, San Antonio Zoo, 1, 58
breeding, Suffolk Wildlife Park, 7, 407417
Cyclemys tcheponensis, breeding, Brookfield Zoo, 1, 46
Cyclorrhynchus psittacula, breeding, North Carolina Zoo, 4, 244
Cyclura spp., in situ conservation, John G. Shedd Aquarium, 7, 439441
Cygnus buccinator, breeding and release, Bramble Park Zoo, 1, 59
Danmarks Akvarium, Charlottenlund, Denmark,
breeding, cardinal fish, 5, 316
breeding, striped nurse shark, 5, 316
Daubentonia madagascariensis, mixed exhibit with Madagascan giant jumping rat, Jersey Zoo, 5, 317
Deer, white-lipped, see Cervus albirostris
death, Mystic Aquarium, 8, 506
mycotic disease, 4, 256
Dendrocopos leucotos, rearing and release, Nordic Ark, 1, 43
Denver Zoo, Colorado, U.S.A., breeding, leaf-nosed viper, 2, 116
dietary research, Marwell Zoo, 4, 236237
effects of zoo environment on reproductive success, 4, 249250
transferred from White Oak Conservation Center to Kruger National Park, 2, 122
Diet, zoo animals, 4, 194196; 7, 425
Dipsochelys arnoldi, egg-laying, Seychelles Giant Tortoise Conservation Project, 6, 363364
Disney's Animal Kingdom, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, U.S.A., breeding, African jacana, 5, 316
Dog, African wild, see Lycaon pictus
Domestic animals in zoos, 8, 459469
Dotterel, New Zealand, see Charadrius obscurus
Doué la Fontaine Zoo, France, jaguar kills boy, 1, 5859
Dracaena guianensis, breeding, Prague Zoo, 7, 433434
Dresden Zoo, Germany,
aggressive African elephant transferred to Parque de la Naturaleza de Cabarceno, 8, 504505
management, sand cat, 6, 386
tundra aviary complex, 8, 493496
Drill, see Mandrillus leucophaeus
Dugong, see Dugong dugon
Dugong dugon, Sea World, Surfers Paradise, 3, 181
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust (Jersey Zoo), Channel Islands,
breeding, Round Island boa, 3, 175176
cataract surgery, green tree monitor, 4, 243
change of group leader, gorilla, 5, 324
conservation, reptiles, Round Island, Mauritius, 1, 4849
mixed exhibit, aye-aye and Madagascan giant jumping rat, 5, 317
name changed from Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, 3, 175
organic farm, 7, 439
Dyscophus antongilli, breeding, Copenhagen Zoo, 1, 4647
Dyscophus spp., distinguishing by calls, 1, 47
Eagle, bateleur, see Terathopius ecaudatus; Steller's sea, see Haliaeetus pelagicus
Earthworm, see Lumbricus terrestris
Edinburgh Zoo, U.K.,
enrichment feeder, penguins, 8, 505
giraffe saliva used in medical research, 7, 446447
hands-off management, chimpanzee, 5, 321322
social interactions, Allen's swamp monkey, 5, 323
Education, zoo, 5, 286289, 295296; 6, 343346, 359
in U.K. and Ireland, 1, 2024; 3, 141146
role of animal presentations, 6, 340342
Eland, giant, see Taurotragus derbianus gigas
Elephant, African, see Loxodonta africana; Asian, see Elephas maximus
Elephant, hybrid, Chester Zoo (1978), 7, 446
breeding, Amersfoort Zoo, 6, 371
breeding, Emmen Zoo, 6, 373
breeding, Odessa Zoo, 1, 50
breeding, Port Lympne Wild Animal Park, 2, 111
breeding, Rotterdam Zoo, 5, 306
breeding, Singapore Zoo, 8, 509
breeding, Tierpark Berlin, 8, 471
bull survives herpes virus infection, Rotterdam Zoo, 6, 383
death, Nuremberg Zoo, 8, 5152
death of calf from gastrointestinal infection, Copenhagen Zoo, 3, 168
death from herpes virus infection, Berlin Zoo, 1, 4546
death soon after birth, Münster Zoo, 2, 113
female transferred from Munich Zoo to Kiev Zoo, 1, 58
history, Berlin zoos, 8, 470474
new herpes virus infection, 4, 233
Emmen Zoo, Netherlands,
breeding, Asian elephant, 6, 373
giraffe, anaesthesia, 1, 4748
twin common hippos born, 8, 505
Endangered Primate Rescue Centre, Cuc Phuong, Vietnam, golden-headed langur, 1, 35; 6, 386387
Endangered Species Breeding Unit, Martin Mere, U.K., 8, 506
breeding, Caucasian salamander and Danube crested newt, 8, 506
Enhydra lutris, breeding, Lisbon Oceanarium, 8, 506
giraffe, Baltimore Zoo, 7, 436437
gorilla, Columbus Zoo, 2, 127
Humboldt's penguin, Colchester Zoo, 5, 315316
penguins, Edinburgh Zoo, 8, 505
public perception, 5, 325326
Environmental sex determination, chelonians, Paignton Zoo, 4, 245
Equus [burchelli] quagga, breeding project, South Africa, 2, 9498
dietary research, Marwell Zoo, 4, 236237
history, Prague Zoo, 7, 434435
Western Plains Zoo, 3, 183
Equus zebra hartmannae, behavioural and breeding problems, Marwell Zoo, 4, 236
Eristicophis macmahoni, breeding, Denver Zoo, 2, 116
Eudyptes chrysolophus, in situ weighing device, 7, 430
Eulemur fulvus rufus, natural woodland enclosure, Cricket St Thomas Wildlife Park, 6, 372373
Evolution, abrupt mutations suggested as cause, 6, 368369
Falco peregrinus, artificial leg fitted, 2, 124
Falcon, peregrine, see Falco peregrinus
Felis margarita, management, Dresden Zoo, 6, 386
Ferret, black-footed, see Mustela nigripes
Fish, longevity, 5, 313
Flying foxes, see Pteropus spp.
Folsom Children's Zoo, Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.A., breeding, red-billed hornbill, 7, 447
Fort Wayne Children's Zoo, Indiana, U.S.A., `Worms!' invertebrate exhibit, 3, 147153
Fossa, see Cryptoprocta ferox
breeding, aardvark, 2, 125
husbandry and breeding, northern brown kiwi, 3, 176177
Fratercula corniculata, breeding, North Carolina Zoo, 4, 244
Frog, Annamese flying, see Rhacophorus annamensis; Montserrat `mountain chicken', see Leptodactylus fallax; tomato, see Dyscophus antongilli; Vietnamese (no English name), see Theloderma corticale
none croaking in Cyrene, comments on Aristotle's statement, 8, 501
poison-arrow, breeding, Aquarium of the Americas, 3, 174
tomato, see Dyscophus spp.
Galliforms, captive stock, Europe, 6, 364365
Gar, American spotted, see Lepisosteus tristoechus
Garrulus lidthi, breeding, Ueno Zoo, 1, 5758
Gates, Reg (curator of primates, Perth Zoo), obituary, 3, 183
Gavialis gangeticus, reintroduction, India, 1, 3233
Gecko, Guenther's, see Phelsuma guentheri
Gelada, see Theropithecus gelada
Geochelone elephantopus and G. gigantea, Prague Zoo, 2, 120
breeding, Hirakawa Zoo, 3, 177
Paignton Zoo, 4, 245
Geronticus eremita, deaths in wild, Morocco, 4, 254255
Gettorf Zoo, Germany, visitor's report, 4, 202203
Gharial, see Gavialis gangeticus
anaesthesia, Emmen Zoo, 1, 4748
artificial insemination conditioning, Taronga Zoo, 7, 445
death at 34+, Marwell Zoo, 4, 247
death of calf from necrobacillosis, Copenhagen Zoo, 3, 168169
environmental enrichment, Baltimore Zoo, 7, 436437
in 19th century France (book review), 4, 226227
saliva used in medical research, Edinburgh Zoo, 7, 446447
Giraffe, see Giraffa camelopardalis
Goose, lesser white-fronted, see Anser erythropus
Goral, Amur long-tailed, see Nemorhaedus caudatus raddeanus
Gorilla, mountain, see Gorilla gorilla beringei; western lowland, see Gorilla g. gorilla
Gorilla gorilla beringei, wild status, 4, 228229
Gorilla g. gorilla,
birth of twins, Oklahoma City Zoo, 6, 382
breeding, Ramat-Gan, 5, 310311
caesarean birth, Columbus Zoo, 4, 242
change of group leader, Jersey Zoo, 5, 324
environmental enrichment, Columbus Zoo, 2, 127
naturalistic enclosure, bachelor group, Loro Parque, 8, 476484
new off-exhibit U.S. facility (Gorilla Haven), 6, 373374
rescue and reintroduction project, the Congo, Howletts and Port Lympne Foundation, 2, 111112; 8, 498
social interactions, adult males and infants, Lincoln Park Zoo, 4, 250251
training male to give semen samples, Barcelona Zoo, 7, 418420
Gorilla Haven, Georgia, U.S.A., 6, 373374
Grus americana, breeding, San Antonio Zoo, 7, 442443
Grus japonensis and G. vipio, eggs sent from U.S.A. to Russia for rearing and release, 6, 362
Gull, great black-headed, see Larus ichthyaetus
Gymnogyps californianus, released, California, 7, 446
Gypaetus barbatus, planned reintroduction project, Spain, 1, 61
Gypohierax angolensis, breeding, Paris Zoo, 2, 117
Gyps rueppelli, breeding, Milwaukee Zoo, 7, 441
breeding, Almaty Zoo, 8, 502
breeding, Moscow Zoo, 8, 509
Healesville Sanctuary, Victoria, Australia, breeding, platypus, 6, 374375
Helarctos malayanus, Wellington Zoo, 3, 134140; 4, 148
Heterocephalus glaber, husbandry, Bristol Zoo compared with other institutions, 2, 7585
Heuschele, Werner (director, CRES, San Diego), obituary, 2, 6667
Hexaprodoton liberiensis, 8, 497
breeding, Whipsnade Wild Animal Park, 1, 59
husbandry and breeding, Rome Zoo, 6, 335339
Hippocamelus antisensis, Lima Zoo, 8, 488
Hippocampus ramulosus, breeding, Sea Life Centre, Weymouth, 1, 55
Hippopotamus, common, see Hippopotamus amphibius; pygmy, see Hexaprodoton liberiensis
kills director, Pessac Zoo, 8, 509
twins born, Emmen Zoo, 8, 505
Hirakawa Zoo, Kagoshima, Japan, breeding, Aldabra giant tortoise, 3, 177
Hirudo medicinalis, husbandry and display, Fort Wayne Children's Zoo, 3, 152153
Hog, pygmy, see Sus salvanius
Honolulu Zoo, Hawaii, U.S.A., breeding, crocodile monitor, 3, 183184
Hornbill, great Indian, see Buceros bicornis; red-billed, see Tockus erythrorhynchus; wrinkled, see Aceros corrugatus
Horse, domestic, see Equus caballus; Przewalski's, see E. przewalskii
Howletts Wild Animal Park, U.K.,
annual report 19971998, 2, 107112
grizzled leaf monkey, 2, 107
`live' internet site, 7, 446
Huemul (deer), Peruvian, see Hippocamelus antisensis
Hypogeomys antimena, mixed exhibit with aye-aye, Jersey Zoo, 5, 317
Hyrax, Cape (rock), see Procavia capensis
Ibis, bald (waldrapp), see Geronticus eremita
Icterus dominicensis oberi, trial captive-breeding programme, Jersey Zoo, 6, 382
Iguanas, West Indian rock, see Cyclura spp.
avoidance of, 1, 3940
detecting, 7, 451
Indianapolis Zoo, Indiana, U.S.A., breeding, desert monitor, 4, 243
Internet, `live' site, Howletts Wild Animal Park, 7, 446
Invertebrate exhibit, Fort Wayne Children's Zoo, 3, 147153
Jacana, African, see Actophilornis africanus; wattled, see Jacana jacana
Jacana jacana, breeding, Zürich Zoo, 5, 313
Jaguar, see Panthera onca
Japan Serow Center, Gozaisho, Japan, Japanese serow, 2, 116117
Jay, purple, see Garrulus lidthi
Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, see Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
John G. Shedd Aquarium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A., in situ conservation, West Indian rock iguanas, 7, 439441
Kagu, see Rhynochetos jubatus
Kakapo, see Strigops habroptilus
Karlsruhe Zoo, Germany, visitor's report, 4, 197198
Kentucky Reptile Zoo, Slade, Kentucky, U.S.A., confiscated Asian cobra, 4, 243244
Kiev Zoo, Ukraine, Asian elephant transferred from Munich Zoo, 1, 58
Kiwi, North Island brown, see Apteryx australis mantelli
Klipspringer, see Oreotragus oreotragus
Komodo dragon, see Varanus komodoensis
Krefeld Zoo, Germany, new tropical house, 6, 375376
Lagothrix lagotricha, new exhibit, Monkey World, 4, 214220
Landau Zoo, Germany, visitor's report, 4, 198199
Langur, François's, see Trachypithecus francoisi; golden-headed, see T. poliocephalus
Larus ichthyaetus, breeding, Almaty Zoo, 8, 502
Latrodactus hasselti, research, Australian Reptile Park, 3, 184
Leech, medicinal, see Hirudo medicinalis
Leiolopisma telfairi, captive breeding and conservation, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, 1, 4849
Lemur, red-fronted, see Eulemur fulvus rufus; ring-tailed, see Lemur catta; ruffed, see Varecia variegata
fostering, Chester Zoo, 2, 127
introducing males, Moscow Zoo, 2, 8689
natural woodland enclosure, Cricket St Thomas Wildlife Park, 6, 372373
Leontopithecus caissara, in situ conservation, Brazil, 4, 231
Leontopithecus chrysomelas, male carries pygmy marmoset infants, The Zoo, Gulf Breeze, 6, 381382
death at 31, San Antonio Zoo, 6, 380
reintroduction update, 6, 366367
Leopard, clouded, see Neofelis nebulosa; snow, see Panther uncia
Lepisosteus tristoechus, death at 71+, Zürich Zoo, 5, 313
conservation, Montserrat, 3, 166167
trial captive-breeding programme, Jersey Zoo, 6, 382
Lima Zoo, Peru,
Peruvian huemul, 8, 488
visitor's report, 8, 485488
Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A., social interactions, adult male and infant gorillas, 4, 250251
Lion, Asian, see Panthera leo persica
Lisbon Oceanarium, Portugal, breeding, sea otter, 8, 506
Lizard, caiman, see Dracaena guianensis
fish, 5, 313
giraffe, 4, 247
golden lion tamarin, 6, 380
Lophura hatinhensis, breeding, Antwerp Zoo, 2, 124
Lories (book review), 5, 297298
Loro Parque, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain,
birth rate, morbidity and mortality, purple-bellied parrot, 5, 290293
naturalistic enclosure, gorilla bachelor group, 8, 476484
new off-exhibit parrot breeding centre, 7, 421423
aggressive cow transferred from Dresden Zoo to Parque de la Naturaleza de Cabarceno, 8, 504505
breeding, Parque de la Naturaleza de Cabarceno, 5, 319
breeding, Pittsburgh Zoo, 8, 509
breeding, Ramat-Gan, 2, 124
breeding, Réserve Africaine de Sigean, 2, 125
breeding, Tama Zoo, 1, 5657
breeding, Tierpark Berlin, 2, 122; 4, 247; 8, 471474
communication with, using didgeridoo, 8, 500501
eggs transplanted into mice, 1, 40
history, Berlin zoos, 8, 470474
management and breeding, Schönbrunn Zoo, 6, 331334
Lumbricus terrestris, exhibit construction, Fort Wayne Children's Zoo, 3, 150152
breeding, Brookfield Zoo, 1, 46
breeding, Rome Zoo, 6, 383
deaths by poisoning, Perth Zoo, 3, 184
integration of zoo-raised individual into wild-caught group before release, 7, 450
possible need for reintroduction, 4, 255256
wild population density, 1, 6162
Lynx, Iberian, see Lynx pardinus
Lynx pardinus, conservation, Spain and Portugal, 1, 36
Macaca nigra, bachelor group, Jersey Zoo, 5, 322
Macaque, Sulawesi crested, see Macaca nigra
Macaw, red-fronted, see Ara rubrogenys
Mammoth, possible re-creation, 6, 370; 8, 458
Manatee, Caribbean (Florida), see Trichechus manatus
birth, Zoo Atlanta, 1, 58
reproductive research, San Diego Zoo, 5, 320
Mangabey, black, see Cercocebus aterrimus
Markhor, see Capra falconeri
Marmoset, Geoffroy's, see Callithrix geoffroyi; pygmy, see Callithrix pygmaea
Marwell Zoo, U.K., 3, 177178; 5, 318
annual report 1998, 4, 234237
behavioural and breeding problems, Hartmann's mountain zebra, 4, 236
death of giraffe at 34+, 4, 247
dietary research, black rhino, 4, 236237
dietary research, Przewalski's horse, 4, 236237
husbandry and breeding, okapi, 4, 235
litter of eight cheetah, 8, 509
Mathematics, animals' ability, 4, 232233
Melaka Zoo, Malaysia, free-living green peafowl, 6, 376
Melbourne Zoo, Victoria, Australia, breeding, freshwater crocodile, 3, 178
Mellivora capensis, breeding, San Diego Zoo, 6, 382
Mertensiella caucasica, breeding, Endangered Species Breeding Unit, 8, 506
Miami Metrozoo, Florida, U.S.A., breeding, Komodo dragon, 1, 4950
Milwaukee Zoo, Wisconsin, U.S.A.,
breeding, snow leopard, 5, 279285
breeding, Rüppell's griffon vulture, 7, 441
Mink, European, see Mustela lutreola
Minnesota Zoo, Apple Valley, Minnesota, U.S.A., breeding, Sichuan takin, 7, 447
aye-aye and Madagascan giant jumping rat, Jersey Zoo, 5, 317
François's langur and small-clawed otter, San Diego Zoo, 1, 5355
pygmy marmoset and golden-headed lion tamarin, The Zoo, Gulf Breeze, 6, 381382
Mogera imaizumii, Tama Zoo, 7, 444445
Mole, Japanese, see Mogera imaizumii
Mole-rat, naked, see Heterocephalus glaber
Monachus schauinslandi, Sea World of Texas, 6, 380
Monde Sauvage Safari, Deigné-Aywaille, Belgium, polar bear cubbing den, 6, 376
Monitor, desert, see Varanus griseus; green tree, see V. prasinus; New Guinea crocodile, see V. salvadorii; ornate Nile, see V. [niloticus] ornatus
Monitors (book review), 6, 361
Monkey, Allen's swamp, see Cercopithecus nigroviridis; grizzled leaf, see Presbytis comata; squirrel, see Saimiri spp.; woolly, see Lagothrix lagotricha
Monkey World, Dorset, U.K., Woolly Monkey Habitat, 4, 214220
Monterey Bay Aquarium, new deep sea exhibit, 5, 318319
Morelia amethystina, breeding, Brookfield Zoo, 1, 46
Moscow Zoo, Russia,
breeding, Steller's sea eagle, 8, 509
introducing male ring-tailed lemurs, 2, 8689
Mount Bruce National Wildlife Centre, New Zealand, captive-breeding project, New Zealand snipe, 2, 117119
Munich Zoo, Germany, Asian elephant transferred to Kiev Zoo, 1, 58
Münster Zoo, Germany, Asian elephant dies soon after birth, 2, 113
Mustela lutreola, conservation and reintroduction, 1, 3132
Mustela nigripes, pre-release training, 5, 328
Myrmecobius fasciatus, breeding, Perth Zoo, 4, 245246
Mystic Aquarium, Connecticut, U.S.A., death, beluga whale, 8, 506
Naja kaouthia, confiscated, Kentucky Reptile Zoo, 4, 243244
National Wildlife Research Centre, Taif, Saudi Arabia, captive breeding, houbara bustard, 1, 31
Nemorhaedus caudatus raddeanus, breeding, Tallinn Zoo, 1, 5556
Neofelis nebulosa, mate killing, 4, 221224; 6, 357358
New York Aquarium (Aquarium for Wildlife Conservation), New York, U.S.A., mural paintings in public toilets, 8, 502
Newt, Danube crested, see Triturus dobrogicus
Nordic Ark, Hunnebostrand, Sweden, annual report 1997, 1, 4143
North Carolina Zoo, Asheboro, North Carolina, U.S.A., breeding, horned puffin and parakeet auklet, 4, 244
Numbat, see Myrmecobius fasciatus
Nuremberg Zoo, Germany,
breeding, Indian rhino, 8, 52
death, Asian elephant, 8, 5152
O'Connor, Dr Patricia (first U.S. full-time woman zoo veterinarian), 8, 508509
Odessa Zoo, Ukraine, breeding, Asian elephant, 1, 50
Okapi, see Okapia johnstoni
Okapia johnstoni, husbandry and breeding, Marwell Zoo, 4, 235
Oklahoma City Zoo, birth of twin gorillas, 6, 382
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo, Nebraska, U.S.A., breeding, zebra shark, 5, 317318
Ophiophagus hannah, introduction and breeding, St Louis Zoo, 6, 378379
Orang-utan, see Pongo pygmaeus
Oreotragus oreotragus, breeding, Brookfield Zoo, 1, 46
Oriole, Montserrat, see Icterus dominicensis oberi
Ornithorhynchus anatinus, breeding, Healesville Sanctuary, 6, 374375
Oropendola, crested, see Psarocolius decumanus
Orycteropus afer, breeding, Frankfurt Zoo, 2, 125
Oryx, Arabian, see Oryx leucoryx
decline in reintroduced population, Oman, 3, 166; 4, 253254
reintroduction, Saudi Arabia, 1, 3536
Osnabrück Zoo, Germany, visitor's report, 4, 200202
Ostrich, see Struthio camelus
Otter, oriental small-clawed, see Aonyx cinerea; sea, see Enhydra lutris
Otus leucotis, captive breeding, 1, 2526
Owl, white-faced scops, see Otus leucotis
Paignton Zoo, U.K.,
annual report 1998, 3, 171173
breeding, Asian lion, 2, 119
chelonians, 4, 244245
desert exhibit, 1, 5051
`green' roof, entrance building, 6, 376377
three-toed box turtle, 4, 245
breeding, Apenheul, 2, 114
reproductive research, CRES, San Diego, 7, 443444
euthanasia, aggressive male, Copenhagen Zoo, 3, 170
hands-off management, Edinburgh Zoo, 5, 321322
injures worker, Utah's Hogle Zoo, 4, 248
treatment of viral infections with elderberry extract, Tisch Family Zoo, 1, 1619
Panda, giant, see Ailuropoda melanoleuca
Panthera leo persica, breeding, Paignton Zoo, 2, 119
Panthera onca, kills boy at Doué la Fontaine Zoo, 1, 5859
Panthera tigris, kill visitors, Safari El Vergel, 4, 248
Panthera tigris corbetti, breeding, Cincinnati and San Diego Zoos, 7, 447
Panthera tigris sumatrae,
genetics, 1, 61
wild status, 4, 229230
Panther uncia, breeding, Milwaukee Zoo, 5, 279285
Paradisaea rubra, Chester Zoo, 8, 503504
Paris Zoo (Ménagerie du Jardin des Plantes), breeding, palm-nut vulture, 2, 117
Parque de la Naturaleza de Cabarceno, Spain,
aggressive cow transferred from Dresden Zoo, 8, 504505
breeding, African elephant, 5, 319
Parrot, purple-bellied, see Triclaria malachitacea
Parthenogenesis, snakes, 4, 205207
Pavo muticus, free-living, Melaka Zoo, 6, 376
Peafowl, green see Pavo muticus
Pelecanus rufescens, breeding, Bristol Zoo, 6, 371
Pelican, pink-backed, see Pelecanus rufescens
Penguin, chinstrap, see Pygoscelis antarctica; gentoo, see P. papua; Humboldt's, see Spheniscus humboldti; macaroni, see Eudyptes chrysolophus
avian malaria outbreak, U.K. zoos, 7, 447
enrichment feeder, Edinburgh Zoo, 8, 505
Perth Zoo, Western Australia,
breeding, numbat, 4, 245246
deaths by poisoning, African wild dog, 3, 184
female orang-utan taught mothering behaviour, 1, 5152
Pessac Zoo, Bordeaux, France, hippopotamus kills director, 8, 509
Pheasant, mikado, see Syrmaticus mikado; Vietnamese, see Lophura hatinhensis
Pheasants, captive, genetic screening project, 1, 3839
Phelsuma guentheri, captive breeding and conservation, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, 1, 4849
Philippines, previously unknown tract of native forest discovered on Cebu, 7, 429430
Pittsburgh Zoo, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.,
breeding, African elephant, 8, 509
revolving aquarium, 7, 441
Platalea leucorodia, breeding, Amsterdam Zoo, 2, 113114
Platypus, see Ornithorhynchus anatinus
Ploceus cucullatus, deaths after ringing, Rheine Zoo, 4, 240
Plzen Zoo, Czech Republic, new brown bear enclosure, 3, 179
Pongo pygmaeus, female taught mothering behaviour, Perth Zoo, 1, 5152
Port Lympne Wild Animal Park, U.K.,
annual report 19971998, 2, 107112
breeding, Asian elephant, 2, 111
Possum, brushtail, see Trichosurus vulpecula
Prague Zoo, Czech Republic,
annual report 1998, 7, 432435
breeding, caiman lizard, 7, 433434
effect of zoo visitors on primate health, 6, 388
new giant tortoise house, 2, 120
Przewalski's horse, history, 7, 434435
Presbytis comata, Howletts Wild Animal Park, 2, 107
cognition (book review), 5, 298300
effect of zoo visitors on health, Prague Zoo, 6, 388
threat from bushmeat trade, Africa, 6, 362363
Procavia capensis, dietary research, Prospect Park Wildlife Center, 7, 449
Prospect Park Wildlife Center, New York, U.S.A., dietary research, Cape hyrax, 7, 449
Psarocolius decumanus, deaths from endoparasites, Rheine Zoo, 4, 240
Pseudoryx nghetinhensis, first photo in wild, 1, 40
Pteropus livingstonii, breeding, Bristol Zoo, 4, 248
Pteropus rodricensis, Chester Zoo, 4, 242
Pteropus spp., captive breeding, 1, 2729
Puffin, horned, see Fratercula corniculata
Pygoscelis antarctica, breeding, Central Park Wildlife Center, 3, 183
Pygoscelis papua, hatched from broken egg, Sea World of Texas, 7, 444
Python, amethystine, see Morelia amethystina; Indian, see Python molurus
Python molurus, incubation, feeding and growth, Arignar Anna Zoo, 2, 9093
Quagga, see Equus [burchelli] quagga
Rabbit, new species discovered in Laos, 7, 429
bear infected at U.S. zoo, 7, 446
suspected outbreak in Egyptian fruit bat, Rotterdam Zoo, 3, 179180
Rainforest Habitat, Lae, Papua New Guinea, 2, 120121
Ramphastos toco, breeding, The Netherlands, 6, 353355
Randers Regnskov, Denmark, rainforest zoo, 6, 377378
Rat, Madagascan giant jumping, see Hypogeomys antimena
Ratel, see Mellivora capensis
Red River Zoo, Fargo, North Dakota, U.S.A., breeding, white-lipped deer, 8, 507
Reintroduction or release,
African wild dog, Zimbabwe, 7, 450
Arabian oryx, Oman, 3, 166; 4, 253254
Arabian oryx, Saudi Arabia, 1, 3536
bearded vulture, Spain, 1, 61
black-footed ferret, U.S.A., 5, 328
black rhino, South Africa, 2, 122
California condor, U.S.A., 7, 446
European mink, Estonia, 1, 3132
gharial, India, 1, 3233
golden lion tamarin, 6, 366367
gorilla, Congo, 2, 111112
green peafowl, Malaysia, 6, 376
green sea turtle, U.S.A., 6, 382
green toad, Sweden, 1, 43
houbara bustard, Saudi Arabia, 7, 455
Mexican wolf, U.S.A., 4, 230
ostrich, Saudi Arabia, 7, 453
red-crowned and white-naped cranes, Russia, 6, 362
trumpeter swan, U.S.A., 1, 59
white rhino, Namibia, 4, 249
white-backed woodpecker, Sweden, 1, 43
Reptilarium, Città della Domenica, Italy, visitor's report, 6, 378
Rescue and rehabilitation, marine turtles, Sea World, Queensland, 4, 228
Réserve Africaine de Sigean, France, breeding, African elephant, 2, 125
Rhacophorus annamensis, biology, management and breeding, Children's Zoo, Vsevolozhsk, 7, 392397
Rheine Zoo, Germany,
annual report 1998, 4, 238240
deaths after ringing, village weaver, 4, 240
deaths from endoparasites, crested oropendola, 4, 240
diet, gelada, 4, 239
social behaviour, black mangabey, 4, 238239
Rhinoceros, black, see Diceros bicornis; Indian, see Rhinoceros unicornis; Javan, see R. sondaicus; northern white, see Ceratotherium simum cottoni; white, see C. simum
Rhinoceros, dehorning as anti-poaching measure, 7, 452
Rhinoceros library, Rhino Museum, Melkrivier, South Africa, 8, 500
breeding, Nuremberg Zoo, 8, 52
Tama Zoo, 4, 248
Rhinoceros sondaicus, photographed in wild in Vietnam, 6, 383
Rhinoceroses, book reviews, 2, 100102
Rhynochetos jubatus, Walsrode Bird Park, 3, 184
Ridgeway Trust for Endangered Cats, Hastings, U.K., breeding, margay, 2, 121122
Riverbanks Zoo, Columbia, South Carolina, U.S.A., 1, 52; 4, 246; 5, 319; 8, 507508
Roger Williams Park Zoo, Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A., `Zoo in a Human Hospital' project, 7, 441442
Rome Zoo, Italy,
appointment of Douglas Richardson as director, 7, 442
breeding, African wild dog, 6, 383
husbandry and breeding, pygmy hippo, 6, 335339
Rotterdam Zoo, Netherlands,
annual report 1998, 5, 304310
Asian elephant survives herpes virus infection, 6, 383
automatic sea animal feeder, 5, 304305
breeding, Asian elephant, 5, 306
suspected rabies outbreak, Egyptian fruit bat, 3, 179180
Rousettus aegyptiacus, suspected rabies outbreak, Rotterdam Zoo, 3, 179180
Saarbrücken Zoo, Germany, visitor's report, 4, 199200
Safari El Vergel, visitors killed by tigers, 4, 248
Sagittarius serpentarius, breeding, Walsrode Bird Park, 6, 381
Sahuatoba Zoo, Durango, Mexico, visitor's report, 2, 7274
Saimiri spp., social interactions, 5, 321
St Louis Zoo, Missouri, U.S.A.,
American alligator, thermoregulation study, 1, 52
introduction and breeding, king cobra, 6, 378379
Salamander, Caucasian, see Mertensiella caucasica; Chinese giant, see Andrias davidianus; Japanese giant, see A. japonicus
San Antonio Zoo, Texas, U.S.A.,
breeding, fossa, 1, 58
breeding, whooping crane, 7, 442443
death at 31, golden lion tamarin, 6, 380
Japanese giant salamander, 8, 508
San Diego Wild Animal Park, California, U.S.A., breeding, cheetah, 1, 5253
San Diego Zoo, California, U.S.A.,
birth, giant panda, 7, 445446
breeding, Indo-Chinese tiger, 7, 447
breeding, ratel, 6, 382
`frozen zoo', 1, 3738
mixed exhibit, François's langur and small-clawed otter, 1, 5355
reproductive research, drill, 5, 320
reproductive research, giant panda, 3, 180181
Sanaa Zoo, Yemen, visitor's report, 7, 398406
Santa Cruz Zoo, Bolivia, confiscated red-fronted macaw, 4, 231
Saola (Vu Quang ox), see Pseudoryx nghetinhensis
Schönbrunn Zoo, Vienna, Austria, management and breeding, African elephant, 6, 331334
Scolopendra gigantea, breeding, Bristol Zoo, 2, 114115
Sea Life Centre, Weymouth, U.K., breeding, long-snouted seahorse, 1, 55
Sea World, Surfers Paradise, Queensland, Australia,
dugong, 3, 181
rescue and rehabilitation, marine turtles, 4, 228
Sea World of Texas, San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A.,
gentoo penguin hatched from broken egg, 7, 444
Hawaiian monk seal, 6, 380
Seahorse, long-snouted, see Hippocampus ramulosus
Seahorses, international workshop, 7, 428429
Seal, Hawaiian monk, see Monachus schauinslandi
Secretary bird, see Sagittarius serpentarius
Seriema, crested, see Cariama cristata
Serow, Japanese, see Capricornis crispus
Shanghai Zoo, China, breeding, oriental white stork, 3, 185186
Shark, striped nurse, see Chiloscyllium sp.; zebra, see Stegostoma fasciatum
Shoebill, see Balaeniceps rex
Sigean Zoo, see Réserve Africaine de Sigean
Singapore Zoo, breeding, Asian elephant, 8, 509
Skink, New Guinea crocodile, see Tribolonotus gracilis; Round Island, see Leiolopisma telfairi
Sloth, two-toed, see Choloepus didactylus
Snakes, parthenogenesis, 4, 205207
Snipe, New Zealand, see Coenocorypha aucklandica
Spheniscus humboldti, environmental enrichment, Colchester Zoo, 5, 315316
Spider, redback, see Latrodactus hasselti
Spoonbill, European, see Platalea leucorodia
Staten Island Zoo, New York, U.S.A., Dr Patricia O'Connor (first U.S. full-time woman zoo veterinarian), 8, 508509
Stegostoma fasciatum, breeding, Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo, 5, 317318
Stork, oriental white, see Ciconia boyciana
Strigops habroptilus, breeding in wild, New Zealand, 4, 230; 6, 383
Struthio camelus, reintroduction, Saudi Arabia, 7, 453
Sturgeon, Russian, see Acipenser gueldenstaedti
Suffolk Wildlife Park, Kessingland, U.K., breeding, fossa, 7, 407417
`Surplus' animals, disposal, 3, 183
Sus salvanius, captive breeding and conservation, Assam, 3, 165166
Swan, trumpeter, see Cygnus buccinator
Syncerus caffer, new enclosure, Tierpark Berlin, 1, 57
Syrmaticus mikado, breeding by artificial insemination, Clères Zoo, 6, 371372
Takin, Sichuan, see Budorcas taxicolor tibetana
Tallinn Zoo, Estonia, breeding, Amur long-tailed goral, 1, 5556
Tama Zoo, Tokyo, Japan,
breeding, African elephant, 1, 5657
husbandry, Japanese mole, 7, 444445
Indian rhino, 4, 248
Tamandua, southern, see Tamandua tetradactyla
Tamandua tetradactyla, twin births, Woodland Park Zoo, 2, 123124
Tamarin, black-faced lion, see Leontopithecus caissara; golden lion, see L. rosalia; golden-headed lion, see L. chrysomelas
Tapir, Baird's, see Tapirus bairdii
Tapirus bairdii, breeding, Wuppertal Zoo, 2, 122123
Taronga Zoo, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, artificial insemination conditioning, giraffe, 7, 445
Tauraco leucolophus, breeding, Birdworld, 2, 124125
Taurotragus derbianus gigas, breeding, Cincinnati Zoo, 8, 509
Terathopius ecaudatus, breeding, Walsrode Bird Park, 6, 380381
Terrapene carolina triunguis, Paignton Zoo, 4, 245
Thalarctos maritimus, cubbing den, Monde Sauvage Safari, 6, 376
The Zoo, Gulf Breeze, Florida, U.S.A., carrying of pygmy marmoset infants by male golden-headed lion tamarin, 6, 381382
Theloderma corticale, biology, management and breeding, Children's Zoo, Vsevolozhsk, 6, 347352
Theropithecus gelada, diet, Rheine Zoo, 4, 239
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde, Germany,
breeding, African elephant, 2, 122; 4, 247; 8, 471474
breeding, Asian elephant, 8, 471
new enclosure, African buffalo, 1, 57
stillbirth, manatee, 6, 382383
Tiger, see Panthera tigris; Indo-Chinese, see P. t. corbetti; Sumatran, see P. t. sumatrae
Tisch Family Zoo, Jerusalem, Israel, treatment of viral infections with elderberry extract, chimpanzee, 1, 1619
Toad, green, see Bufo viridis
Tockus erythrorhynchus, breeding, Folsom Children's Zoo, 7, 447
Tortoise, Aldabra giant, see Geochelone gigantea; Seychelles giant, see Dipsochelys arnoldi
Tortoises, giant, see Geochelone elephantopus and G. gigantea
Toucan, toco, see Ramphastos toco
Trachypithecus francoisi, mixed exhibit with small-clawed otter, San Diego Zoo, 1, 5355
Trachypithecus poliocephalus, Endangered Primate Rescue Centre, Vietnam, 1, 35
Tragopan, Blyth's, see Tragopan blythii; western, see Tragopan melanocephalus
Tragopan blythii, breeding by artificial insemination, Clères Zoo, 6, 371372
Tragopan melanocephalus, captive-breeding project, Pakistan, 4, 231
Tribolonotus gracilis, breeding, Bronx Zoo, 2, 124
Cincinnati Zoo, 2, 116
stillbirth, Tierpark Berlin, 6, 382383
Trichosurus vulpecula, breeding, Butterfly and Wildlife Park, 7, 446
Triclaria malachitacea, birth rate, morbidity and mortality, Loro Parque, 5, 290293
Trimeresurus mcgregori, breeding, Audubon Zoo, 7, 436
Triturus dobrogicus, breeding, Endangered Species Breeding Unit, 8, 506
Turaco, white-crested, see Tauraco leucolophus
Turtle, green sea, see Chelonia mydas; stripe-necked leaf, see Cyclemys tcheponensis; three-toed box, see Terrapene carolina triunguis
Turtles, marine, rescue and rehabilitation, Sea World, Queensland, 4, 228
Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan, breeding, purple jay, 1, 5758
U.K. Wolf Centre, Berkshire, U.K., breeding, European wolf, 7, 447
Ursus arctos, new enclosure, Plzen Zoo, 3, 179
Utah's Hogle Zoo, Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A., worker injured by chimpanzee, 4, 248
Varanus griseus, breeding, Indianapolis Zoo, 4, 243
Varanus komodoensis, breeding, Miami Metrozoo, 1, 4950
Varanus [niloticus] ornatus, breeding, Bronx Zoo, 3, 184
Varanus prasinus, cataract surgery, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, 4, 243
Varanus salvadorii, breeding, Honolulu Zoo, 3, 183184
Varecia variegata, natural woodland enclosure, Cricket St Thomas Wildlife Park, 6, 372373
Viper, leaf-nosed, see Eristicophis macmahoni; McGregor's pit, see Trimeresurus mcgregori
`Virtual reality' in zoos, 7, 390391
Vulture, bearded, see Gypaetus barbatus; European black (cinereous), see Aegypius monachus; palm-nut, see Gypohierax angolensis; Rüppell's griffon, see Gyps rueppelli
Waldrapp, see Geronticus eremita
Walsrode Bird Park,
breeding, bateleur eagle, 6, 380381
breeding, secretary bird, 6, 381
kagu, 3, 184
Wassenaar Wildlife Breeding Centre, Netherlands, breeding and fostering, cheetah, 3, 181182
Weaver, village, see Ploceus cucullatus
Wellington Zoo, New Zealand, sun bear enclosure, 3, 134140
Werikhe, Michael (`Rhino Man'), obituary, 7, 430
Western Plains Zoo, Dubbo, New South Wales, Australia,
Australian Native Fauna and Flora Sanctuary, 5, 270278
Przewalski's horse, 3, 183
solar energy project, 4, 246247
Whale, white (beluga), see Delphinapterus leucas
Whipsnade Wild Animal Park, breeding, pygmy hippo, 1, 59
White Oak Conservation Center, Yulee, Florida, U.S.A., black rhino transferred to Kruger National Park, South Africa, 2, 122
Wolf, see Canis lupus; Mexican, see C. l. baileyi
Woodland Park Zoo, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., twin births, tamandua, 2, 123124
Woodpecker, white-backed, see Dendrocopos leucotos
World conferences, breeding endangered species in captivity, 5, 260269
Wuppertal Zoo, Germany, breeding, Baird's tapir, 2, 122123
Zebra, Hartmann's mountain, see Equus zebra hartmannae
Zoo Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A.,
birth, drill, 1, 58
giant panda, 2, 123
Zoo Biology, change of editor, 4, 247
Zoological Center Tel Aviv, Ramat-Gan, Israel,
annual report 1998, 5, 310312
breeding, African elephant, 2, 124
breeding, gorilla, 5, 310311
white rhino, 5, 312
and conservation, 3, 130133
German, 4, 197204
need for attention to detail, 5, 258259; 6, 359360
`virtual reality', 7, 390391
Zürich Zoo, Switzerland,
annual report 1998, 5, 312313
breeding, wattled jacana, 5, 313
death at 71+, American spotted gar, 5, 313