International Zoo News Vol. 46/5 (No. 294) July/August 1999

The Evolution of the World Conference Series on Breeding Endangered Species, 1972-1999 Jeremy J.C. Mallinson
The Australian Native Fauna and Flora Sanctuary at Western Plains Zoo, Dubbo, Australia. David Blyde, Phillip Cameron and Andrew Thorne
Snow Leopard Births at Milwaukee Zoo Thomas Grittinger, Neil Dretzka, Christopher John and Valerie Werner
Using the Zoo as a Science Education Resource Sue Dale Tunnicliffe
The Purple-bellied Parrot at Loro Parque - Birth Rate, Morbidity and Mortality Juan Cornejo
Letters to the Editor
Book Reviews
Annual Reports
International Zoo News
Recent Articles

The French writer Gustave Flaubert once wrote 'Everything in art depends on execution: the story of a louse can be as beautiful as the story of Alexander.' With this in mind, he devoted hours - days - to ensuring that single sentences were as near to perfect as they possibly could be. Madame Bovary, his most famous novel, was the result of this obsession with getting the details just right. Nearly 150 years after it was first published, it is still regarded as one of the most important and influential works of European literature.
I thought of Flaubert and his belief that 'everything . . . depends on execution' when I visited a reptile zoo - the MBT Reptile Farm - near Arusha, in Tanzania, earlier this year. My interest in reptiles is not enormous, I must admit. When I visit a zoo, I will usually spend longer in the reptile house than I do in the aquarium, but less time in either than I do in the monkey, cat or bird houses. And yet the MBT Reptile Farm offered me one of the most memorable zoo-going experiences of my life. The collection there is good, but better collections can be seen in many zoos across Europe and America: about 25 species of snake, half a dozen chelonians, a similar number of chameleon species, crocodiles, and monitor lizards. Most of the reptiles displayed are native to Tanzania - the farm's primary business is as an exporter - but there are one or two 'exotics'. The housing is functional: pleasant, certainly, but nothing revolutionary.
What made my visit to the MBT Reptile Farm so memorable was the fact that as I walked around I was accompanied by a knowledgeable guide (this was not special treatment - all visitors are thus honoured). At each enclosure I was told a little about the animals within and had my questions answered. Best of all, where appropriate, I was able to handle various reptiles: a giant chameleon, an olive grass snake, the largest leopard tortoise I have ever seen. In short, instead of passively walking around, peering into one glass-fronted box after another, I was able to really experience the reptiles on display. This collection was so well 'executed' that I found the animals within it - animals in which my interest would normally be fairly low - every bit as fascinating as primates, cats or ungulates. If the story of a louse can be as beautiful as the story of Alexander, a collection of lizards and snakes can be as wonderful as a collection of okapis and red river hogs.
Of course, not every zoo can offer every visitor a personal tour - nor would such a situation be desirable: it is usually preferable to take things at one's own pace. But what every zoo can attempt to do is to ensure that every animal it exhibits is presented with such care and such attention to detail - as at this small reptile farm on the edge of the Arusha National Park - that its wonder is made clear. We have all visited zoos where fantastic collections of animals are presented with such a lack of imagination that to the uninitiated there is nothing to suggest that there is anything special to see. The architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was, I think, the first to observe that 'God is in the details.' These words should be forever in the minds of those who plan and develop the world's zoos. By concentrating on the detail, by ensuring that every animal is displayed with panache and thought, there is no reason at all why even less-charismatic animals should not be shown to be worthy of our attention. And if a zoo can't convince its visitors that marsh mongooses, monitor lizards and marabou storks are every bit as wonderful as the elephants, gorillas and dolphins which draw the crowds, then maybe they shouldn't be exhibiting those animals at all. Flaubert's writing had such an impact because of the care he took over its detail; if zoos' collections are going to have an impact upon their visitors, they must be similarly careful and rigorous in their execution.
John Tuson
c/o VSO Office,
P.O. Box 6297,
Dar es Salaam,

At the opening session of the First World Conference on Breeding of Endangered Species as an Aid to their Survival, which was hosted jointly by the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust (now the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust - DWCT) and the Fauna Preservation Society (now Fauna and Flora International - FFI), DWCT's Founder and Honorary Director, Gerald Durrell, commented that the conference was _of the utmost importance, since it is now vital that zoos all over the world assess their contribution to conservation, and make clear the part that they are going to play in the conservation movement in the future. I think that to a very large extent most zoos will have to rethink their future policies' (Durrell, 1975).
Table 1 records the hosts, sponsors and dates of the seven World Conferences that have taken place in this series during the 27-year period 1972-1999.
World Conference Series Nos. 1 (1972) to 6 (1992)
1. First World Conference - Jersey, 2-4 May 1972

The 1972 Jersey conference represented the first international meeting specifically devoted to the techniques of breeding endangered species in captivity, and it was in many other respects a new departure in the history of captive management of wild animals.
By way of introduction to the special collection of papers that were presented at the conference, Martin (1975) records the salient points of the various speeches made to the conference, adding to these his personal assessment of the common themes which emerged. Among these he selected three quotations which he considered most effectively set the scene for the theme of the conference - that of conservation.
(i) What an appalling indictment it is, what a disgrace to mankind, that the road to his so-called civilisation should be built on the memories of extinct species and species on the way to extinction.'
The Earl of Jersey
(ii)Living species today, let us remember, are the end products of twenty million centuries of evolution, absolutely nothing can be done when the species has finally gone, when the last pair has died out.'
Peter Scott
(iii) 'Let us feel a little shame that such a conference should be necessary at all.'
Gerald Durrell

Martin (1975) went on to highlight the first point that must be made - that captive breeding should be regarded as an integral part of general conservation programmes, and not as a substitute for preservation of populations in the wild state. The key word in the title of the conference was _survival'. Gerald Durrell and Peter Scott expressed complete agreement that, in the struggle to preserve our dwindling heritage of wildlife, it is justifiable to use almost any means to save an animal species from extinction, and controlled breeding in captivity may, in many cases, provide the only hope for the survival of a species, at least during an interim period.
The proceedings of the First World Conference were edited by R.D. Martin (1975) and published by Academic Press, London (420 pp.).

2. Second World Conference - London, 6-8 July 1976
Whereas the Jersey conference had demonstrated that it was now technically possible to breed a great variety of mammals, birds and reptiles in zoos and parks, the emphasis at the London conference was concentrated more on the principles behind captive breeding and the part it has to play in the conservation of endangered species. Also, as a consequence of having so many species breeding, how should we manage such successes?
Starting with endangered species in the wild, the second conference examined the economic, ecological, genetic and behavioural problems of captive breeding, before going on to discuss management in the wild habitat and the question of whether and when to reintroduce, and to question man's priorities in working for wildlife conservation (Brambell, 1977).
The proceedings of the Second World Conference were published in 1977 in Section 1 of Volume 17 of the International Zoo Yearbook (122 pp.).

3. Third World Conference - San Diego, 12-16 November 1979 The San Diego conference was organised by Kurt Benirschke (Conference Chairman) and James Dolan (Programme Chairman) of the San Diego Zoological Society. As with the previous two conferences, a variety of mammal, bird and reptile papers were presented, covering various aspects of the management, breeding and status of animals in captivity. Additional subjects addressing aspects of genetic and demographic management, endocrine research advances, and national and international zoo cooperation helped to highlight, as Lovejoy (1980) recorded, that in future probably the most critical factor would be the willingness of zoos to enter into a new era of collaboration, where survival of species took precedence over institutional rivalries; and ultimately the extent of zoo cooperation would determine how full tomorrow's ark would be.
_Self-sustaining captive populations and reintroduction to the wild' were the subtitles of the third conference. In the final session, Conway (1980) was given the assignment to suggest _where we go from here'. In this he concluded that the most serious scientific reservations about captive propagation as a technique for the preservation of endangered species, and the unexpressed focus of the conference, lay in the basic question _Can wild animal species be successfully bred for long periods in captivity?' He concluded from the papers presented at the meeting and elsewhere that this question had not yet been affirmatively answered. Its resolution continued to be the most important direction for the future efforts of the biologists and institutions represented at the conference. As a result of this international meeting and others, it was fair to say that many of the scientific problems inherent in long-term wild animal propagation had recently been identified.
However, the animal management responses to these problems were only beginning to be designed. The prevention of genetic problems; the provision of regular species-specific analyses and direction to each serious propagation programme; the development of management techniques for the introduction of a variety of species into nature that would lead to a sustaining inter-relationship between captive propagation programmes and wildlife reserves; and an assessment of how many species and how many animals zoos were able to accommodate and afford to maintain on a self-sustaining basis: all these were subjects that required to be further addressed in the future.
The proceedings of the Third World Conference were published in 1980 in Section 1 of Volume 20 of the International Zoo Yearbook (189 pp.).

4. Fourth World Conference - Harderwijk, 24-27 September 1984
The conference at the Flevohof Congress Centre, Harderwijk, The Netherlands, was organised by D. Van Dam (Rotterdam Zoo), David Jones (London Zoo) and Mr and Mrs John Burton (Fauna and Flora Preservation Society).
Whereas the presentations included the major subject matter of the previous three conferences, dealing with various aspects of management and breeding of mammals, birds and reptiles, a number of new topics were introduced into the programme. These included the captive breeding of snails and other invertebrates, embryo storage and transfer, and rare plants in zoological collections. Papers on the goals of captive propagation programmes for the conservation of endangered species, the genetic management of small populations, the possible necessity to introduce a policy of _triage' in wild and captive populations, and the ramifications of a number of reintroduction/introduction programmes, highlighted the degree of progress made and the breadth of issues now facing the international zoo community.
With the fourth world conference having a greater focus on reintroduction programmes, the contribution by Stanley Price (1986) could not have better demonstrated how, after a species - the Arabian oryx in Oman in 1972 - had been eliminated in the wild, it could be saved through the development of a scientifically coordinated captive-breeding programme, involving demographic and genetic management of an ex situ population leading to the re-establishment of a free-living viable population in the wild. It was proposed that this interface between captive and wild populations should become the focus of future conferences.
The proceedings of the Fourth World Conference were published in 1986 in Section 1 of Volume 24/25 of the International Zoo Yearbook (219 pp.).

5. Fifth World Conference - Cincinnati, 9-12 October 1988
As Dresser et al. (1988) recorded in the preface to the proceedings of the fifth world conference, the organisers of the Cincinnati meeting developed a number of related themes. The presentations were divided into four categories - rescue and status, management and reintroduction, restoration, and recovery. The fact that 30 of the 56 papers were presented during sessions devoted to rescue and status was indicative of the then position with respect to the conservation of the world's wildlife.
The presentations by field biologists from conservation organisations, government agencies, and academia provided a special perspective, and their participation underscored the fact that conservation programmes involving captive propagation must be multi-disciplinary to be successful. As the conference organisers concluded, it was hoped that the information presented and discussed throughout the Cincinnati meeting would contribute in many different ways to the future success of the captive propagation of endangered wildlife. And, hopefully, that this would be evaluated positively at the time of the next conference in this world series (Dresser et al., 1988).
The proceedings of the Fifth World Conference were published by the Cincinnati Zoological Society in 1988 (723 pp.).

6. Sixth World Conference - Jersey, 4-6 May 1992
_The Role of Zoos in Global Conservation' was the subtitle of the sixth conference. The presentations addressed how the work of the captive-breeding community relates to the wild, what is being done to help species and habitats survive, and what will be the contributions for the future.
The conference recognised that the challenge is considerable, but appreciated that the zoo world is uniquely equipped to provide the skills and resources which will be required to help manage increasingly restricted wildlife populations. This potential was recognised in the development of the series of conferences: from a catalogue of captive-breeding successes in 1972 to a full review of global activities and objectives in 1992. The 1992 conference took the opportunity to highlight the interface between the management of wild and captive populations of endangered species.
The publication Creative Conservation: Interactive Management of Wild and Captive Animals, edited by P.J.S. Olney, G.M. Mace and A.T.C. Feistner, was published by Chapman and Hall in 1994. This book is more than just the conference proceedings, for the editors and contributors have further developed the key issues tackled at the conference, and the resulting chapters represent an update on successes and developments. In particular, the book presents a full review of the biological, logistical and economic concerns that exist in all efforts to manage populations, and thereby provides a major contribution to the debate about interactive management of animals under threat of extinction.

Future of the Conference Series
Whether to continue with these international Breeding of Endangered Species conferences was discussed by a working group (chaired by the author), convened at the annual conference of the IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), held in Berlin, Germany, 14-17 August 1997.
First, it was recognised that since the first conference in this series had been organised there had been a considerable increase in national, regional and international specialist meetings. However, the conclusions of the working group were that the conference series should continue, for these international meetings filled a unique niche. In particular, they had succeeded in gathering together so many different specialists and disciplines to discuss just how the conservation work of the global zoo community could more closely relate to in-country conservation programmes.
It was also understood that there were many people in the zoo community, NGOs, government wildlife agencies and species conservation programmes who had limited opportunities to meet, and in particular to have the chance to listen to formal presentations with overviews of case histories, updates of new techniques and ideas, and analysis of data that had the potential to contribute significantly to the management of both ex situ and in situ populations of threatened species.
The findings of the working group were subsequently presented to a plenary session of the World Zoo Organisation (WZO) at its 52nd Annual Conference in Berlin, which immediately followed the CBSG meeting (Mallinson, 1997). Recommendations regarding the establishment of a core group representing the CBSG and WZO, the organisation and composition of future conferences based on good science, and the importance of a well-edited, easily accessible publication resulting from each conference were presented. As a consequence of the CBSG and WZO Berlin meetings, both organisations accepted the application made by the director of the Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden, Dr Edward Maruska, to host the seventh conference in this series, in the spring of 1999.

The Seventh World Conference on Breeding Endangered Species, 22-26 May 1999
The theme of the Seventh World Conference, held at Cincinnati's Convention Center, was Linking Zoos and Field Research to Advance Conservation. In his _Welcoming Address', Ed Maruska highlighted that zoos must do everything in their power to maintain viable populations, and that each endangered species worked with provides its own set of questions and challenges. He went on to relate that the task of the conference participants was to come up with meaningful ways to address some of the problems facing those actively involved in the challenges inherent in breeding endangered species.
The opening session of the conference included an excellent Keynote Address by Dr William Conway entitled _Linking zoo and field, and keeping promises to dodos.' In this address, Dr Conway well articulated some of the major problems that faced the global conservation community, as well as highlighting the importance of wild and zoo animal interactive management and habitat conservation to hasten the evolution of zoos and aquaria as proactive conservation organisations.
During the four days of meetings there were 25 excellent formal presentations, and 40 or so varied exhibitor/poster session displays. The paper presentations included Adam Britt's progress report on the black-and-white ruffed lemur release programme; Don Merton's paper on critically endangered New Zealand birds; Gus Mills's paper on the metapopulation approach to the management of the African wild dog; Lee Durrell's paper on Project Angonoka and community-based conservation programmes; H.J. Adler's paper on a multi-faceted approach to primate conservation in northern Vietnam; Rick Hudson's overview on zoo-supported conservation programmes for West Indian iguanas; M. Magdich's paper on captive breeding and reintroduction of the Karner blue butterfly; and Heather Hall's paper on the role of zoos and aquaria in the conservation and management of seahorses (see Table 2).
However, the main thrust of the Cincinnati meeting was the activities of the daily working group sessions. The chosen themes for these sessions were: _Human Demography'; _Support of Wild Populations Through Reintroduction and Translocation'; _Collaboration and Cooperation in Conservation Efforts'; _Risk Assessment in Conservation Programmes'; and _The Amphibian Crisis'. As a result of suggestions from conference delegates, three additional working group themes were added, to address _Global Captive Management Programmes', _Fish' and _Herps'.
Prior to delegates deciding which working group to participate in, Dr Ulysses Seal (Chairman, SSC/CBSG) provided guidelines as to how each group should proceed with a chosen facilitator to identify, among other matters, Issues and Problems; Goals; Actional Responsibilities; and Measurable Outcomes. Within the guidelines, Dr Seal highlighted that in developing the process of the working groups at multi-national meetings such as this one, many brains, disciplines and fresh thinking were brought together in a multi-disciplinary approach. In particular, the working groups help to meet the challenges confronting all those individuals committed to bridging the gulf between ex situ and in situ conservation programmes.
The closing afternoon session of the conference was devoted to the various working groups presenting their final reports. These were followed by a brief summation by Dr Seal, who remarked on some of the patterns that had emerged from the groups. He went on to highlight how the meetings had so well identified the many developments and the progress that had taken place - in particular, the dramatic shift to the real commitment that zoos were now making to conservation programmes worldwide. However, he stressed the point that, owing to the ever-accelerating loss of critical habitat, the global conservation community's response is still lagging behind the tremendous rate of extinctions, a rate that we had to attempt to do everything possible to reduce.
Dr Seal recorded that, as social institutions, zoos were responding well to changing cultures and attitudes, and that conservation planning exercises and the setting of priorities will very much depend on increased degrees of cooperation, coordination and the adoption of a multi-disciplinary approach on all matters relating to future conservation efforts.
In conclusion, Dr Seal stated that as the majority of biological problems were solvable, the major challenge that confronted us was the establishment of common ground between all the disciplines involved. In connection with this latter sentiment, it had been rewarding to have previously heard, in the conclusions of a conference paper presentation on the conservation of the African wild dog, that Gus Mills (South African National Parks and Endangered Wildlife Trust) had found that his participation at the conference had given him a better understanding of how zoos can aid in situ conservation programmes, as well as how this international meeting had helped to break down some of the prejudices that wildlife biologists had for zoo people.
The Conference Proceedings are to be published by the Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden, and are to include the paper presentations as well as the working groups' reports. They will be edited by Terri L. Roth, William F. Swanson and Lynn K. Blattman. Further information on the publication is available on website at: Summary
As advocated by the participants of the 1997 Berlin Working Group, and the subsequent ratification of the recommendations by both the CBSG and WZO annual meetings, the Steering Committee of CBSG and the Council of WZO should be responsible for the establishment of a Programme Committee, and to advise on future conference themes, topics and scientific input. It was also agreed that the inter-conference intervals should be approximately four years, with a conference duration of four to five days, and for each World Conference to result in a well edited, easily accessible international publication.
Zoos interested in hosting a future conference in this _Breeding Endangered Species' series should write to the WZO President who, with his Council, will discuss with CBSG the merits of each application, and will with them be responsible for deciding on the most appropriate organisation to hold the next international meeting in this conference series.

Brambell, M. (ed.) (1977): Foreword. Int. Zoo Yearbook 17: 1.
Conway, W.G. (1980): Where we go from here. Int. Zoo Yearbook 20: 184-189.
Dresser, B.L., Reece, R.W., and Maruska, E.J. (eds.) (1988): Proceedings - Fifth World Conference on Breeding Endangered Species in Captivity. Zoological Society of Cincinnati, Ohio.
Durrell, G. (1975): Foreword. In Breeding Endangered Species in Captivity (ed. R.D. Martin), pp. vii-xii. Academic Press, London.
Lovejoy, T.E. (1980): Tomorrow's ark: by invitation only. Int. Zoo Yearbook 20: 181-183.
Mallinson, J.J.C. (1997): Conference on endangered species working group report. CBSG News 8 (2): 22-23.
Martin, R.D. (ed.) (1975): Introduction. In Breeding Endangered Species in Captivity (ed. R.D. Martin), pp. xv-xxv. Academic Press, London.
Olney, P.J.S. (ed.) (1986): Proceedings of the Fourth World Conference on Breeding Endangered Species in Captivity. Int. Zoo Yearbook 24/25: pp. 1-219.
Olney, P.J.S., Mace, G.M., and Feistner, A.T.C. (eds.) (1994): Creative Conservation: Interactive Management of Wild and Captive Animals. Chapman and Hall, London.
Stanley Price, M.R. (1986): The reintroduction of the Arabian oryx Oryx leucoryx into Oman. Int. Zoo Yearbook 24/25: 179-188.

Jeremy J.C. Mallinson (WZO's appointed representative on the 7th World Conference _Program' Committee), Director, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, Les Augrès Manor, Trinity, Jersey JE3 5BP, Channel Islands, U.K. (Tel.: +44 1534 860000; Fax: +44 1534 860001; E-mail: ).

Table 1. World Conferences on Breeding Endangered Species.
Host and Organisations Involved Location Date
1. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust
Fauna Preservation Society
Jersey 2-4 May 1972
2. The Zoological Society of London
Fauna Preservation Society
London Zoo 6-8 July 1976
3. San Diego Zoological Society
Fauna Preservation Society
San Diego Zoo 12-16 Nov. 1979
4. The Royal Rotterdam Zoological Botanical Gardens
Fauna and Flora Preservation Society
The Zoological Society of London
The Netherlands
24-27 Sept. 1984
5. The Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden Centre for Reproduction of Endangered Wildlife
Fauna and Flora Preservation Society
Kings Island Wild Animal Habitat
Cincinnati Zoo 9-12 Oct. 1988
6. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust
Fauna and Flora Preservation Society
The Zoological Society of London
Jersey 4-6 May 1992
7. Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden
SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group
World Zoo Organisation
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
Fauna and Flora International
The Zoological Society of London
Cincinnati 22-26 May 1999

Table 2. Paper Presentations at the Seventh World Conference on Breeding Endangered Species: Linking Zoos and Field Research to Advance Conservation.
Title and Author(s)
Keynote Address:
_Linking Zoo and Field, and Keeping Promises to Dodos' by Dr William Conway.
_Zoos, Aquariums, and Wildlife Conservation: Future Trends and Current Challenges' by Dr Michael Hutchins.
_Human Population Dynamics and Species Conservation' by Dr Caryl Ness.
_The Amphibian Crisis' by Dr George Rabb.
_The Role of In-country Ex Situ Facilities in Supporting Species and Habitat Recovery: Some Perspectives on East Africa' by Dr Mike Maunder.
_Hot Spots and Wilderness Areas: Setting Priorities in Biodiversity Conservation' by Dr Russell Mittermeier.
_Infectious Disease Risk Assessment in Captive Propagation, Reintroduction and Wildlife Conservation' by Dr Jonathan Ballou.
_Mauritius Kestrel, Pink Pigeon and Echo Parakeet' by C. Jones.
_Project Betampona: Conservation and Re-stocking of Black-and-white Ruffed Lemurs' by A. Britt, A. Katz and C. Welch.
_Captive Breeding and Reintroduction of the Mhorr Gazelle' by B. Rau and H. Wiesner.
_The Status and the Conservation Program for the Pygmy Hog' by G. Narayan, W.L.R. Oliver and P.J. Deka.
_Project Angonoka and Community-based Conservation' by L. Durrell, J. Durbin and L.J. Rakotoniaina.
_Management of Human-Mountain Gorilla Conflict in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park' by F. Madden.
_Biology, Status and Conservation with Special Reference to the Role of Captive Breeding in the African Wild Dog' by M.G.L. Mills.
_Recovery Strategies and Techniques for Three Free-living Critically Endangered New Zealand Birds: Kakapo, Black Stilt and Takahe' by D. Merton, C. Reed and D. Crouchley.
_In Situ and Ex Situ Efforts to Save the Sumatran Rhinoceros' by M.K.M. Khan, T.L. Roth and T.J. Foose.
_Breeding Behavior and the Transition of Plasma Sex Steroids of Loggerhead Sea Turtles in an Aquarium' by Y. Kakizoe, M. Fujiwara, Y. Akune, Y. Kanou and I. Uchida.
_The Reintroduction of the Endangered Mexican Wolf' by D.P. Siminski.
_Captive Breeding and Reintroduction of the Karner Blue Butterfly in Ohio' by M. Magdich and P. Tolson.
_Primate Conservation in North Vietnam: A Multifaceted Approach' by H.J. Adler and R. Wirth.
_In Situ and Ex Situ Conservation of the Pampas Deer' by S. Gonzalez.
_The Role of Zoos and Aquaria in the Conservation and Management of Seahorses' by H.J. Hall, K. Lunn and A. Vincent.
_Captive Propagation and Release: Tools for Restoration of Endangered Hawaiian Forest Birds' by A. Lieberman and C. Kuehler.
_Zoo Involvement in the Australian Species Recovery Process' by M. Craig, S. Barlow, J. Wilcken, C. Hopkins and C. Lees.
_An Overview of Zoo Supported Conservation Programs for West Indian Iguanas' by R. Hudson and A. Alberts.

Australia has one of the poorest records amongst _Western' nations for mammal extinctions. Of the 60 mammal species that have become extinct worldwide in the last 500 years, 20 were Australian (Flannery, 1990). The great majority of these were species weighing between 50 grams and five kilograms that inhabited the drier regions of Australia. Some of the original Australian fauna has survived only as remnant populations on offshore islands where the impacts of introduced species have been minimal (Burbidge, 1989). Although the European fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the domestic cat (Felis catus) have been implicated as the major factors in these extinctions and declines, there is some evidence that other factors were also at work. Flannery (1994) suggested that _aboriginal firestick farming was an important factor in maintaining suitable conditions for the middle-sized mammal species.' The aborigines burned small patches of habitat and created a mosaic of different vegetation types which provided optimal conditions for these middle-sized mammals. This practice ceased with the arrival of European settlers in the 18th century. However, introduced predators such as the European fox and the domestic cat remain major threats to the existing native fauna. Despite major efforts at cat and fox control throughout the country, these animals continue to decimate the remnant native wildlife. Other threatening processes impacting on Australian native fauna include the introduction of exotic herbivores such as the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and the domestic goat (Capra hircus), and the loss of habitat through land clearing. Different strategies have been developed to overcome these threatening processes. The most common method involves intensive predator control using baits, traps and shooting. Habitat restoration and reintroduction from captive-breeding programs in conjunction with predator control programs are also being utilised. Reintroduction is increasingly seen as a means of reversing poor conservation prospects of endangered or threatened species (Southgate, 1994).
Exclusion zone areas are another attempt to halt the slide of Australia's native fauna. The recently constructed Australian Native Fauna and Flora Sanctuary (ANFFS) at Western Plains Zoo is one example of an exclusion zone.
The Australian Native Fauna and Flora Sanctuary at Western Plains Zoo
The ANFFS is a 150-hectare area lying in the south-western corner of Western Plains Zoo (WPZ), Dubbo. The photograph below shows the view over the ANFFS from the central release yard complex. Dubbo lies in the central-west of New South Wales (NSW) on the Macquarie River. The zoo was opened in 1977 and is the major tourist attraction in the area. The ANFFS, conceived of in 1991, is an attempt to develop a predator-free area where threatened and endangered Australian fauna and flora can survive and flourish. The emphasis is on fauna which is found in the local region or has a history of being found in this region.
The portion of land dedicated to the ANFFS was previously used to graze beef cattle, and prior to this was utilised for various farming activities including cropping, timber cutting, dairy farming and sheep grazing. It was also utilised as a military training ground during World War II. A history of aboriginal utilisation predates the settlement of Europeans in this area, which began in 1836.
A 2.7-metre high chain-mesh fence was erected around the 4.5-kilometre perimeter of the ANFFS in late 1993. The chain-mesh is 25 mm in diameter. The fence is embedded 0.5 metres into the ground. A one-metre wide chain-mesh skirt runs along either side of this boundary fence. The skirt is located just below ground level and, combined with the embedded section of the fence, prevents predators from digging under the barrier. Three barbed wires are located on top of the fence, and there are five electric wires spaced at various intervals on the fence to deter predators. (See Figure 1, below, for a detailed drawing of the fence.) A remote unit providing 7,500 volts around the perimeter powers the electric wires. The electric fence is monitored remotely using sensors attached to the fence every 0.5 kilometre. (The photograph opposite shows the fence and the sensor.) All domestic grazing stock were removed prior to the completion of the fence. Although the boundary fencing was a huge task in itself, additional work was needed to ensure the survival of rare species placed within this area. Dam construction, revegetation, erosion control and predator eradication were carried out to provide the necessary environment for the proposed animal introductions. Direct seeding of over 1,500 native plants occurred in August 1993. Four-metre wide firebreaks were cleared on either side of the boundary fence in preparation for any bush fires, which threaten the land. Release aviaries and yards were constructed within the ANFFS to provide facilities for soft-release strategies for introduced animals, as well as seven mallee fowl (Leipoa ocellata) breeding aviaries. The ANFFS was officially opened in June 1995 by the New South Wales Minister for the Environment. A controlled burn of the south-west portion was undertaken in September 1997.
Pest control
A number of vertebrate pests occurred within the ANFFS at the time of fencing. These included the European fox, the domestic cat, the European rabbit and the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus). In addition to these introduced pests, a significant number of common Australian native animals were present in numbers which could cause problems if not managed effectively. These include eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) and brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula).
European foxes were eliminated with the use of 1080 (sodium monofluoroacetate) baits. Nineteen bait stations were constructed and commercial Fox-off (1080) baits were buried at each of these sites. Despite the absence of signs of foxes within the ANFFS, baiting is carried out for three consecutive nights at three-monthly intervals on an ongoing basis. Cats were either trapped and euthanased or shot. Given the difficulty in attracting cats to take baits, the program has been reasonably successful. It is thought, however, that there is at least one cat remaining within the ANFFS at the time of writing. Rabbits and hares are both shot. Rabbit burrows are also deep-ripped and gassed with larvacide (chloropicrin). Numbers of both these species in the ANFFS are fairly high due to the amount of food present and the absence of predators. Baiting for these animals has not been initiated due to the amount of free feed available in the ANFFS. Neither species appears to be having a significant impact on the native flora and fauna; however, they may become a problem in the future. In the summer of 1997, introduced rabbit calicivirus (RCD), otherwise known as rabbit haemorrhagic virus (RHV), spread through the rabbit population, causing some mortalities. Myxomatosis, a viral disease of rabbits, has been endemic in this part of Australia since it was first introduced in the 1950s. The virulence of this disease, however, varies from year to year, and its impact on the rabbit population varies directly with the virulence.
Fauna introduction
A stocking policy (Appendix 1) was developed in conjunction with a strategy to introduce the identified species in a controlled and conservative manner that would provide the maximum chance of success. The first sentinel animals were released into the ANFFS in 1996. These were desexed animals that were not individually valuable to the survival of the species. When it could be determined that these animals were surviving and prospering within the specially designed boundary fence, introductions of endangered species commenced. Already released into the ANFFS are bridled nail-tail wallaby (Onychogalea fraenata), mala (Lagorchestes hirsutus), brush-tailed bettong (Bettongia penicillata), mallee fowl and bush stone-curlew (Burhinus magnirostris).
Most of the individuals were radio-collared prior to release in order to determine their adaptation to their new surroundings (see photograph, front cover). Future introductions are planned for greater bilby (Macrotis lagotis), northern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii), koala (Phascolarctus cinereus) and burrowing bettong (Bettongia lesueur). Southern hairy-nosed wombats (L. latifrons) have been released as a model for the endangered northern species. Breeding has already occurred in the bush stone-curlews, the brush-tailed bettongs and the bridled nail-tail wallabies.
Quarantine protocols have been developed for the various species being introduced into the ANFFS in an attempt to prevent the introduction of harmful diseases. It is not intended to produce a disease-free environment, but rather an environment free from diseases that could have important impacts on the population.
Two fauna surveys have been carried out, the first in October 1997 and the second in May 1998. Most of the animals were identified by sightings, except for the frogs and the bats, which were identified by recording their calls. Two threatened species were identified - koala and common bent-wing bat (Miniopterus schreibersii). Surveys of the endemic flora have also been undertaken. One endangered plant was identified - Phebalium glandulosum, a small mallee shrub. Planning is underway to perform invertebrate surveys. Fauna and flora surveys will be undertaken on an ongoing basis to monitor the changes in the ANFFS over time.
The ANFFS, although primarily developed for education and conservation purposes, will be opened to the public for guided tours. It is envisaged that these tours will last for two to three hours, and visitors will have an opportunity to see rare and endangered wildlife in natural surroundings. The purpose of providing public access to this area is to increase the general level of empathy in the public for endangered native fauna and their plight. Spotlight tours in the evening will provide the best viewing of the mainly nocturnal or crepuscular wildlife present within the ANFFS. Early morning walks and evening walks are also proposed.
The ANFFS provides a valuable site for the study of ecology and broader environmental issues, such as soil erosion and water conservation. An educational resource kit for the ANFFS was developed in 1994 for use by school students in Years 5-8 (ages 11-14) to complement their visit to the area. Activities include weather and water testing, insect and plant identification and direction finding. Small tours of the area have already been given to school groups. A 3.5-kilometre walking track with various points of interest along the way was constructed in May 1995. Toilet and picnic facilities are available. The ANFFS has also been utilised as a resource for tertiary students undertaking a postgraduate certificate in Captive Vertebrate Management, which was developed jointly by WPZ and Charles Sturt University.
Discussions are underway with a number of universities to develop a series of research projects using the ANFFS as a study site. A reproductive study on the European brown hare has recently been completed in conjunction with the Animal Gene Storage and Resource Centre of Australia and the Zoological Society of London. Current and completed research has been limited to monitoring the behaviour of the introduced fauna, flora and fauna surveys, and feral pest monitoring. Conservation
Many of the species destined for eventual release into the ANFFS are amongst the rarest in the world. For instance, the mala is now extinct in the wild on the mainland of Australia, whilst the total number of northern hairy-nosed wombats is estimated at 70 individuals. Others such as the greater bilby and mallee fowl are declining rapidly. The ANFFS will provide an opportunity to study the life-history and management requirements of a number of threatened and endangered species. It will also provide an opportunity to study the introduction of captive-bred animals into an environment free of exotic predators. This will allow the development of techniques and procedures for use during subsequent releases into other protected areas and managed wild habitats. It is hoped that the ANFFS will provide a source of endangered fauna for other conservation programs in the future. It is also hoped that it will provide a model for other exclusion areas dedicated to the conservation of native Australian fauna.
The World Zoo Conservation Strategy (1993) states that _modern successful zoos have four major objectives - conservation, education, recreation and research.' All of these objectives are encompassed in the ANFFS. Zoos can no longer justify their existence purely for recreational pursuits. Central to the success of zoological institutions is the development of miniaturised ecosystems which will sustain balanced, biologically complementary, naturally occurring biota of plants and animals in which research can be undertaken (Kelly and English, 1997). The ANFFS is one such ecosystem. Although not primarily intended to display fauna to the public, it is hoped that the ANFFS can contribute to the conservation of native fauna through education and research.
Exclusion zones such as the ANFFS are recent attempts to halt the slide of endangered species. Ongoing management of the ANFFS includes predator control, controlled burning of the vegetation, and monitoring of the released animals and their progeny. It is envisaged that the ANFFS at WPZ will serve as a successful model for other exclusion areas throughout the country as the thrust for effective conservation continues. This project is without a doubt one of the most important components in a combined effort to save Australia's endangered fauna and flora from extinction.
The authors wish to thank the Life Sciences staff at Western Plains Zoo who have worked on this project for their assistance. Support and guidance for this project was provided by Dr Jack Giles and the late Dr John Kelly.
Burbidge, A.A. (1989): The value of Western Australian islands as biological reservoirs and the development of management priorities. In Australian and New Zealand Islands - Nature Conservation Values and Management (ed. A.A. Burbidge). Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth.
Flannery, T.F. (1990): Australia's Vanishing Mammals. Reader's Digest Pty Limited, Surry Hills, Sydney.
Flannery, T.F. (1994): The Future Eaters. Reed New Holland, Sydney.
IUDZG/CBSG (IUCN/SSC) (1993): The World Zoo Conservation Strategy: the Role of the Zoos and Aquaria of the World in Global Conservation. Chicago Zoological Society.
Kelly, J.D., and English, A.W. (1997): Conservation biology and the preservation of biodiversity in Australia: a role for zoos and the veterinary profession. Australian Veterinary Journal 75 (8), 568-574.
Southgate, R. (1994): Why introduce the bilby? In Reintroduction Biology of Australian and New Zealand Fauna (ed. M. Serena). Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, U.K.

Dr D. Blyde, Manager, Life Sciences, Mr P. Cameron, Keeper, and Mr A. Thorne, Divisional Supervisor, Western Plains Zoo, P.O. Box 831, Dubbo, New South Wales 2830, Australia.

Appendix 1. Stocking policy for ANFFS.
Species Min. Pref. Max. Comments
Parma wallaby
(Macropus parma)
2.0.0 2.0.0 2.0.0 Desexed animals only
Bridled nail-tail wallaby
(Onychogalea fraenata)
2.2.2. 5.10.10 5.10.10 Excess animals for
reintroduction programs
or control reproduction.
Yellow-footed rock wallaby
(Petrogale xanthopus xanthopus)
2.2.2 5.5.5 5.5.5 NSW provenance only.
Excess animals for reintroduction programs.
Brush-tailed rock wallaby
(Petrogale penicillata penicillata)
2.2.2 5.5.5 5.5.5 NSW provenance only.
Excess animals for reintroduction programs.
Mallee fowl
(Leipoa ocellata)
1.1.10 2.2.10 2.2.10 NSW provenance only.
Excess animals for reintroduction programs.
(Setonyx brachyurus)
1.0.0 1.0.0 1.0.0 . Current desexed animal to remain unless wanted by another institution.
Bush stone-curlew
(Burhinus grallarius)
1.1.3 2.2.5 2.2.5 Excess animals to be removed
(Phascolarctus cinereus cinereus)
0.0.2 0.0.5 0.0.5 Desexed animals only.
Southern hairy-nosed
(Lasiorhinus latifrons)
0.1.0 1.1.1 1.1.1 Animals to be used as a model for L. krefflii only. To be removed prior to establishment of L. krefflii.
Northern hairy-nosed
(Lasiorhinus krefflii)
1.1.1 5.5.5 5.5.5 Establish a breeding colony at WPZ.
Eastern grey kangaroo
(Macropus giganteus)
0.0.10 0.0.20 0.0.30 Free-range population only. Introduce new male every five years.
Swamp wallaby
(Wallabia bicolor)
0.0.10 0.0.20 0.0.30 Free-range population only. Introduce new male every five years.
Red-necked wallaby
(Macropus rufogriseus)
0.0.10 0.0.20 0.0.30 Free-range population only. Remove albinos to zoo proper. Introduce new male every five years.
(Lagorchestes hirsutus hirsutus)
2.2.2 10.10.10 10.10.10 Mainland subspecies only. Excess animals for reintroduction programs.
Brushtail possum
(Trichosurus vulpecula)
0.0.10 0.0.20 0.0.50 Free-range population only.
Greater bilby
(Macrotis lagotis sagitta)
2.2.2 10.10.10 10.10.10 Excess animals for reintroduction programs. (Old provenance only.)
Burrowing bettong
(Bettongia lesueur)
2.2.2 5.5.5 5.5.5 Excess animals for reintroduction programs or control reproduction.
Brush-tailed bettong
(Bettongia penicillata ogilby)
2.2.2 5.5.5 5.5.5 Excess animals for reintroduction programs or control reproduction.
(Ornitho rhynchus anatinus)
1.1.0 2.2.2 2.2.2 Remove excess to other populations.
Sugar glider
(Petaurus breviceps)
1.3.0 10.10.10 10.10.10 Maintain free-range population.
(Tachyglossus aculeatus)
0.0.20 0.0.30 0.0.30 Free-range population only.
Water rat
(Hydromys chrysogaster)
0.0.6 0.0.10 0.0.10 Free-range population only.
Eastern barred bandicoot (Parameles gunnii) 2.2.4 2.2.4 2.2.4 Follow Species Management Program.
Plains wanderer
(Pedionomus torquatus)
2.2.5 5.5.10 5.5.10 Breeding colony.
Australian bustard
(Ardeotis australis)
2.2.5 2.2.5 2.2.5 Breeding colony.


An earlier paper (Grittinger and Konrath, 1981) presented the results from 1969 to 1981, when 13 snow leopards (Panthera uncia Schreber, 1775) were born at Milwaukee County Zoo, U.S.A. This report is an update on raising snow leopards at that zoo. Between 1969 and 1998, a total of 17 litters of 37 (22.15) cubs were born in Milwaukee.
Milwaukee County Zoo maintained its snow leopards in the Feline Building, where the other large cats were housed. The snow leopard breeding area was in the south-east wing of this building, next to the indoor cheetah display; there was no visual contact between them. The breeding male snow leopard, when not paired with the female and any previous litter cubs, was kept elsewhere in the feline building. The breeding male and female were paired from 1 November until one month prior to expected cub arrival. The indoor display cage for the breeding pair, and later for mother and cubs, was the 3.7 m ´ 3.7 m _indoor display' with a glass front. The outdoor display was approximately 28 m2. The two areas were connected by a 2.1 m ´ 2.4 m cage that became the maternity area. This cage, located out of public view, contained a completely enclosed maternity box (55.9 cm wide ´ 121.9 cm long ´ 101.6 cm high). While heat was provided to the indoor display area, winter temperatures could fall to freezing in the unheated shift area. The enclosures were not cooled during the summer.
Figure 1. Snow leopard exhibit at Milwaukee County Zoo.
The south-east wing of the feline building and the area around the outdoor display were cordoned off from the public approximately a week prior to the expected parturition date, and the restricted area was then gradually reduced between five and 12 weeks post partum. Even contact with the zoo staff was avoided until the cubs had their physical examinations and first vaccinations at seven to eight weeks of age. The mother was fed from the front of the indoor display cage.
The adults were normally fed AFS Carnivore Diet once a day, seven days a week. They received 1.4 kg per day in winter and 0.9 kg in summer. Raw beef treats were given three times a week, and once a week they received pieces of rabbit or three-week-old chicks. Adults and cubs older than 80 days were given ox tails weekly.
About eight weeks before the due date the female's diet was increased to 1.6 kg per day. Beginning with Shigatse's litter in 1983, Kitten Milk Replacer (KMR) supplement was mixed into the diet of the pregnant and nursing females. KMR was started at one tablespoon per day at six weeks prior to delivery date, and over two weeks was gradually built up to the full amount of five tablespoons. The KMR was gradually reduced during the 15th week, so that by 16 weeks cub age it was eliminated from the diet.
At two weeks before due date the female was fed twice a day and increased to 1.8 kg per day. The KMR amounts were divided equally, as was the AFS diet.
Figure 2. Month of birth for snow leopard cubs at Milwaukee County Zoo (1969-1998).
The breeding data for all of the snow leopards born at Milwaukee Zoo are listed in Table 1. From 1969 to 1998, there were 37 cubs born at this zoo, with four single births (23.5%), six litters of two (35.3%), and seven litters of three cubs (41.2%). Of the 37 cubs, two were born to Smiley, 11 to Timi, eight to Shigatse, and 16 to Sabu. Although births took place from March to July, most (54%) occurred in May, followed by April (30%) (Fig. 2). The lengths of the gestation periods as defined by days from both the first and last days of observed mating until days of birth ranged from 97-104 days (mean: 100.6; SD: 2.18) to 94-101 days (mean: 97.1; SD: 2.26).
Of the 37 cubs born, 33 survived to 30 days and 32 survived to six months (Table 1). All but two of the 37 cubs were kept either with the mother or with both parents. Only Mil. 17 and Mil. 25 were removed for medical reasons; they did not survive. Of the cubs that died, Mil. 16 died on 1 June 1982 (born on 25 May 1982) and the cause of death was listed as abscessed puncture wounds probably caused by the mother. His brother (Mil. 17) was removed for hand-raising, but was put down on 24 June, being afflicted with septicemia, hepatitis, and encephalitis. Mil. 24 died on 17 May 1989 (born on 16 May 1989) of _maternal trauma'. Mil. 25 died on 13 May 1990 after being abandoned by his mother and removed for hand-raising; he was a _weak' cub with a patent foramen ovale. Mil. 38 (Bir) died on 12 September 1998 of canine distemper, a month short of being six months old. Mil. 39 (Bihari) died on 1 December 1998 from complications of canine distemper.
Milwaukee County Zoo had their first snow leopard litter in 1969, with continued success to the present. A policy of minimal intrusion seems to have worked well. Although special exhibits may provide better reproduction conditions than do general feline buildings (Rieger, 1980), Milwaukee has had excellent success in a common feline building during the 29 years.
Litter sizes at Milwaukee included 23.5% single births, 35.3% double births, and 41.2% triple births. Likewise, Kitchener et al. (1975) found triplets most common, reporting two single births, four litters of two cubs, and six litters of three cubs at Chicago. This is different from Blomqvist and Sten (1982), who listed 22% with single births, 48% with two cubs, only 26% with three, and 2% with 4 cubs. In a survey of ten zoos, Freeman and Hutchins (1978) listed 30% as single births, 43% as double, 21% as triple, and 6% as quadruple.
The months of birth at Milwaukee ranged from March to July (Fig. 2), with May followed by April being high months. Kitchener et al. (1975) reported, of 12 separate births in Chicago, 8 in May, 3 in June and one in September. Blomqvist and Sten (1982) gave May as the peak month, followed by June. Rieger (1982) found that births may occur between the middle of March and the beginning of September, with a peak in the second half of May. In the survey, Freeman and Hutchins (1978) reported 62% of births took place in May, 21% in June, 9% in April, 6% in July, and 2% in August.
Kitchener et al. (1975) gave a gestation period of 92-103 days, with three of the four litters ranging from 96 to 103 days. They calculated the gestation period from the last day when matings were observed until the day of birth. Based on the same criteria, the 17 litters born at Milwaukee ranged from 94 to 101 days.
At Milwaukee, 30-day cub mortality was 10.8% and six-month cub mortality was 13.5%, the difference being made by the death of Bir at five months. The worldwide captive snow leopard population (excluding those in Chinese zoos) had a 30-day mortality ranging from 100% in 1961 and 1963 to 20-30% in 1989-1991 (Blomqvist, 1995b and 1995c). In 1992, the 30-day mortality rate was 29% (Blomqvist 1995a). By 1993, infant mortality was only 17%, the lowest rate ever recorded in the global population (Blomqvist, 1996).
At Milwaukee, three of the mortalities were first-litter cubs (Mil. 16, 17 and 24); Mil. 16 and 17 were in Shigatse's first litter (1982) and Mil. 24 was Sabu's first cub (1989). Primiparous females have been reported as having a lower rearing success than multiparous females (Rieger, 1980). Two of these first-litter cubs (Mil. 16 and 24) died of _puncture wounds' or _maternal trauma'. Freeman and Hutchins (1978) gave the category _killed by parent' as one of the leading (16%) causes of cub death. Mil. 17 apparently died of infection, an important cause of death according to Koivisto et al. (1977). The loss of Mil. 25, with a patent foramen ovale, came under the category of heart defect, which accounted for 3% of cub deaths in the Freeman and Hutchins (1978) study. The deaths of Bir and Bihari due to canine distemper has precedents in both wild and zoo large cats. Two adult snow leopards in Blank Park Zoo, Des Moines, Iowa, infected with feline panleukopenia virus and subsequent canine distemper virus (CDV), died in 1988 (Fix et al., 1989). CDV infection has occurred in captive leopards, tigers, lions and a jaguar in North America (Appel et al., 1994), and a CDV epidemic was reported in Serengeti lions in 1994 by Roelke-Parker et al. (1996). At Milwaukee, a potential carrier of CDV may have been local raccoons (Procyon lotor), a number of which were found dead on the zoo grounds in 1998. Raccoons have been implicated in the spread of CDV by Fix et al. (1989) and Appel et al., 1994. Unfortunately, no safe, effective canine distemper vaccine is now available for use in large cats in the U.S.A. (Elizabeth Frank, pers. comm.). Researchers are wary of using standard canine distemper vaccines on large cats, because these vaccines are made from weakened live viruses which may actually cause the disease in these felids (Morell, 1994).
We are grateful to Leif Blomqvist of Helsinki Zoo, Finland, for providing reprints and various volumes of the International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards, to Vickie Clyde, DVM, for medical information, and to Elizabeth Frank, Large Animal Curator, Milwaukee County Zoo, Ann Grittinger, and Greta Grittinger for review of the manuscript.
Products mentioned in the text
AFS Carnivore Diet, Animal Food Services, Inc., 675 East State Street, Iola, Wisconsin 54945, U.S.A.
KMR (kitten milk replacer), Pet-Ag, Inc., 261 Keyes Avenue, Hampshire, Illinois 60140, U.S.A.
Appel, M.J.G., Yates, R.A., Foley, G.L., Bernstein, J.J., Santinelli, S., Spelman, L.H., Miller, L.D., Arp, L.H., Anderson, M., Barr, M., Pearce-Kelling, S., and Summers, B.A. (1994): Canine distemper epizootic in lions, tigers, and leopards in North America. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 6: 277-288.
Blomqvist, L. (1995a): The snow leopard in captivity in 1992. International Zoo News 42 (3): 152-159.
Blomqvist, L. (1995b): The snow leopard, Panthera uncia, in captivity during the last 30 years (1961-1991). Helsinki Zoo Annual Report 1993: 24-37.
Blomqvist, L. (1995c): Three decades of snow leopards Panthera uncia in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook 34: 178-185.
Blomqvist, L. (1996): 1993 studbook report on the captive snow leopard, Uncia uncia. Helsinki Zoo Annual Report 1994/5: 46-54.
Blomqvist, L., and Sten, I. (1982): Reproductive biology of the snow leopard, Panthera uncia. International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards 3: 71-79.
Fix, A.S., Riordan, D.P., Hill, H.T., Gill, M.A., and Evans, M.B. (1989): Feline panleukopenia virus and subsequent canine distemper virus infection in two snow leopards (Panthera uncia). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 20 (3): 273-281.
Freeman, H., and Hutchins, M. (1978): Captive management of snow leopard cubs. Zoologische Garten 48 (1): 49-62.
Grittinger, T.F., and Konrath, R.J. (1981): Management of snow leopards at Milwaukee. International Zoo News 28 (5): 7-11.
Kitchener, S.L., Meritt, D.A., and Rosenthal, M.A. (1975): Observations on the breeding and husbandry of snow leopards Panthera uncia at Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago. International Zoo Yearbook 15: 212-217.
Koivisto, I., Wahlberg, C., and Muuronen, P. (1977): Breeding the snow leopard Panthera uncia at Helsinki Zoo 1967-1976. International Zoo Yearbook 17: 39-44.
Morell, V. (1994): Serengeti's big cats going to the dogs. Science 264: 1664.
Rieger, I. (1980): Some difficulties in breeding ounces, Uncia uncia, at zoological gardens. International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards 2: 76-95.
Rieger, I. (1982): Breeding ounces, Uncia uncia, (Schreber, 1775) in zoological gardens. International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards 3: 49-50.
Roelke-Parker, M.E., Munson, L., Packer, C., Kock, R., Cleaveland, S., Carpenter, M., O'Brien, S.J., Posplschil, A., Hofmann-Lehmann, R., Lutz, H., Mwamengele, G.L.M., Mgasa, M.N., Machange, G.A., Summers, B.A., and Appel, M.J.G. (1996): A canine distemper virus epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo). Nature 379: 441-445.

Dr Thomas Grittinger, Biology Department, University of Wisconsin Sheboygan, 1 University Drive, Sheboygan, Wisconsin 53081, U.S.A.; Neil Dretzka, Christopher John and Valerie Werner, Milwaukee County Zoo, 10001 West Bluemound Road, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, U.S.A.

Table 1. Breeding data for snow leopards (Panthera uncia) at the Milwaukee County Zoo, 1969-1998.


Visits to live animal collections can provide excellent opportunities for science learning, if the teachers taking the pupils are familiar with what these can be and the pedagogy of such visits. The study of the content and form of the conversations of primary children and their accompanying adults, teachers and parents, has shown that such visits generate a dialogue remarkably similar to that of families making leisure visits (Tunnicliffe, 1995). However, this need not be the case if the teachers make sure that they are familiar with the educational activities available in a zoo, the concepts which zoo visits can help to introduce or consolidate for their pupils, and the way in which the educational experience of their pupils can be of the highest quality (Tunnicliffe, 1996a and 1996b).
The knowledge that is needed by teachers for zoo visits (and those to other animal collections such as natural history museums) includes:
(1) The stages of a visit in terms of the attention of pupils during the visit to the animals;
(2) The features of anatomy and behaviours of the animals that the pupils are likely to notice spontaneously;
(3) The colloquial or everyday names which pupils will use and any scientific names you want to be used;
(4) The ability to identify and understand the concepts that you wish your pupils to acquire.
Otherwise the content of the conversations generated replicates that of family groups who visit the zoo for leisure purposes.
Stages of a visit
Schoolchildren and their accompanying adults do not focus upon exhibits in the same manner throughout their visit. It is important to be aware of the different phases within a school visit, and to plan the activities for your pupils accordingly.
First of all, groups undergo an orientation phase when they look around and find their way. The duration of this stage can be shortened if you provide orientation to the site whilst still at school. Such orientation can be achieved through showing slides or a video, providing the groups with their timetable, discussing opportunities for visits to the gift shop, when and where lunch is to be taken, and similar _housekeeping' arrangements.
Following orientation, members of the group embark upon a concentrated phase when they focus on the tasks you have set or look in a concentrated manner at exhibits. Alternatively, in a _focused looking phase', group members are involved in an educational activity provided by the zoo or museum. It is unrealistic to expect the pupils to be involved in a focused task throughout the visit. After a period of time their concentration will wane and they will move into the _leisure looking' phase in which their comments and observations are similar to those of _non-education' visitors. Finally there is a leave-taking phase when the attention of the groups is concerned with gathering together and preparing for the journey home. Spontaneous observations of pupils (and accompanying adults)
There is a fundamental pattern in what primary pupils and their accompanying adults - and family groups - notice when looking at animal exhibits. It is important to be aware of this so that you can plan the activities for your pupils and the questions the accompanying adults or the activity sheets will ask of them, so that these topics are the starting points in their science observations. They will spontaneously notice certain phenomena, so use these as the introduction into the topic which you plan.
The groups spontaneously use everyday or colloquial names. Use these familiar names when referring to the animals, but make it clear to everyone which additional names you want them to use and where, so that zoological classification can be developed with the pupils during the visit or back in school.
These everyday or colloquial names include the use of the term _animal' to refer only to mammals. Within the mammals, people talk about cats and horses, zebras, rhinos, elephants, lions, tigers, hippos, bats, seals and so on. Visitors rarely use the full specific name unless the animal is particularly well known or has captured the public's imagination, e.g _snow leopard'. The identifying term _bird' is provided for any bird other than very memorable ones such as ostrich, eagle, penguin, vulture and parrot. Reptiles are never referred to as such unless the term is used by the zoo to designate a building as a Reptile House. The reptiles housed in such buildings, or elsewhere, are referred to individually as snakes, crocodiles (usually including the other crocodilians), tortoises or turtles for any of the Chelonia, and lizards. I have never heard the term _reptile' applied by school groups to the constituent members displayed in zoos. Few zoos show amphibians, but the everyday terms _frog' or _toad' are used to refer to most of the specimens. Fish are called by that identifier, except for sharks, piranhas, eels and any particular species about which the visitor has first-hand knowledge, such as chub or perch. Young pupils, those under seven years, are unable to cope with two names for one animal; hence, if they call a shark by that name, they deny that it is also a fish. Similarly all insects and arachnids are _bugs' (and this is an everyday term, not a zoologically correct one), unless they know the name, such as ladybird; spiders are just that, unless they are a tarantula or a black widow.
Anatomical features and behaviours spontaneously noticed
When looking at the structure of the animals, the pupils will spontaneously comment on the shape, size, colour, any particularly unusual features such as horns, or parts that disrupt the body outline and/or move, such as legs and tails. If the animal is performing some behaviour, the pupils will notice it. The position of the animal within the enclosure or display case is important, too. Groups also refer in about half of all conversations to other aspects of the exhibit, such as rocks and trees or feeding bowls. Very often such non-animal aspects are used in referring to the location of the animal.
If the animal is doing nothing, the children will query if it is real, a particularly noticeable question posed about crocodilians in zoos. In the museums the children will be interested in the authenticity of the specimens and how they were prepared for display; thus the meaning of the word _real' depends on the context in which it is used. At _animatronics' models, children use the word _real' to refer to whether the animal is alive or not.
Science learning opportunities
The science learning opportunities in a zoo or museum for primary pupils are:
Content - science facts;
The process - science method and inquiry;
Science language and communication skills.
The science content can be biological or physical. The biological content is either botanical - highlighting the role of plants in the food chain and in forming the natural habitats of animals - or zoological. The role of decomposers is also an important concept to introduce.
Zoological studies can focus on taxonomic studies or on adaptations to the environment, including adaptations for feeding. Animal behaviours are utilised in establishing the taxonomy of a specimen as well as in studying adaptation and forms. Behaviour is thus another important area of study within zoos, in which pupils can make, record and interpret their first-hand observations of the animals. Such studies mean that the pupils observe salient features of animals, such as form and number of locomotory organs, and body coverings.
Elementary pupils should be able to group animals into their major categories - mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, arthropods, molluscs and annelid worms, and say why they make these categorisations. The pupils should be able to use branching keys and picture keys at eight years, and by 11 years they should be able to use and construct dichotomous keys. Pupils should develop an understanding of the needs of animals, the essential life processes, and be able to identify how individual specimens meet them. However, zoos are often poor at providing realistic habitats, and visiting a zoo with the aim of learning about natural habitats is often unrealistic. Such studies may be more satisfactorily pursued in natural history museums with naturalistic dioramas.
Animal behaviour studies can be frustrating if the pupils are looking for action. Inaction is just as important and should be use constructively. Find out before your visit which animals are likely to be active and visible within their enclosures. Ask what the pattern of the day is for inactive and inaccessible animals, so that the pupils can be given a time chart for these animals and can identify in which part of their activity profile the animals are when the pupils observe them. Ask the pupils to find the pattern of these animals' days, so that the lack of activity is not a source of frustration to you and your pupils, but an active learning experience.
Adaptation to the environment is a topic that is often well presented by zoo education programmes. Decide which adaptations you wish your students to focus upon. Very popular topics are birds' beaks, studying adaptations within this class of animals for different types of food and hence different habitats, or feet in mammals and birds, or colour of body coverings and camouflage.
Planning and delivering the opportunities for experiences that involve your pupils is essential. Process or inquiry science, _talking science', is the key. Pupils should be heard to be involved in this process as they make their observations. Instead of replying with a name when a child asks _What is that animal?', ask the student to work out what it could be as far as he or she is able. Alternatively, should a student identify an animal, ask what features make them able to provide that identity for that animal.
Science is about communicating - if scientists do not do so, no one else knows of their work. Encourage your pupils to share their observations and findings in a variety of different ways - a science report, drama, art, a journalist's report or a spoken address.
It is very important to communicate to the _chaperons' - the non-professional adults who accompany groups of your pupils around the animal collections - your aims and objectives in terms of educational outcomes, as well as the _housekeeping' details and lists of names. If this is not done the experience which children within the chaperon-pupil groups receive is different from that of children in the teacher-pupil groups. Each child has an educational entitlement, and it is up to the teachers to ensure that each student has equal access to an equally effective experience.
Tunnicliffe, S.D. (1995): Talking about Animals: Studies of Young Children Visiting Zoos, a Museum and a Farm. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, King's College, London.
Tunnicliffe, S.D. (1996a): Talking Science of Zoology - Ways to Promote this through Listening to the Children, their Accompanying Adults and Providing Talking Cues. Paper given at the International Zoo Educators' Conference, Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark.
Tunnicliffe, S.D. (1996b): Education for the Millennium - Animal Exhibits for the People. Paper given at the International Zoo Educators' Conference, Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark.

Dr Sue Dale Tunnicliffe, Homerton College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2PH, U.K.


1. Hatch rate analysis
The veterinary records at Loro Parque (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain) show that the first breeding of the endangered purple-bellied parrot (Triclaria malachitacea) occurred in 1988, and between then and 1997 a total of 30 (6.11.13) birds were hatched. Since - with the exception of 1988 - no hatching took place prior to 1992, this study deals with the 26 (6.10.10) hatchings registered between 1992 and 1997.
Annual hatch rate
The year with the highest hatching rate was 1993, with nine birds (34.6% of the total). Annual frequency of births is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Population size, number of hatchings and deaths of Triclaria malachitacea at Loro Parque, at the end of each year from 1992 to 1997, and the average.
Seasonal hatch rate
The highest hatching rate occurred during spring, with 87.5% of the total. April was the month with most hatchings recorded (37.5%). Figure 2 shows the monthly frequency of hatching.
Figure 2. Monthly frequency of hatching from 1992 to 1997. (n = 26)
2. Mortality analysis
The veterinary records register 11 (3.3.5) deaths in the period 1994-1997.
Diagnosed primary causes of death
Three of these birds were receiving veterinary treatment at the time of death, and necropsies were performed on the rest, except when the condition of the body made this impossible. The diagnosed primary causes of death were as follows:
- intestinal invagination (1 case);
- kidney and liver lesions (possible pneumonia) (1 case);
- enteritis due to Escherichia coli (1 case);
- accident (2 cases);
- pulmonary aspergillosis (1 case);
- (probable) pneumonia (1 case);
- (probable) Polyomavirus infection (1 case);
- (probable) starvation (1 case);
- unknown because of autolysis of the body (2 cases).
Age and mortality
It is not possible to make a complete study of the dead birds' ages, since the date of birth is unknown in the case of three (27.7%) imported individuals. Of the eight dead birds that were bred at Loro Parque, six (75%) were younger than five months of age and only two (25%) were adults.
Sex and mortality
Of the 11 deaths, the adults represent 54.5%, three (60%) males and two (40%) females.
Annual mortality
Two birds died in 1994, five in 1995, two in 1996 and one in 1997; the average annual death rate for these years is 2.5 individuals per year. Relative to the previous year's population, the highest mortality rate occurred in 1995 with 23.8%, followed by 1996 with 15.8%, 1994 with 10%, and 1997 with only 5% (See Fig. 1).
Seasonal mortality
The records show that the highest death rate occurred in spring, with eight cases (72.7%), followed by winter with two cases (18.2%) and summer with one (9.1%).
3. Morbidity analysis
This study deals exclusively with the years 1994 to 1997.
Medical attention
During the study period the following clinical cases received attention:
- 4 cases of infection due to E. coli (1 died);
- 1 case of feather problems due to fungal infection;
- 1 case of hepatopathy and nephropathy (died);
- 1 case of pulmonary aspergillosis;
- 1 case of internal infection due to Candida sp.;
- 1 case of respiratory problems due to a probable peritonitis;
- 3 cases of accident (1 died).
In total, there were 12 cases involving 11 birds; one had an accident and secondarily developed a Candida infection. Age and morbidity
It is not possible to make a complete study of the ages of the birds who required veterinary attention, since the hatch dates of the 36.4% imported ones is unknown. But of the seven individuals hatched at Loro Parque, and therefore with known hatch dates, it is possible to state that the three youngest, with ages between four and 21 months, were the ones who suffered accidents.
Sex and morbidity
Of the 11 individuals attended, 45.5 % were males and 54.5 % females.
Annual morbidity
Three cases were attended in 1994, five in 1995, two in 1996 and two in 1997.
Seasonal morbidity
Of the total of 12 cases attended, five (41.7%) were in spring, four (33.3%) in summer, one (8.3%) in autumn and two (16.7%) in winter.
(1) The sexual dimorphism of T malachitacea appears around the first year of age. Due to this fact, no artificial sexing methods are used, so all the individuals that died before a year old are considered to be immature.
(2) All the individuals imported to Loro Parque are assumed to have been at least one year old on arrival, and therefore to have been adults.
(3) In studying seasonal morbidity and mortality, the seasons have been defined as follows: Spring, March-May; Summer, June-August; Autumn, September-November; and Winter, December-February.
Triclaria malachitacea has been present at Loro Parque since 1985, when the first individual was acquired. According to the veterinary records until the end of 1997, a total of 51 (16.22.13) individuals have belonged to the collection, 21 (10.11) imported and 30 (6.11.13) hatched at the park. Of the total, 29 (7.11.11) have died and one (0.1) was sent to another collection. The number held at the end of 1997 was 21 (9.10.2) individuals.
The average annual hatching rate from 1992 until 1997 was 4.3, but the annual death rate for the same period was 4.5. If these rates continue, the Loro Parque population will not be sustainable without acquiring new individuals.
Due to the very small number of individuals that exist in captivity (48 in Europe according to the estimated data), the few collections in the world that include this species must be encouraged in their efforts for the conservation of the species. It would be advisable for these efforts to be made in cooperation, planning adequate ways of exchanging individuals, as well as information about the management of the species.
Proper records about reproduction and veterinary treatment are essential information sources for the improvement of captive management of the species, and should be maintained with care and precision at any zoological collection holding these birds. Acknowledgements
To Dr David Waugh, Scientific Director of the Loro Parque Foundation at the time of this study, for his support and his inestimable help. To Mr W. Kiessling and the board of counsellors of the Loro Parque Foundation for offering me the chance to carry out this work, as well as to Dr J. Steinbacher who helped with the expenses of my journey to Tenerife. And to Prof. Helga Gerlach and Dr Susan Club, as well as to the veterinarian staff of Loro Parque for their help.

Juan Cornejo, Hoyarrasa 30, Alcobendas 28109, Madrid, Spain. (E-mail:

Dear Sir,
Several excellent articles in I.Z.N. 46:3 caught my imagination and are, I feel, worthy of comment. Amanda Embury's Guest Editorial and Stephen Woollard's discussion of _zoo education's higher purpose' comple-mented each other nicely, and much of what they both say makes perfect sense: of course zoos should _maintain a consistent image', by putting into practice the environmental ideals which they preach - and not just because of the educational impact of doing so. They should do so because it is right and proper to, for example, incorporate energy-saving devices into a new building - and if this example is observed and followed by visitors, then so much the better.
However, I feel slightly uneasy when Mr Woollard begins advocating that zoos should challenge _the very foundations of [their visitors'] way of life and attitudes' - and claims that such a _reconceptualisation of the way people live' represents _zoo education's higher purpose'. By all means zoos should encourage their visitors towards a more environmentally-friendly way of life, but such encouragement works best, I feel, when it is gentle: as Ms Embury suggests, a properly presented gorilla will, in itself, elicit sympathy for the forests of Cameroon. Throw in advice and information - for those who want it - about what someone in, say, Bristol can do to further the cause of gorillas, and draw the parallel between events in West Africa and the west of England. But that, surely, is as far as a zoo can realistically go. I am not convinced that anything more overtly didactic will achieve the desired effect on zoo visitors who, in an overwhelming majority, make their visit in order to see, enjoy and learn a little about a collection of interesting animals.
My first task as an English teacher is to encourage a love of literature amongst my pupils. Only when they are imbued with such love can those pupils truly begin to understand the nuances of the construction, characterisation and plotting of a novel. Without it, they can be taught these things, and can then regurgitate them in an exam, but as for understanding . . . I don't think so. Certainly those pupils will not voluntarily pick up a copy of Jude the Obscure or Bleak House when they leave school. So too, I feel, in a zoo. Surely the main purpose of zoo education is to enable visitors to appreciate fully the wonder of an okapi, a chameleon or a hornbill. It may be a word which is frowned upon, but visitors should be encouraged to love animals - and I can think of no _higher purpose' than that.
Which brings me to a third article in the same issue of I.Z.N.: that which detailed the new earthworm exhibit at Fort Wayne Children's Zoo. Earthworms are not, of course, an endangered species, and yet this zoo has decided to allocate money, time and energy to the development of a display of them - what a tremendous idea! The objectives of attempting to _pique the public's interest' and kindle their _enthusiasm' for worms are excellent ones - and the message that _worms make the world a better place' is imparted by the exhibit too. Fort Wayne Children's Zoo does not sound to be a revolutionary establishment which is attempting to change the way people live. But it does appear to be encouraging an interest in, respect for, and love of animals - even earthworms - which is surely a very _high purpose' to which zoos should aspire.
Yours sincerely,
John Tuson,
c/o VSO Office,
P.O. Box 6297,
Dar es Salaam,

Dear Sir,
I applaud the recent articles by Stephen Woollard which draw the attention of readers to education programmes in zoos and the aims of management in this field. However, it is as yet a one-sided commentary, because the providers of the courses are the _Producers'. The visitors are the _Consumers'.
Education is essentially a two-way process, from the people teaching to those learning and vice versa. We educators have increasingly realised that if we do not understand the learners, what their ideas about a concept already are when we try to teach, and the way in which the concepts are constructed by them, we fail in our task. In zoos and other sites where learners can observe living organisms at first hand, we also need to know and understand the ways in which the learners interact with the exhibits. Such knowledge is particu-larly important for the formal education which occurs in zoos - those visits made by schools which are part of the curriculum delivery and entitle-ment of the pupils. It is also important for the public under-standing of science, which is the domain within which leisure visits of families - and other groups not within the school auspices - fall. The view of these 'consumers' is little researched as yet, but is an area of increasing attention in educational research. Zoo education should embrace the pedagogy of learning about animals and all the associated concepts before it can hope to achieve a real educational impact.
Yours sincerely,
Dr S.D. Tunnicliffe,
18 Octavia,
Berkshire RG12 7YZ, U.K.
[Dr Tunnicliffe is a Senior Research Associate in the Biology Department, Homerton College, Cambridge, and an OFSTED primary school inspector; she was formerly Head of Education at the Zoological Society of London.]


HANCOCK HOUSE ENCYCLO-PEDIA OF THE LORIES by Rosemary Low. Hancock House, 1998. 432 pp., 175 colour photos, maps, hardback. ISBN 0-88839-413-6. Available only by post from Hancock House Publishers, 1431 Harrison Avenue, Blaine, Washington 98230-5005, U.S.A. (Tel.: 604-538-1114; Fax: 604-538-2262, E-mail:, price US$70.00, plus postage $5.00 (surface anywhere), $22.00 (airmail Europe), or $30.00 (airmail elsewhere).
Rosemary Low will need no intro-duction to parrot enthusiasts. Her practical experience with these birds extends back nearly 40 years, both as a private keeper and as curator of two of the world's biggest public collec-tions. She must long ago have lost count of the books and articles she has written on the Psittacidae - the bibliography of the relevant volume of the Handbook of the Birds of the World has 61 references under her name! One of her earliest books was Lories and Lorikeets (1977), which remained the standard work on this subfamily until the appearance of the Hancock House Encyclopedia of the Lories. The distinction between the terms _lory' and _lorikeet', inciden-tally, lacks precision and varies from author to author; _lories' in a broad sense may be taken to include the lorikeets as well, so the Encyclopedia covers all 53 members of the Loriinae.
Although Rosemary Low has had dealings with as many parrot species as anyone alive, she has always been especially fond of the lories, and today they form the overwhelming majority of her private collection. _Their color, behavior and personalities,' she writes, _are a source of never-ending joy.' Colour, obviously, is the first thing that strikes most people on seeing these birds - even among such a showy group as the parrots, lories stand out as gaudier than most. But everyone who has kept them seems to agree that their character is as attractive as their plumage. It is hardly surprising that they have become popular pets; but this, of course, is one reason why so many of them are now seriously at risk. (Twelve species are currently classi-fied as Endangered or Vulner-able.) Rosemary Low is keenly aware of the need to safeguard lories in the wild, and of the importance of captive breeding as one factor in their conservation. Lories are in general fairly easy to breed; unfortunately, though, as she points out, this is not true of many of the rarest species or subspecies, especially small island endemics. A case in point is the exceptionally beautiful Tahiti blue lory (Vini peruviana), whose precari-ous status and problematic captive management are given very full coverage here.
The Encyclopedia must be one of the finest books ever devoted to a group of parrots. It falls into two main sections. First comes a 150-page alphabetical listing of topics, running through from Art, Lories in, to Zoos, Lory Exhibits in. In between it covers a great variety of subjects, from practical guidance on husbandry to technical scientific notes. Every entry makes interesting and enjoyable reading as a little essay in its own right, and the author's extensive experience constantly shines through. The alphabetical form of arrangement is not common in books of this kind, and previously I would have ques-tioned its suitability, but this book makes me reconsider the matter. (Perhaps, though, it takes a Rosemary Low to make the format work.)
The second section consists of separate accounts of each species. Most books on groups of birds are biased one way or another, giving detailed information on natural history but little or nothing on aviculture, or vice versa: the Encyclopedia is unusual in giving equal space to both. The space allotted is generous - anything up to eight or nine big pages on some species. Finally, I should mention the _Photo Essay' in the centre of the book - 48 pages of colour plates illustrating both the various species and other aspects of lory _lore'. Hancock House are becoming widely known as publishers of magnificent books on birds, with special emphasis on conservation-oriented captive management (see, for example, my review of Cranes in I.Z.N. 44:3, pp. 156-7); the Hancock House Encyclopedia of the Lories will further enhance their reputation.
Nicholas Gould

THE SOCIAL REGULATION OF COMPETITION AND AGGRESSION IN ANIMALS by Martin H. Moynihan. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1998. xv + 158 pp., hardback. ISBN 1-56098-788-x. £19.95 or $27.50. PRIMATE COGNITION by Michael Tomasello and Josep Call. Oxford University Press, 1997. ix + 517 pp., paperback. ISBN 0-19-510624-5. £27.95.
Ever since Darwin, zoologists have recognised competition, and the aggression which is a natural outcome of competition, as fundamental aspects of animal behaviour. This has often led to a concept of animal life as a continual 'struggle for existence', all against all. Yet a very little observation of animals in the wild is enough to convince us that this is a misleading picture: what strikes the observer is ordered, often elaborate, social behaviour. Competition and aggression may underlie everything else, but in normal life they are controlled in an astonishingly effective way. The Social Regulation of Competition and Aggression in Animals is about the ways in which this control takes place.
The author, Martin Moynihan (who, sadly, died just before putting the finishing touches to this book) was the founding director of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, and a field biologist with deep experience of such diverse groups as gulls, New World primates and cephalopods. So the theories he expounds in this short but densely-packed book are backed up by a wide range of illustrative examples. He draws attention to the variety of factors that can control conflict between animals. For example, well-armed species need to be especially careful to avoid intra-specific fighting whenever possible; this is obvious in the case of carnivores, but Moynihan cites instead the 'spear-billed' kingfishers and rollers, showing how their potentially lethal weapons are controlled. Again, ecological factors may have effects which are far from obvious: in a large area of similar habitat, individuals have to become tolerant or face an endless succession of conflicts with intruders. A better-known case occurs where individuals of a species are crowded together - colonially nesting seabirds, for example. Here, conflict avoidance is essential, and often takes a highly ritualised form.
It is astonishing how many aspects of animal behaviour can be shown to relate to Moynihan's general theme - not only such simple behaviours as habituation and retreat, but also more intricate interactions such as redirec-tion attacks, scent marking, allo-preening or allogrooming, and dominance relationships. Signalling is fundamental to the evolution of strategies for regulating aggression, and Moynihan describes how diver-gent social signals can accomplish similar ends, and also, by contrast, how the same signal can play different roles depending on the particular circumstances of each social con-frontation. Many behaviourists, pre-occupied primarily by evolutionary theory, tend to focus on the long-term advantages of social strategies, paying little attention to the mechanics of day-to-day intraspecific interactions. Moynihan, in the light of his own and others' field studies, emphasises observation rather than mathematical models, thus bringing ethology back down to earth, where it belongs.
The authors of Primate Cognition _attempt to review all that is scientifically known about nonhuman primate cognition' - an ambitious aim, but one which is substantially fulfilled in this weighty volume. Indeed, it seems likely to remain the standard reference on the subject for a decade or two, at least. The choice of the term 'cognition', rather than 'intelligence', is a deliberate one. 'Intelligence', the authors say, _is a concept designed by psychometricians for the specific purpose of discriminating among human individuals in terms of a single quantitative scale . . . , not for com-paring the cognitive skills of different species of animals who may have very different orientations to the world. It is simply not meaningful or useful to discuss . . . which animal species is _ "more intelligent'' . . . than another. . . Where there is a need, we may speak of cognitive adaptations as more or less complex.'
In accordance with this statement of policy, much of the book's tendency is to bring the great apes closer to other primates (monkeys, at least) and further from humans, and likewise primates as a whole closer to other mammals. The advocates of 'rights for great apes' will find little here to support their campaign. In the authors' view, most of the differences in cognition that have been claimed between apes and monkeys derive from three tendencies to which human beings are liable: to see apes as 'more intelligent' because they look more like us, express emotions in ways we relate to more closely, and are more nearly related to us phylogenetically; to treat all monkeys as a group without regard to differences between species, and to use chimpanzees as representative of great apes in general; and to ignore differences in the experiential background of subjects, in particular the fact that apes who have been raised and trained by humans may not be good exemplars of their conspecifics in the wild, whereas monkeys have not been raised in the same way to see if they would be equally responsive to human training and culture. As to the supposed differences between primates and other mammals, Tomasello and Call ask how far these stem from the fact that most mammal species have hardly been studied at all with an eye to their cognitive skills. Also, largely because of their close relationship to us, we have generally studied primates in ways which emphasise their cognitive resemblances to us.
This argument should not be carried too far. The authors do finally concede that 'it is still possible to defend the hypothesis that primates - at least simian primates - have some cognitive capacities and skills that are unique among mammals.' An example is their ability to understand 'tertiary relationships' - that is, interactions and relationships that other objects and individuals have with one another, in which the observer is not directly involved. For example, having solved several 'oddity' problems, in which they have to pick the odd one out in a set of three objects, many primates can at once pick out the odd one in a new set, implying the ability to see the 'oddity relationship' in the new problem immediately; no non-primate animal has yet been shown reliably to do this.
Despite minimising the distinction between great apes and the rest, they do admit some probable differences. Mirror self-recognition, for example, may be confined to the great apes (though some recent work with monkeys seems to cast doubt even on this). On tool use, the evidence is confusing; in the wild it is almost confined to chimps, but in captivity capuchin monkeys, among others, can become surprisingly proficient. (Another oddity is that orang-utans, who hardly ever use tools in the wild, are in captivity perhaps the most adept tool-users of all.)
The belief that infant humans and apes only begin to diverge drama-tically at two or three years of age is another long-standing notion that takes a knock in Primate Cognition. True, human babies at a year old _reflect in a quite straightforward way the basic primate cognitive adapta-tions for interacting effectively with the physical world' - for example, categorising objects, using tools and estimating quantities. But _in the social domain . . . we see qualitative differences between human and nonhuman primates from soon after birth', and by one year old the uniquely human aspects of cognitive development are well established, the key process being the special way in which human infants _identify' with other members of their species. The authors suggest - perhaps contro-versially - that this ability probably developed relatively recently (i.e. within the last 100,000 or even 50,000 years), and thus long after the evolutionary differentiation of humans from other primates.
Despite the massive amount of research summarised in this book, it is important to note the relatively narrow base on which our knowledge of primate cognition currently rests. In particular, the range of species studied is small; Tomasello and Call point out that perhaps only one-tenth of the 180+ primate species have been extensively observed, and these - largely great apes, baboons, macaques and capuchins - are in no way representative. We know next to nothing about cognition in e.g. gibbons, colobine monkeys or pro-simians; and even in the most-studied species there are big gaps in our knowledge. The final admission - a brave one for the authors of a 500-page book on the subject to make - is that most of the groundwork for a definitive account of primate cognition has yet to be done. But for anyone who wants an authoritative summary of our knowledge to date, Primate Cognition is essential reading.
Nicholas Gould

COLLINS BIRD GUIDE by Lars Svensson and Peter J. Grant, with illustrations by Killian Mullarney and Dan Zetterström. HarperCollins, 1999. 400 pp., hardback. ISBN 0-00-219728 -6. £24.99. BIRD CALL IDENTIFICATION by Geoff Sample. HarperCollins, 1998. 64 pp., hardback, with compact disc. ISBN 0-00-220122-4. £14.99. COLLINS FIELD GUIDE: BIRD NESTS, EGGS AND NESTLINGS OF BRITAIN AND EUROPE by Colin Harrison and Peter Castell. Harper-Collins, revised ed., 1998. 462 pp., hardback. ISBN 0-00-220125-9. £17.99. COLLINS ILLUSTRATED CHECK-LIST: BIRDS OF SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA AND ANTARC-TICA by Martín R. de la Peña and Maurice Rumboll. HarperCollins, 1998. 304 pp., paperback. ISBN 0-00-220077-5. £19.99. WILD ANIMALS OF BRITAIN AND EUROPE by John A. Burton. HarperCollins, 1998. 227 pp., paper-back. ISBN 0-00-220008-2. £6.99.
'Of making many books there is no end,' saith the Preacher, a remark which certainly seems to be true of nature guidebooks. Each new one is inevitably claimed by the publishers to be an improvement on all its predecessors, and the latest Collins Bird Guide is no exception. On this occasion, the publishers may be right. The major problem creators of such books face is one of packaging - how to cram the maximum quantity of information into a volume which will still be small enough to be used in the field. Collins Bird Guide, measuring approximately 145 ´ 200 mm and weighing nearly 800 grams, must be very near the upper limit for a pocket - or perhaps rucksack - bird book. It's also worryingly vulnerable to the rigours of the weather, with a paper dust-wrapper instead of the water-proof vinyl cover which protects some of its rivals. But many owners might in any case prefer to keep such a beautiful book safely at home, and buy something more expendable - ideally, perhaps, a second, working copy of this book - for use on field trips.
The guide has had a long gestation. It was as early as 1982 that the two authors and one of the illustrators conceived the idea of producing _the perfect field guide'. Throughout, it has been an Anglo-Swedish cooperative effort, and it now appears simul-taneously in both countries and both languages. Perhaps the most striking feature of the finished work is the sheer number of illustrations of each species: those of the gannet, to take just one example, show an adult in summer and winter plumage, a juvenile standing and in flight, and immatures in their second, third and fourth winters (with two variants of the latter), as well as several birds in distant view giving some idea of _jizz' in flight and diving.
Collins Bird Guide also scores very highly in the quality of its text. Apart from unusually full species notes, many groups - birds of prey, waders, gulls etc. - have a page or more of general introductory notes, with basic birdwatching tips and discussion of common problems. But, wisely, the authors don't claim to have all the answers: I like the comment - on skuas - _Even experts (at least sensible experts!) leave some birds unidentified.' Even the typo-graphy makes its contribution to the overall user-friendliness of the book; for instance, in the Identification section on each species, italic type is used to draw attention to the most important diagnostic features.
The area covered by the book is the now customary one, Europe, North Africa and the nearer part of the Middle East. The distribution maps are small, but for the benefit of readers in the British Isles a system of symbols packs a great deal of national status data into a minute space; e.g. for the bittern, the formula rB5/W4 tells one that the bird is a resident but rare (i.e. around 100 pairs or fewer) breeder, and a scarce or local winter visitor. When it comes to vagrants, accidentals, and intro-duced or escaped species, compilers of bird guides always have the problem of deciding what to include or leave out. These authors adopt a fairly conservative stance; for example, only one psittacine, the rose-ringed para-keet, now well established in several areas, appears in the main part of the book, with another, the monk parakeet, relegated to one of several appendices listing miscellaneous mavericks. This, I think, is in sensible contrast with e.g. the Collins Pocket Guide to Birds of Britain and Europe (1995), which includes seven Psitta-cidae (including the budgerigar, which - despite numerous attempts - has so far failed to become naturalised anywhere in the region). When space is at a premium, it's better not to waste it on rarely seen - and in many cases readily identifiable - exotics.
Every bird guide tries to include calls and songs, which are, of course, important aids to species identifi-cation. Many people have serious doubts how useful phonetic represen-tations of bird sounds can be. But in the introduction to Collins Bird Guide, the authors come out strongly in favour of their own transcriptions, and discuss the theory behind them. It is clear that they have given the matter much thought, and haven't simply copied what they found in earlier books. Take the lapwing, for example: most books give its call as something like _peewit' (which indeed is one of the bird's alternative English names). Svensson and Grant offer something much more elaborate - _chae-widdlewip, i-wip i-wip . . . cheee-o-wip'. This sounds convincing, but is it really more accurate? Importantly, could a novice identify the call from this printed description? I'll be in lapwing country in a couple of weeks, so I'll test it out.
There's no doubt, though, that the compact disc has revolu-tionised the learning process in this branch of ornithology. I enthused over Geoff Sample's previous book and CD in an earlier review (I.Z.N. 43:4, p. 239), so I won't repeat myself now. Enough to say that Bird Call Identification contains 130 species omitted from the first guide, as well as more detailed treatment of some which were included there. As before, Mr Sample's comments are a rare blend of immense knowledge and a pleasantly informal manner.
The rest of this batch of HarperCollins books must be covered more briefly. Collins Field Guide: Bird Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of Britain and Europe is a revised edition of a work first published in 1975. Though it's described as a field guide, it's hard to imagine that many birdwatchers would regularly carry it in the field - nine times out of ten (at least), one recognises a nest and its contents by observing the parents. So I prefer to regard this primarily as a reference work on the subject of bird repro-duction. The colour plates of nestlings impressed me mainly by the extent to which they emphasise the similarity of related species at an early age. Those of eggs, on the other hand, are varied and beautiful, and reminded me how seldom bird books these days deal with egg identification - much less, if memory serves, than they used to 40 or 50 years ago. Perhaps the subject, tainted by the evils per-petrated by collectors, is no longer regarded as _politically correct'? It is significant that the authors begin this book with a warning on the risks of nest disturbance.
The Illustrated Checklist Birds of Southern South America and Antarc-tica is a useful newcomer on the Collins list, an adapted translation of M.R. de la Peña's Guía de las Aves Argentinas (1992), expanded to include Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and southern Brazil, as well as the Falkland Islands and the adjacent parts of Antarctica. This is a vast and diverse region, home to birds as varied in their ecological require-ments as hyacinth macaw and emperor penguin. Over a thousand species are illustrated, with brief notes on identification opposite each colour plate, and there are clear, adequately large distribution maps in a separate 72-page appendix.
Wild Animals of Britain and Europe is one of a series of Collins Wild Guides designed for children and other beginners. It contains one-page accounts of over 200 species, with colour photo, distribution map and basic data. _Animals' here means mammals, reptiles and amphibians; nearly all the common species in north-western Europe, including marine ones, are included, together with a few from further south. An excellent gift for a nature-loving child, this seems an obvious choice for the book section of the zoo shop.
Nicholas Gould

Recent publications
Muskox Husbandry - A Guide for the Care, Feeding and Breeding of Captive Muskoxen by Pamela Groves (1992). Biological Papers of the University of Alaska, Special Report No. 5, 148 pp. Price: US$30.00 (foreign orders add 15%). Please pay by check or money order in US funds (no international postal money orders). To be ordered from: Biological Papers University of Alaska, Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775-0180, U.S.A.
* * * * *
Poisonous Plants: A Veterinary Guide to Toxic Syndromes (CD-ROM) by Murray Fowler, DVM. Published by Iowa State University Press, 2121 South State Avenue, Ames, Iowa 50014-8300, U.S.A. Available for Windows and Power Mac at $89.95.
Approximately 1,000 plants - including fungi - that are poisonous to animals (and humans) appear in this easy-to-use, full-color diagnostic tool and reference. Three cross-referenced indexes make each plant instantly accessible by common name, scientific name, and poisonous syndromes (groupings of plants by similar toxins, effects, structures and other common relationships). Each plant selected by common or scientific name appears on its own page with one or more full-color photographs and detailed information, including common name, scientific name, poisonous parts, and links to pages for related plants. Icons on each plant description page provide access to additional information including: poisonous principle, distribution (native habitat), common circumstances in which poisoning occurs, clinical signs, diagnosis (lab tests/pathology) and management or treatment.
To order, phone 1-800-862-6657.
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North American Rodents: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan compiled and edited by David J. Hafner, Eric Yensen and Gordon L. Kirkland, Jr. IUCN/SSC Rodent Specialist Group, 1998. x + 171 pp. ISBN 2-8317-0463-4. £16.00 or US$24.00 from IUCN Publications Services Unit, 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, U.K. (Tel.: ++441-223-277-894; Fax: ++441-223-277-175; E-mail:

Extracts from the English translation of the Annual Report 1998
Projects supported in 1998 by the zoo's conservation fund, the _Bern-hardine Fund', included purchase of leg rings and a telescope for a Dalmatian pelican study in the Danube Delta of Romania, publication of a Russian children's book about Amur leopards, maintenance of a breeding centre in the Philippines, reintroduction of European minks in Estonia and genetic research to assess variation between populations of red pandas in China. Also, a Rotterdam Zoo keeper was sent to Thailand for two months to offer help and experience at a rescue centre for confiscated animals.
The International Red Panda Studbook No. 10 appeared in 1998. It can be seen that captive breeding of this species has greatly improved over time, resulting in a viable inter-national zoo population. The second Small Nocturnal Madagascan Pro-simian (Cheirogaleids) European Studbook was also published. This studbook contains information on three species of this group held in Europe: lesser mouse lemur (Micro-cebus murinus), Coquerel's mouse lemur (Mirza coquereli) and fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius). Rotterdam Zoo personnel were involved in the organization of a dwarf lemur workshop during the 17th meeting of the International Primate Society, held in Madagascar in 1998. The workshop focused on the exchange of theoretical information about these primates.
Personnel from the zoo, which holds the EEP flamingo TAG chair, took a leading role in organizing the International Flamingo Specialist Group meeting in Miami, U.S.A. More than 90 participants from 23 countries exchanged information about flamingos and their conservation. The foundation was laid for development of the International Flamingo Action Plan, coordinated by Rotterdam Zoo. A student from the Free University in Amsterdam, supervised by the zoo biology department, surveyed flamingo field researchers and undertook a literature study of status and con-servation issues of flamingos through-out the world. This information was compiled into a report for use in establishing flamingo conservation priorities and gaps in knowledge.
Research and veterinary care
Development of the Automatic Sea Animal Feeder (ASAF) took approxi-mately a year and a half of experimentation with ideas, materials and techniques, and the involvement of two external companies. The feeder is first being tried with the 2.0 northern sea otters (Enhydra l. lutris); as these animals are possibly the most innovative and active of potential beneficiaries, they serve as a suitable test case. The ASAF must be strong enough to withstand the corrosive effect of salt water and the even more destructive play of the sea otters. It should also be easily adapted to enclosures for other animals to be held in the _Oceanium', now under construction; for example, such a dispenser has long been planned for the Bass Rock seabird enclosure. The food (shrimps, fish, squid, shellfish and crabs) is placed in two carousels and is sent in portions by the computer to the distribution system, from which it is channelled to one of two _take away' stations, one under and one above water. The computer can be programmed to release the food portions at intervals of a selected time length, or the interval between releases can be randomized. The computer also selects which station the food is released from, providing further unpredictability. The sea otter feedings are now spread throughout the entire day via this computerized food dispenser.
Research projects carried out in 1998 included a study of acceptability of different food pellets by parrots, and a possible connection between diet and the occurrence of epilepsy in colobus monkeys. The amount of Vitamin D3 precursor in the blood of Komodo dragons and the influence of UVB light on this was monitored by zoo staff, and a student project to study the influence of UVB light on growth and behaviour of dragon lizards (Amphibolurus rankeni) was initiated.
A study was carried out on the behaviour of sandbar sharks (Carcha-rhinus plumbeus), and a study on synthesis of fatty acids by sharks initiated. Sharks are extremely sensitive to currents, and current patterns can affect their behaviour; so current flow patterns in the shark basin in the former Amazon Hall were mapped by a student from Delft Technical University. These data and similar information from other tanks will be used to try to design the most favourable situation in the new shark basin in the Oceanium.
The growing flamingo colony remained a subject of study in 1998, and the best breeding results ever were achieved. Seventeen young hatched, of which 13 were reared. It was found that pairs interested in nesting but without an egg would incubate an egg and rear a chick. Information on social relationships and breeding behaviour useful in management of the colony continues to grow, thanks to the efforts of volunteer observers.
A project was undertaken to establish how water quality could be best monitored in the new Oceanium, as enormous amounts of water must be supplied. Various sea organisms were tested for suitability as water quality indicators, and it was found that upside-down jellyfish (Cassiopeia andromeda) are highly sensitive to the smallest deterioration in water quality; so they will be used regularly in the future to assess quality of incoming water.
An ongoing project to monitor Salmonella bacteria present in the zoo was undertaken in 1998, using faecal samples collected for routine parasite checks and material from animals that died of other causes. A Porcine Zona Pellucida (PZP) contraceptive vaccine that seems to be more effective than a previously used one was successful with an addax and two bantengs. A massive mortality problem with postman butterfly (Heliconius melpomene) caterpillars was greatly reduced - from 80% to 5% - by the use of a different disinfectant, Martindale TCP Liquid. It is thought that a baculo-virus was responsible for the high death rate: future research will try to determine causes of individual differences in susceptibility to the disease, patterns of disease transmission, and which caterpillars are most likely to carry the virus without showing clinical signs.
A long-house specially built in Indonesia was transported in pieces and reassembled in the zoo; it has been furnished with educational and non-educational items that provide the visitor with an impression of a real long-house, and also doubles as a classroom, while stalls for banteng and a winter enclosure for the white and Dalmatian pelicans are built underneath it. The Egyptian fruit bat enclosure was adapted to prohibit contact between people and the bats, because it was discovered that the bats carry a Lyssavirus related to rabies [see I.Z.N. 46:3, pp. 179-180]. Should it be clearly demonstrated that this virus poses no threat to humans, the bat grotto can be readily returned to its previous form. The bromeliad house has been transformed into a butterfly house, and the experience gained in butterfly husbandry here will be applied to construction of butterfly housing in the new Oceanium. A special fish quarantine area was set up in preparation for the animals to be acquired for the Oceanium.
The year got off to a good start when Indian rhinoceros Namaste delivered her first offspring, a healthy son Kaila Padam, on 4 January. The excellent care given to the baby by its mother could be observed by visitors via a monitor. Two Asian elephant half-brothers, Timber and Maxim, were born to first-time mothers Yu Yu Yin and Kaing Phyo Phyo within weeks of each other. Timber's birth on 13 February did not occur until almost three days after Kaing Phyo Phyo's water broke, which usually indicates a fatality. Yet to everyone's great relief, despite the difficult birth he proved to be very healthy, standing after one-and-a-half hours and drinking from his mother's breast after just two hours. Yu Yu Yin's handling of her newly born son was initially of concern, but both calves are growing well. Sadly, however, the breeding bull Asian elephant, Ramon, father of all the calves born at the zoo since 1984, died of a stroke just after successfully inseminating the cow Douanita. Her calf is expected some time in the spring of 2000. The three-year-old female Indira died of an infection later in the year. The loss of the young bull Ben in 1997, followed by Ramon's death, meant that two other bulls to sire future offspring must be sought. The 12-year-old bull Palong, a gift from Singapore Zoo, arrived in August, and in November 21-year-old Alexander arrived on breeding loan from Münster.
Chinese hoofstock reared in 1998 included 0.1 Thorold's deer, 1.0 blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur szechuan-ensis) and 1.0 Sichuan takin (Bu-dorcas taxicolor tibetana - Rotterdam Zoo is the only European institution holding this takin taxon). Breeding of the Michie's tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus michianus) ceased when the pair imported from Shanghai died, leaving two daughters. A male from the Bronx Zoo arrived via Tierpark Berlin, but died during the course of the year. Another male was fortunately acquired in September from Leipzig Zoo, and has been placed with the two females. Other hoofstock born in 1998 (all EEP species) included 2.0 reticulated giraffe (1 DNS), 1.0 southern pudu, 0.1 anoa, 1.1 addax, 0.1 Przewalski's horse, and 0.1 okapi. A female greater kudu (a European studbook species) delivered a calf shortly after arriving from Zürich Zoo.
Two Madagascan species seldom seen in European zoos, Malagasy jumping rat (1.1) and Alaotran gentle lemur (3.1), arrived from Jersey Zoo. Primate births included 0.2 cotton-top tamarin and 1.0 gorilla, D'jeeco, who is being reared within the group by his mother Dura. A group of 2.1 Sulawesi crested macaques arrived from Boras Zoo, Sweden, in April and will be joined by some conspecifics from Chester. As soon as the group, temporarily placed in the monkey house, is stable it will replace the crab-eating macaques in their Asian exhibit.
Both the bush pigs (Potamochoerus porcus pictus) and the wart hogs gave birth to 1.2.1 young and reared 1.2. These piglets were the first of both species to be reared at the zoo and were greatly enjoyed by visitors. Births of EEP carnivore species included 1.1 European otter and 3.2.1 (0.0.1 DNS) European mink. Notable departures included that of 1.0 Thorold's deer when his father began to harass him, and of the entire group of common squirrel monkeys. The extremely popular young male polar bears, Taco and Winner, left for Santiago Zoo in Chile.
The parental rearing of 0.0.9 black-footed penguins was undoubtedly one of the most satisfying events in the bird collection in 1998. The reason for the lack of success in previous years could not be determined, nor could the change in fortune clearly be attributed to any changes in management, but it is hoped that this trend will continue. Other EEP bird species reared in 1998 included 1.1 white-naped crane, 1.0 hyacinth macaw, 0.0.1 Congo peafowl, 0.1 pink pigeon, 0.2 Scheepmaker's crowned pigeon and 6.2.2 Bali starling. All of these birds were parent-reared with the exception of the Congo peafowl. The very disappointing deaths of both breeding females and a male palm cockatoo, and the transfer of the two (1.1) parent-reared chicks from 1995 and 1997 to Beauval Zoo, France, has left only 1.0 in the collection; this bird killed his last mate, but is one of only a few males to have parent-reared young in the palm cockatoo EEP.
Although it was not successfully reared, the hatching of a blue-eyed cockatoo (Cacatua ophthalmica) was considered very positive. The mother, parent-reared at Rotterdam in 1984, had made no breeding attempts with the males that she was placed with until now. Her mate is a male received from Taipei Zoo in 1995 who is not yet genetically represented in the European population. Although the white-tailed cockatoos (Calypto-rhynchus latirostris) reared a chick in 1997, the female did not sit on her eggs or on the dummies provided for her in 1998, so two (1.1) chicks from two clutches were hand-reared. Seven Rothschild's peacock pheasants hatched, of which 4.1 survived; an international studbook is held for this species.
The threatened white-winged wood ducks received in 1995 hatched chicks for the first time, but at least eight died because of paternal aggression; the last two were rescued and hand-reared. The Cuban amazons (A. leucocephala) received in 1997 reared 2.0 chicks in their first breeding attempt. There were some firsts for the raptors: the Brahminy kites hatched a chick, as did the great grey owls (Strix nebulosa) and the hawk owls (Surinia ulula). Although the kites and great grey owls did not succeed in their first parenting attempts, the hawk owls reared 0.2 young. The red-and-yellow barbets reared young for the first time in 1998; 1.0.5 chicks hatched in three clutches, and 1.0.4 were reared. The Blyth's hornbills bred, but - eerily similar to events in 1994 - the young bird died close to fledging and within a short time of the death of its father. The father appears to have died of iron-storage disease, but the cause of the chick's death is unknown. At least 15 eggs were laid by two pairs of toco toucans, but in the end only the first one laid hatched. The chick was hand-reared because it was feared that the female would be unable to feed it, as the end of her bill has been blunted by an injury.
Six bush stone curlews (Burhinus magnirostris) arrived from Melbourne Zoo to add genetic diversity to the European stock; two were sent on to Planckendael Zoo in Belgium. A group of 2.3 hooded pittas, parent-reared at Burgers Zoo, the Netherlands, were received, of which 2.1 have survived. A species that proved much more difficult to acquire than expected was the Java sparrow (Padda oryzivora), selected for exhibit in the Asian area, but finally a group of 0.0.16 was purchased from a private breeder. A pair of the stunning Javanese green peafowl (Pavo m. muticus) were acquired for placement in a new Asian exhibit.
Reptiles and amphibians
A total of 99 individuals of nine reptile taxa were born in 1998. Exciting achievements included the rearing of a lace monitor (Varanus varius) and 0.0.11 ridge-tailed moni-tors (V. acanthurus). However, the death of Sura, the adult, egg-laying female Komodo dragon, was a great disappointment. A group of 0.0.5 Gillen's pygmy mulga (V. gilleni), a species new to the collection, was received from Melbourne Zoo, and two (1.1) green tree monitors (V. prasinus) were acquired to increase the possibility of breeding success with this attractive species, of which 2.3 were already present in the collection.
Six Philippine sail-finned water dragons (Hydrosaurus pustulatus) and one whiptail Cnemidophorus murinus were reared in 1998. New lizard arrivals included 2.3 shingleback skinks (Tiliqua rugosus), 2.0 black chuckwallas (Sauromalus hispidus), a breeding pair of spiny-tailed iguana Ctenosaura melanosternum, and 2.1 spiny lizards Sceloporus taeniocnemis. The last two species are new to the collection. Turtles reared included 0.0.2 Malayan box turtles (Cuora amboinensis) and 0.0.6 Australian snake-necked turtles (Chelodina longicollis). A total of 58 African spurred tortoise eggs hatched, of which 39 young were sent to Senegal for a reintroduction programme.
The only snakes bred were 0.0.12 Russian rat snakes (Elaphe schrencki) and 0.0.2 stillborn San Francisco garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia). All of the Children's pythons and white-lipped pythons were lost to a pneumonia infection. The 2.1 Cuban boas had to be euthanised because of tuberculosis; a new group of 3.2.1 animals, 3.2 hatched at Aalborg Zoo, Denmark, and 0.0.1 wild-caught, has been acquired for eventual placement in the Oceanium.
The 1.3 Chinese alligators were moved to a specially furnished and more spacious enclosure in 1997. While no serious aggression had been observed in the smaller enclosure in previous years, in 1998 aggression became so intense that it was necessary to place 0.2 elsewhere, and they were transferred to Plzen Zoo in the Czech Republic.
Welcome successes in the amphibian collection were the rearing of 0.0.1 dyeing poison-arrow frog and 0.0.8 blue poison-arrow frog. Breeding of European fire salamanders has also been very successful: 0.0.21 meta-morphosed in 1998 and another 38 larvae hatched.
Fishes and invertebrates
The high point of the year was undoubtedly the birth of 0.0.4 leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata). The young are growing well and constitute a European, if not world, first breeding. There were 0.0.32 grey bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium arabi-cum) and 0.0.25 brown-spotted cat-sharks (C. punctatum) produced in 1998. Five small hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo) replaced the blacktip reef sharks in the mangrove exhibit.
The opening of the Oceanium in the spring of 2000 is largely determining the changes in the fish and invertebrate collections. Suitable enclosures outside of Rotterdam Zoo are being sought for species that do not fit into the Oceanium concept, while species to be placed there are being gradually acquired. Thus some large Indo-Pacific fish were donated to Burgers' Zoo in Arnhem. In addition to the above-mentioned hammerhead sharks, 0.0.7 silver surfperch (Hyper-proposon ellipticum), 0.0.16 shiner seaperch (Cymatogaster aggregata), kelp greenling (Hexagrammosus deca-grammus) and Pacific sand dabs (Cith-arichthys stigameus) were acquired, as well as some inverte-brates from California kelp forest. Of 0.0.20 lookdowns (Selene vomer) received, only a disheartening 0.0.4 have survived.
The breeding efforts with dusky anemone fish (Amphiprion melanopus) and neon goby (Gobiosoma oceanops) were disappointing - only one ane-mone fish was produced from the thousands of eggs produced by both species. A large red-tailed catfish (Phractocephalus heliopterus) was one of the most conspicuous additions to the collection. There were some interesting breeding results; for example 0.0.5 upside-down catfish Synodontis multi-punctatus, 0.0.20 Boeseman's rain-bow-fish (Melanotaenia boesemani), little Nicaragua cichlids (Neetroplus nema-topus) and Managua cichlids (Cichla-soma managuense) were reared.
Marine invertebrate culture has had mixed success: the reproduction of the upside-down jellyfish has been so successful that other Dutch zoos have received offspring. Approximately 0.0.50 cleaner shrimps (Lysmata amboinensis, L. wurdemanni and L. grabhami) and barber shrimp (Steno-pus hispidus) were reared past the larva stage. Culture of food organisms (e.g. unicellular worms, Artemia spp. and rotifers) that form the basis for successful reproduction of many marine animals is being improved.
The annual Index seminum included 259 plant species for which the zoo could offer seeds. As usual the response vas so great that many requests had to be denied. A botanical highlight at the zoo is the blooming of the giant water lily Victoria amazonica; this event was greatly enjoyed by visitors and the press, just as in previous years when it has occurred. Despite the Dutch climate, many exotic and exotic-looking plants were placed in the Malayan Forest Edge exhibit, and many of these will have to be protected from cold in the winter. Sometimes the plants used must have a practical as well as aesthetic function: the holding of postman butterflies in the Bromeliad House requires that an adequate number of passion fruit plants (Passiflora spp.) be present, as the females will only lay their eggs on these plants, and the leaves serve as the sole food source for the voracious caterpillars.
A garden next to the main restaurant was planted with different edible plants such as parsley, savory, clary, gourds, coriander, chives and angelica. Information about which dishes the plants could be used in was provided on information boards resembling dinner plates. These encouraged the visitors to smell and taste the plants, and a folder with spicy menu tips was available within the restaurant. This exhibition was so successful that it will be reinstated in 1999 using another selection of edible plants.

Annual Report 1998
This was _the year of the gorillas'. As the male Lukas, who arrived here from Apenheul in 1997, continued to grow and develop even greater physical presence, his two females produced the first gorilla babies born in Israel. The first, born to Anya (on loan from Rotterdam since 1997) on 4 July 1998, was named Aladdin. He was born in the afternoon outdoors, and in the evening Anya came into the night quarters without him, so he spent his first night outdoors alone, and was found hypothermic in the morning. The veterinarian, Igal Horo-witz, brought his body temperature up, and fed him fluids intravenously. Anya, who had success-fully reared a daughter in her natal group in Rotterdam, was reintroduced to him but showed no interest whatsoever, while father Lukas and auntie Lia (born in Frankfurt Zoo and on loan since 1992) were interested but did not pick him up. So Aladdin was hand-reared by keeper Nati Kovach. At three months he was sleeping through the night, so he was returned to the gorilla house full-time. During the day contact was made through the bars with the three adult gorillas. Lia spent the most time near him, and clearly wanted to mother him, but since we knew she was pregnant we wanted to be sure she would focus on her own baby when he was born. She in fact proved to be an excellent mother when Leon was born on 31 October 1998.
As Aladdin became more active, the question arose when he should join the adults, so as to avoid imprinting and benefit from nurturing in the group. After much discussion and consultation with colleagues in other zoos, he joined the group full-time at exactly six months old, when he was able to walk. He spends his days out with the gorillas, coming to the barred window three times a day to receive a milk bottle from the keeper. He is probably among the youngest hand-reared gorillas to be reintroduced to a group. He was accepted by all three adults, but without any question Lia continued to be the greatest support, carrying him occasionally and helping him when he can't manage a physical challenge. Lukas also scoops him up and carries him on his back, and kisses him from time to time. Mother Anya continues to ignore him. Today the enclosure is transformed by the two growing youngsters, slowly beginning to gain sufficient motor control to play alone and with each other. In retrospect we were in some ways fortunate that the first-born gorilla in our zoo was hand-reared, thus giving the staff the privilege of intimate contact with this wonderful animal.
Chimpanzee Augusta produced another baby, her sixth since she came here, in spite of having a Norplant contraceptive implant. She showed little interest in this infant, leaving her to the rough and tumble play of the three-year-olds. The baby was saved from disastrous rough play, separated from the other youngsters for about a month, and is now developing well.
Other new infants born in other primate groups were 0.1 white-handed gibbon, 1.1 mandrills, 1.1 hamadryas baboons, 1.0 lion-tailed macaque, 1.0 Sulawesi macaque and 1.0 brown capuchin. A new open enclosure was completed for the capuchins, thanks to a donation from Mr Gerard Arnhold of São Paulo, Brazil. The staff were sure that the monkeys would leap for joy out of their small cage into the open enclosure, but in fact it took almost a month for them to have the confidence to do so.
As always, activities involving elephants take a very long time. After a number of delays, two African elephant calves, the female Beauty (aged two) and male Nissim (four) were shipped by air to their new home, Knowsley Park in the U.K. There they joined seven other African elephants, ranging in age from 33 to eight. They were integrated into the group, and can look forward to long summers grazing in a 200-acre (80 ha) pasture and to a secure future in a collection dedicated to the well-being of elephants.
Among the Asian elephants, we lost Aviva this year, at the estimated age of 27. She felt ill and feverish for about two days, showed neurological symptoms, collapsed and died. There was no clear cause of death, and she was apparently in early pregnancy.
The year was made more interesting for the elephant department as Brigitte Neberle of Erlangen Univer-sity made her observations on the social relations among our African cows. In parallel with this, urine and faecal samples were collected for hormone analysis, in order to see if there were correlations with changes in behaviour.
Two leopard cubs (1.1) were born this year, making an attractive exhibit. At the end of the summer the youngsters went to Hai-Bar Yodveta, a collection which exhibits only native Israeli fauna; the cubs substitute for the Israeli leopard subspecies, still extant as relict individuals in remote areas. Cape hunting dog and hyena cubs did not survive.
Africa area
This year we focused more attention on the white rhinos. Since 1992 we have had no births, in a herd which had been a highly successful breeding group. As our animals are free-ranging in a large herd, we do not know the paternity of the offspring. A graduate student is collecting hairs for DNA analysis to determine genetic relationships within the group. At the same time he is spending a year doing observations on social groupings and mating behaviour to see if there is a behavioural background to our problem. Since the sex ratio of rhinos favours males in our herd, we transferred two males to other collections; one young male joined two young females at the Tisch Family Biblical Zoo in Jerusalem in the hopes of forming another breeding group, and the other went to a local zoo. The rhino group now stands at 5.6.
Surviving births this year included 2.2 ibex, 2.0 addax, 0.2 scimitar-horned oryx, 0.0.10 eland, 0.0.3 gnu, 1.0 waterbuck, 4.4 zebra, 3.3 lion. The adult male lions were either vasectomized or castrated at the end of the year.
Thefts continued to plague us this year in this department - we lost several macaws and cockatoos. An alarm system was installed, and hopefully will improve security.
A ground hornbill arrived from Schönbrunn, Austria, as mate for our existing bird. Hatchings included Moluccan cockatoo, umbrella cockatoo, Abyssinian stork, and ten scarlet ibis. Three griffon vulture eggs were transferred to the Israeli reintro-duction project, and one griffon vulture chick was parent-raised.
Amelia Terkel, Curator

Extracts from the English summary of the Annual Report 1998 (with additional material translated from the full report by Nicholas Gould)
The Indian lioness Mena bore her third litter, but regrettably one of the three cubs was stillborn and another had to be euthanized due to deformities. There were welcome offspring amongst the apes - one West African chimpanzee, two lowland gorillas, and an infant in each group of pileated gibbons.
The black rhinoceros male Kifaru, who came to us from Frankfurt Zoo, unfortunately died on 3 March from acute appendicitis. As both of our females, Mtoto and Sabi, are already fairly old, we conducted an intensive search for a sexually mature male, if possible a proven breeder. Parky, born at Whipsnade, came to Zürich from Chester, and we are eagerly awaiting offspring.
As part of our new overall master plan, we ceased to keep two species, greater kudu and screaming hairy armadillo (Chaetophractus vellerosus). The striped snail cichlid from Lake Tanganyika, however, is now repre-sented at our zoo for the first time. In this species, the female lays her eggs and rears her brood in the empty shells of freshwater snails (Neo-thauma sp.). Even after the young have left the shell, they continue to use it as a place of refuge. We have found that the shells of a native vineyard snail make good substitutes for the African species.
In 1989 there were ten king penguins in the zoo. By the middle of 1998 their number had grown to 27 as a result of breeding and exchanges with other zoos. But some of the young males who could not find mates began to pester nesting pairs and still eggs from incubating females, and as a result the breeding rate fell, until in 1998 not a single young bird survived. So at the end of 1998 nine penguins from Zürich went to Brest Aquarium in France, where a new breeding colony is being set up with birds from various zoos; at the same time, we received three young birds from Basel. Now, with a group of 7.10 penguins, nothing should stand in the way of further breeding here.
In the course of the summer we were able to observe at very close range the rearing of two successive broods of wattled jacanas (J. jacana) in an open flight enclosure. The female laid four eggs in April and again in July in the dense growth of a floating water-plant (Pistia sp.), a gift from the local botanical institute. With jacanas, the male is responsible for nest-building, incubation and rearing the young; the female keeps other females away, warns of danger and drives off intruders. Incubation lasted 24 days; after hatching the chicks were looked after by the father, who used the tip of his beak to show them young crickets and other insects. He would take them under his plumage to keep them warm, and as they grew bigger this presented a curious picture, looking like a bird with several legs! After 12 weeks the young birds were able to look after themselves, and shortly afterwards they were removed from the parents' enclosure and given to German zoos for future breeding attempts.
Other notable bird species which bred were double-toothed barbet, red-billed oxpecker and red-legged honeycreeper.
On a sad note, an animal who had long been the oldest in the zoo died on 10 December 1998. The 50 cm long American spotted gar (Lepisosteus tristoechus) was already in the zoo when it opened on 7 September 1929. It is thought that he was already in his second year at the time, so when he died he was at least 71 years old. It is rare for the exact age of a fish to be known. In 1980 Joachim Kormann of Tierpark Berlin reported that a European eel in the aquarium was at least 48 years old, and in 1959 the New York Aquarium's director Ross Nigrelli mentioned a sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) which lived in an aquarium for 69 years and eight months. Nigrita, our female Galapagos tortoise, now holds the honour of oldest animal; she has lived at the zoo since 1946.
Work was completed on a new, state-of-the-art Shoebill Papyrus enclosure, which meets all require-ments for modern animal keeping. The zoo's pair of shoebills are extremely compatible, and we are hopeful that there is a chance of breeding this fascinating bird. In the Rainforest Hall, new developments included the construction of a terrarium for the New Guinea walking-stick insects.

Bristol Zoo, U.K.
Dr David Bellamy opened the zoo's new £2 million _Seal and Penguin Coasts' exhibit on 12 July 1999. The project is the biggest and most exciting that the zoo has ever undertaken. Visitors will be able to see seals and penguins from above the water via an elevated boardwalk and from a _shipwreck', and have stunning views of the animals gliding effort-lessly through the water from transparent underwater tunnels.
There will be three species of penguin, African (an EEP species), king and gentoo. An aviary suspended from masts on the shipwreck over the penguin pool will provide a home for Inca terns, black cormorants and Gough Island moorhens. The South American fur seals will be in a separate pool; both areas will feature beaches, rocky cliffs and a wave machine.
Construction work started on the project last September, and includes a massive water treatment system in a separate building, to keep the 670,000 litres of salt water clear.
Bristol Zoo press release

Burgers' Zoo and Safari, Arnhem, The Netherlands
The zoo's rainforest exhibit, the Bush, measuring 150 by 90 by 20 m, was opened in 1988. It is divided into three _continents'. Although a few animals have separate enclosures, most - particularly the birds - are free-ranging within their continents. From the reptiles and amphibians to the birds and mammals, the Bush's inhabitants are generally selected to fulfil a function in their artificial ecosystem.
Hornbills were an attractive choice for the Bush, but as they are known to eat animal food there was some concern that they might devour their fellow inhabitants. A female wrinkled hornbill (Aceros corrugatus) became available in 1989, and it was decided to try her in the Bush first before setting up a pair. She did not cause much disturbance, so a male was acquired in 1990 and a pair bond soon formed between the two. Wine barrels were made available as nests for the birds, but they showed no interest in them. In 1995 they were offered nest-boxes 76 cm long by 45 cm wide, with a 26 ´ 13 cm opening, placed 21 cm from the base. Ventilation slits were made in the top, and a perch was attached beneath the opening. The base of the box had a slight hollow in the middle, and was covered with a ten-cm layer of peat moss. A sealable 17 ´ 23 cm nest inspection door was also made. Pans containing elephant manure mixed with potting soil and clay, and also, later, cooked potatoes, were offered to the birds to close the nest, but they found their own mud and loam around the Bush. Some mudding-up occurred in 1995, but activity became more serious in 1996.
The female was sealed in on 27 July (day 1), and the calls of the chick were first heard 40 days later. The male began to take much more animal food, both from the food pans and from the Bush, to the nest. A definite preference for foods that were red in colour was observed. The female left the nest on 27 September (day 62), and after two days helped the male to feed the chick. The opening was not resealed, and on 10 October it was noted that the chick was very unresponsive to the parents. It was found to be cold, wet and very dirty, so it was cleaned and the nest material changed. The parents quickly began feeding it again, and the female resealed the nest. The chick was again unresponsive on 29 October, though it had looked healthy when the nest was inspected the day before. On 31 October the nest seemed too quiet; the chick was pulled out, but died five minutes later. A necropsy indicated that it was a female with kidney problems, and a yeast infection in the mouth and trachea that affected the digestive system. Lowered immunity, general poor condition and an accumulation of too much moisture could have been factors.
Although the Bush seemed well suited to the wrinkled hornbills, it was decided that because of their toll on the smaller animals during breeding, they were not suited to the Bush. They have since been moved to the pheasantry, where they have once again begun to seal a nest.
English summary of article by Christiaan Luttenberg and Annemarie Bisselink in De Harpij Vol. 18, No. 2 (1999)

Colchester Zoo, U.K.
At the zoo we house 26 Humboldt penguins, including six breeding pairs. Every morning the pairs guard their boxes and go through complex courtship rituals to renew their bonds, so I never doubted their monogamy - that is, until I caught Baldy Man, the male in nest box 3, copulating with Wellemy, a lone female, and then going back to his mate. Both females laid their eggs and Baldy Man shared in the incubation of his mate's eggs, but Wellemy was on her own, incubating hers 24 hours a day. We fed her on the nest twice a day and she coped well. Has this behaviour been observed in other collections? I would love to hear from anyone who has experienced this phenomenon.
As we already know, environmental enrichment plays an important role in the welfare of the animals in our care. The more intelligent the animal, the more specialised the enrichment becomes. But I feel that sometimes the smaller, less intelligent animals - like penguins - are forgotten. As our colony is so large, they interact with each other, a very important way of stimulating them mentally and physically. Nesting is a very busy time for the birds as they gather materials, dig holes in the sand and protect their nest sites. The young birds spend time interacting and amusing visitors as they race up and down the viewing windows, then get too excited and porpoise out of the pool, often into the rocks, which they seem to enjoy.
But we also provide them with plastic balls (just larger than a tennis ball). The penguins took a couple of days getting used to them before they started to throw them up into the air, chasing them around, and knocking them in and out of the pool. Pumpkins were also a great hit - they shredded them within hours, until only the core was left. (However, they showed no interest in lettuce at all.) We provided wooden rafts which they used for a short while, sitting on them, porpoising onto them and collecting fish from them. Cardboard boxes, large enough for them to enter, proved a great hit and they enjoyed exploring them, shredding them for nesting materials and using them as _holiday homes'. We weigh the boxes down with large rocks.
All these items were introduced at random times. But please be careful when using them, as penguins ingest some objects, and suffer from stress, so observation is needed. Items can also block filtration systems: however, the only problem I have encountered is when lettuce and pumpkins gave our visitors the impression that this was part of our penguins' diet. To counteract this incorrect impression, notices were put up explaining about environmental enrichment.
Adapted from Michelle Pywell, Senior Keeper, in Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 26, No. 6 (June 1999)

Danmarks Akvarium, Charlottenlund, Denmark
In 1998 the aquarium successfully hatched eggs from the striped nurse sharks (Chiloscyllium sp.); thus, a seventh generation born at the aqua-rium are now ready to supplement our stocks of these sharks. The cardinal fish Apogon kauderi, to our great joy, also started laying eggs. Having spent 21 days in the buccal cavity of the parent fish, the small, beautiful fish emerged and immediately searched for protection among the long spines of the sea urchins in their tank.
In a tank exhibiting some of the most poisonous creatures in the world, we included four yellow-lipped sea kraits (Laticauda colubrina) caught off Sulawesi, as well as two gigantic stonefish. The mangrove exhibit was supplemented with three species of fiddler crab from South Africa, as well as fiddler crabs and mudskippers from Gambia. We also received 30 clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) from South Africa. A collection of moray eels was gratefully received from the Municipal Aquarium of Funchal, Madeira.
Extracts from the English summary of the Annual Report 1998

Disney's Animal Kingdom, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, U.S.A.
We are presently rearing four African jacana (Actophilornis africanus) chicks. They are part of a group of 13 eggs laid, seven of which were fertile. The jacana eggs were removed from the mixed species African aviary due to predation and disturbances caused by other birds; they were artificially incubated, and hatched in January and February after 22-23 days of incubation. The chicks are being raised primarily on a diet of small crickets, live brine shrimp, minced newborn mice and Mazuri gamebird starter.
The adult wild-caught breeding jacana group in the African aviary comprises the breeding pair and a peripheral female who were released into the aviary in January 1998. Infrequent occasions of aggression between the breeding pair and the peripheral female have been observed, and when the aggression was acute, keeper intervention was required. Disney's Animal Kingdom is one of only a few institutions to successfully hand-rear this unique species.
Bockheim/Congdon/Stevens in AZA Communiqué (June 1999)

Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, Jersey, Channel Islands, U.K.
A serious housing problem within the zoo has been partially solved with the introduction to the aye-aye enclosure of our Madagascan giant jumping rats (Hypogeomys antimena). This mixed-species exhibit offers a more enriched environment for the animals and a more dynamic display for the public. After an initial introduction period, when the animals had only visual contact through a mesh cage, they were finally mixed. Although aye-ayes and rats have been introduced successfully to other species in captivity before, they have never lived in the same enclosure until now, so we chose our most easy-going female aye-aye for this first mixing. There were a few nervous keepers on hand, as both of these nocturnal Malagasy species have somewhat formidable teeth, so they could have seriously injured each other. However, after a few heated interactions, the rats learned to leave the larger and stronger aye-aye alone. Once all the animals were settled, we introduced a male aye-aye. Although there was definite interest from both species towards their new house-mates, no aggressive attacks were seen during an eight-day period. After a few skirmishes, it was decided that they could be left together unobserved and only separated at night. We were delighted to see that the aye-ayes were even happy to mate despite the presence of the rats.
The two species settled down quickly and the rats made full use of their new surroundings. They have proved to be much better climbers than we had thought. They have even been seen climbing vertical perching, although they do prefer a more sloping ascent. One of the problems we thought we might run into with this particular mixing was that the rats might become overweight. The aye-aye diet is high in fat and they can be wasteful creatures, dropping a lot of their food. On the ground there is usually a hopeful rat waiting to eat the leftovers! However, after several months of living together, the rats have not gained any weight: they are so active, running around their new larger enclosure, that this is not really surprising.
Giant jumping rats are the largest rodents living in Madagascar. They had never been kept in zoos until Gerald Durrell brought five of them to Jersey in 1990. Very little is known about the species; but the latest research carried out by the Trust in Kirindy, their native forest home, has revealed that they live in a much more restricted area than first thought. Trust researchers plan to map the rats' burrows and visit them twice a year in an effort to estimate the wild population. Having the species at the zoo also gives us the opportunity to study aspects of their biology and behaviour which would be difficult to witness in the wild.
Adapted from Jane Beattie and Michaela Darwin in On the Edge No. 85 (June 1999)

Henry Doorly Zoo, Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.A.
Three zebra sharks (Stegostoma fasciatum) hatched at the zoo's Scott Kingdoms of the Seas Aquarium on 8 April, 17 April and 2 May. The eggs were from a group of 46 which were laid from 23 September 1998 through 15 January 1999. From the 46 eggs laid, seven were infertile, 31 failed to develop to full term and eight developed into long-term embryos.
The eggs were incubated in a reserve section of a 900,000 gallon (3,400,000 liter) tank at 23.9-25°C. The incubation period of the eggs was approximately six-and-a-half months. Both parents were acquired from Australia in 1996 and began mating soon after introduction into the exhibit in November. To our knowledge, these are the first captive-bred zebra sharks in North America. The four remaining embryos should hatch one by one from now through June of this year.
K. Kunze and G. Stoops in AZA Communiqué (June 1999)

Marwell Zoological Park, U.K.
Our lemur groups have recently increased with the births of five red ruffed lemurs from our two groups, though one youngster failed to survive. Also, our recently established (second) pair of black-and-white ruffed have produced their first offspring. Other mammal births in the period April to June 1999 included a female Sulawesi macaque, female nyalas, male addax, male roan antelope, snow leopard cubs (born on 19 May but at the time of writing not yet disturbed, as is common policy), 10 collared peccary, 4 Malagasy giant jumping rat (1 DNS), 3 rock hyrax, and litters of European hamster, Gunther's vole, reed vole, African pygmy mouse and Siberian chipmunks (one of which was white).
Deaths during this period included: our female giraffe Dribbles (the oldest giraffe in captivity - see I.Z.N. 46:4, p. 247), female sitatunga and common waterbuck (both from old age), 0.1 nyala, 0.1 sable antelope, 0.1 ring-tailed lemur (from a long-standing injury which failed to respond to treatment), and a black-footed penguin chick (parent-reared, the first to hatch in our new colony).
Recent arrivals include: 1.0 Senegal galago (from London Zoo) to make up a pair, 0.1 Guayaquil squirrel (Sciurus stramineus neboxii - also from London - to join our other resident female; Marwell will be coordinating the initial register for this species, numbers of which are at present extremely low, so that further stock is ideally required if we are going to sustain them long-term in captivity), 0.1 Geoffroy's marmoset and 1.0 emperor tamarin (from Exmoor Zoological Park), and 0.1 sun conure to make up a pair (we hope).
Departures included our first-born, hand-raised okapi, Elila (on loan to London; we have since had a second success, as noted in our last report), 1.0 bongo (to Chester), a capybara, 0.1 red panda, 3 serval, 0.1 Prévost's squirrel, 0.1 Geoffroy's marmoset, 2.0 mara, 1.0 red-mantled tamarin, 1.1 rhea and a brown eared pheasant.
Paul M. Irven

Monterey Bay Aquarium, California, U.S.A.
The largest living deep sea exhibit in the world opened at the aquarium on 20 March this year. _Mysteries of the Deep' features 46 species, most of which were collected from waters as deep as 3,300 feet (1,000 m) below the ocean's surface. Monterey Bay holds the distinction of being the first aquarium in the world to present living displays of animals like the mushroom soft coral (Anthomastus ritteri), squat lobster (Munida spp.), predatory tunicate (Megalodicopia hians), pallid eelpout (Lycodapus mandibularis), spotted ratfish (Hydro-lagus colliei) and Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii).
The exhibit takes visitors on a simulated tour in the Monterey submarine canyon, which is over two miles (3,200 m) deep. They are then carried through three major deep sea habitats found in the bay: the canyon walls, representative of vertical rock faces in the deep sea; the mid-water, a dark ocean realm with no solid surfaces, found between sunlit surface waters and the bottom; and the canyon floor, representative of the deep sea floor.
In addition to the live exhibits and other elements of the deep sea galleries, the aquarium will debut an expanded daily program of live video broadcasts from deep sea research subs that are exploring the Monterey submarine canyon. During half-hour programs presented six to eight times a day, _Exploring Monterey Canyon' will allow visitors exclusive viewing rights as scientists from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute conduct actual deep sea research dives.
AZA Communiqué (June 1999)

Parque de la Naturaleza de Cabarceno, Spain
Another male African elephant, named Nacho, was born - very unexpectedly - on 23 March 1999. The father is again 20-year-old Chisco (who is also the sire of the previous four calves born in the park since 1995), and it is the mother Zambi's second offspring. Zambi is 18 years old and arrived in 1994 from Germany, where she had previously lived in two different zoos with the reputation of being very dangerous. Cabarceno turned out to be an excellent place for her, with its herd structure including an adolescent bull, the huge outside area and the hands-off facilities. Only 27 months after her arrival she had her first calf (0.1 Duma) which she reared without any problems. Nobody expected another birth so soon, and in fact Duma was only 27 months old when Nacho was born. Nacho's birth took place in the group at 2 p.m. in the outside enclosure, and again the calf was perfectly accepted by Zambi. As Duma was still being suckled by her mother, she was then separated from the group and now lives with the hand-reared male Pepe (born March 1998), who is developing well.
There is some speculation why Zambi gave birth so early after her first calf. One reason may be that there is a very strong bond between Zambi and the bull, Chisco, and on the other hand some distance between Zambi and the rest of the cows. Some mystery remains, but at any rate Nacho seems to be thriving in Cabarceno's African group, which now stands at 5.9 animals.
Jürgen Schilfarth, European Elephant Group

Riverbanks Zoological Park, Columbia, South Carolina, U.S.A.
The following births and hatchings took place during the period April to June 1999: 3.0 common wart hog (DNS), 2 pygmy marmoset (1 DNS), 1 dusky titi monkey, 3 keel-billed toucan, 1 pink-necked fruit dove, 2 toco toucan, 2 white-crested turaco, 3 ruddy duck, 1 galah cockatoo, 2 pancake tortoise, 2 crocodile skink, 4 Henkel's leaf-tailed gecko, 2 lined leaf-tailed gecko, 5 giant leaf-tailed gecko, 18 northern pine snake.
The following were acquired: 23 Rodrigues Island fruit bats, 0.1 Fea's viper, 1.1 Madagascar leaf-nosed snake, 1 common snapping turtle, 2.1 green tree python, 1.2 frilled lizard, 1 southern toad, 1 horned shark, 3 sailfin tang, 1 comet, 1 pygmy angel, 5 blue chromis, 4 high-hat, 6 peppermint shrimp, 20 lined seahorse, 5 chalk bass, 4 chambered nautilus, 6 bannerfish, 2 Philippine pennant coralfish, 4 bannerfish, 4 diamond goby, 4 saddleback butterfly fish, 1 black-backed butterfly fish, 8 raccoon butterfly fish, 19 four-stripe damsel, 7 gold-spotted spinefoot, 50 blue surgeon fish, 1 chocolate-chip sea star.
Alan H. Shoemaker
Collection Manager

San Diego Zoo, California, U.S.A.
Drills, the second largest monkey species, are at the top of the list for conservation action: fewer than 3,000 remain in the wild. They are a deep forest species, making census-taking difficult, and they are wary of people. However, in a captive environment, drills - especially males - can imprint on humans, which prevents the normal social development needed to become a good mate and parent. These factors have hampered studies in the wild and led to poor reproduction in captivity.
Faced with an aging drill population at the zoo, we are working with our small group to see if we can boost the dwindling reproduction rate. Our multi-disciplinary team involves the zoo's mammal curatorial, behavior management, and veterinary services departments; the CRES behavior, reproductive physiology, and endo-crinology divisions; and Dr David Smotrich, a human reproductive endocrinologist. The team's objective is to facilitate breeding in drills using modern reproductive enhancements.
There are two males in our group: Ace, at 24 years, is probably the oldest male drill in existence, while Loon, at 19 years, is a diabetic who has never bred. Among the females, Rosie is 22 years old and has not bred since 1984, while Opal, 19 years old, was injured by her parents. Because mandrills reproduce well in captivity, the decision was made to use them as surrogate mothers, recipients of drill eggs and semen. The mandrill females are on loan from Tulsa Zoo, Oklahoma: Pearl is 14 years old and has raised four offspring, and Angie, eight years old, is the mother of seven-year-old Pandora. As successful mothers, both will most likely hand-raise their offspring, which is another positive factor.
Our team considered two relatively simple strategies that would promote drill reproduction. The first is arti-ficial insemination, the simplest reproductive enhancement procedure, which was used with Opal. The second procedure, known as gamete intra-fallopian trans-fer (GIFT), was used with Pearl as the recipient. This involves suppressing the natural cycle of both donor and recipient animals using two hormones essential for the female reproductive tract. With the natural cycle now suppressed, the donors are treated with elevated doses of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. This stimulates multiple follicles to develop simul-taneously, which is known as superovulation. At the same time, the uterus of each recipient is prepared to receive eggs and sperm through daily doses of estrogen and progesterone. With donors and recipients synchron-ized, the eggs are harvested and mixed with fresh sperm before being placed in the oviducts of the recipients for natural fertilization to occur.
Our goal as a team has been to train the drills and mandrills to voluntarily cooperate with monitoring and with medical procedures, such as semen and urine collections, blood draws, receiving injections, and ultrasound. Through operant conditioning, the animals learned quickly and became comfortable with the animal care staff, which reduced stress. The Zoological Society's drill A.R.T., or Assisted Reproductive Technology, team hopes that the GIFT attempt in May 1999 will result in the pregnancy and birth of a drill, with ultrasound helping to pinpoint pregnancy before any visible signs appear. But even without a confirmed pregnancy, our team can now provide useful repro-ductive information for other endan-gered primate species. It is another step forward in adding to the dwindling worldwide population of drills.
Patrick J. Morris, D.V.M., Senior Veterinarian, San Diego Zoo, in CRES Report (Summer 1999)

Aruguete, M.S., Lyons, D.M., Mason, W.A., and Mendoza, S.P.: Reactions of adult and immature squirrel monkeys to intergroup exposure. Zoo Biology Vol. 17, No. 6 (1998), pp. 519-524. [Initial encounters between unfamiliar animals raise the practical problem of controlling aggression and provide the opportunity to examine changes in social structure that may occur as groups merge. Social interactions and spatial grouping patterns were examined in newly-formed squirrel monkey groups, in which a subgroup of familiar adults was introduced to a subgroup of familiar immature monkeys. Yearlings (10-11 months) and subadults (20-50 months) generally remained spatially distinct from adults, and intergroup interactions often consisted of adult-initiated antagonism. Adults exhibited sexual segregation in their spatial grouping patterns and interactions, whereas yearlings and subadults generally showed sexual integration. These data suggest that there is considerable adult resistance to integration of unfamiliar immatures into established adult social groups.]
Baker, W.K.: Is crisis training really necessary and does it aid in the resolution? Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 26, No. 5 (1999), pp. 168-169.
Beattie, J.: New natural exhibit for the Alaotran gentle lemur Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis at the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 18-24. [The enclosure measures 800 m2 and includes a heated shed with an attached mesh-covered area. The enclosure is surrounded by electric fencing, which has proved to be an effective barrier in most cases. The area is planted with natural forage including bamboo, reeds, willow and grasses, allowing the lemurs to display natural behaviour. The animals show appropriate anti-predator behaviour and the group has continued to breed successfully.]
Bellingham, L.: Behavioural adaptation of a group of Alaotran gentle lemurs Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis to a large, naturalistic enclosure at the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 167-168.
Bellingham, L.: Breeding behaviour of captive St Lucia amazons Amazona versicolor at the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 169-170.
Bruce, L.A., and Lloyd, M.: Repair of a beak fracture to a male sandhill crane at the El Paso Zoo. Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 26, No. 5 (1999), pp. 183-185. [Grus canadensis pratensis.]
Catlow, G., Ryan, P.M., and Young, R.J.: Please don't touch, we're being enriched! Ratel Vol. 26, No. 3 (1999), pp. 97-103. [The authors discuss the _hands-off' policy which Edinburgh Zoo introduced for their chimpanzees in 1991. They argue that the benefits of this management system are numerous: welfare has been improved; the animals behave more normally and are therefore of greater conservation value; naturally-behaving animals are important for a successful school and public education programme, and as a research resource; the public find the watching of naturally-behaving chimpanzees very entertaining; and a hands-off policy helps to dispel the public's anthropomorphic attitude towards chimpanzees. The enrichment of highly social species such as chimpanzees involves not only the provision of enrichment devices, but allowing them to _get on with their lives'.]
Cooper, J.E., Bloxam, Q.M.C., and Tonge, S.J.: Pathology of Round Island geckos Phelsuma guentheri: some unexpected findings. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 153-158. [Deaths in captive Round Island geckos were associated with fatty change (lipidosis) and cholesterol deposits (xanthomatosis) in internal organs. Changes in husbandry appeared to reduce and, finally, to eliminate the problem, but the exact mechanisms were never identified. The incident illustrates the importance of health monitoring of rare animals that are kept in captivity, and the need when necessary to employ expensive techniques, such as electron microscopy.]
Cooper, J.E., Dutton, C.J., and Allchurch, A.F.: Reference collections: their importance and relevance to modern zoo management and conservation biology. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 159-166. [The value of retaining and storing animal material in the form of _reference collections' is emphasised. Such specimens provide opportunities for basic studies (e.g. anatomy), for research on genetics and parentage and for retrospective investigation of disease. The methods for reception and processing of material are outlined and the challenges presented by, e.g., health and safety requirements and CITES are analysed. The paper deals primarily, but not exclusively, with pathology reference collections and uses Jersey's Mascarene Collection as an example.]
Courts, S.E.: Investigations of infant development and juvenile social interactions in Livingstone's fruit bat Pteropus livingstonii at Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 166-167.
Cowan, K.: Enclosure design and management for an all-male group of Sulawesi crested black macaques Macaca nigra. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 31-42. [In 1997, Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust introduced a new adult male to its breeding group of 17 M. nigra. Prior to this introduction, it was necessary to remove the current dominant male and all the sexually mature males to prevent aggressive encounters with the new male. An all-male group was therefore formed in September 1997 of five animals, ranging in age from six to 15 years old. The paper focuses on the enclosure design and management of this group. To date (November 1998), no major social breakdown has occurred in the group and the animals continue to live together. The successful formation of this single-sex group provides an alternative for captive management of M. nigra and may serve as a model for other species as well.]
Dickie, L.: The 17th Congress of the International Primatological Society, Antananarivo, Madagascar. Ratel Vol. 25, No. 6 (1998), pp. 228-232. [Includes list of species seen at Tsimbazaza Zoo, Antananarivo.]
Ding, B., Zhang, Y., and Ryder, O.A.: Extraction, PCR amplification, and sequencing of mitochondrial DNA from scent mark and feces in the giant panda. Zoo Biology Vol. 17, No. 6 (1998), pp. 499-504. [Under simulated field conditions, the authors found that DNA can be extracted from fecal samples up to three months old. Their results suggest that the use of scent mark and fecal samples offers a simple, efficient, non-invasive source of DNA from giant pandas living in the wild.]
Dutton, C.J., and Allchurch, A.F.: A review of birth control methods in mammals at the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 134-144. [Chemical contraception is the most frequently used system, with implantation of melengoestrol acetate (MGA) or levonorgestrel (Norplant) being the preferred procedures for a long-term approach.]
Esson, M., and Cowan, K.: Cross-curricular activities: a richness of opportunity for zoo educators. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 115-124.
Gallagher-Thaw, A., and Morgen, E.: Interactions between two newly neighbouring groups of Allen's swamp monkeys (Allenopithecus nigroviridis) at Edinburgh Zoo. Ratel Vol. 25, No. 6 (1998), pp. 206-221. [Allen's swamp monkeys are among the least studied of the African forest guenons. Information on basic social structure is based upon only a few field observations, and the intricacies of their social organisation are, as yet, unknown. The results of this study suggest that this species should be kept in larger groups than a single pair, both to facilitate reproduction and to allow individuals to express a fuller range of species-typical behaviours. In the wild, they live in multi-male, multi-female groups; but it is not known whether there is any hierarchy among the males or whether they are transient members of a group (as in mangabey species). Is a wild Allen's swamp monkey troop made up of one single group, or of different groups overlapping and tolerating each other? The appearance of male-male aggression in this study would suggest a form of dominance structure amongst males. There might be movement of males or females between groups or between coalitions within a large group. If this is the case, then Edinburgh Zoo's present system, of maintaining males in separate groups and frequently transferring females between groups, is probably the best husbandry method, in terms of both breeding success and behavioural enrichment. The study suggests that housing Allen's swamp monkeys in multi-female groups with neighbouring conspecifics provides suitable levels of social enrichment for this species in captivity.]
Gates, L.J., and Ellis, J.A.: The use of husbandry behaviours for the enhanced management of Californian sealions (Zalophus californianus) at Chessington World of Adventures. Ratel Vol. 26, No. 3 (1999), pp. 86-89. [Although this programme is not yet complete, the behaviours trained to date have had a positive impact on the husbandry, enrichment and welfare of the animals. The sealions are easier to handle and veterinary inspections can be carried out with greater ease. Using the behaviours in public presentations has counteracted time constraints, and public response has been encouraging. Aggressive tendencies in two animals have been eliminated or dramatically reduced. Stationing animals on rocks for feeding gives greater control over group feeding sessions and ensures that more dominant animals do not monopolise the food.]
Gilardi, J.D., and John, C.L.: Conservation of the St Lucia house wren Troglodytes aedon mesoleucus: distribution, abundance and breeding biology. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 91-102.
Greenbaum, E.B.: The enigma of sex determination in reptiles. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society Vol. 34, No. 4 (1999), pp. 113-115. [Discusses the two forms of sex determination found in reptiles, genetic (GSD) and temperature-dependent (TSD), and the three different types of TSD, with special reference to the spiny soft-shell turtle (Apalone spinifera), one of the few chelonians currently known to have GSD.]
Gregson, J.: Termite mound at Paignton Zoo. Ratel Vol. 25, No. 6 (1998), pp. 203-204. [A mealworm dispenser for birds in a desert house (see I.Z.N. 45:4, p. 245).]
Houthof, G.: Atlantische mensenhaaien in Diergaarde Blijdorp. (Sandbar sharks at Rotterdam Zoo.) De Harpij Vol. 18, No. 2 (1999), pp. 24-27. [Dutch, with English summary. In July 1997, the author joined personnel from the National Aquarium in Baltimore (NAIB) on a shark tagging expedition and to collect sandbar sharks (Carcharhinus plumbeus). Four (2.2) young were collected for Rotterdam Zoo, for eventual placement in the Oceanium that will open in 2000. While the zoo has a policy that collecting animals from the wild should be minimized, in the case of these sharks reproduction in zoos is too poor for it to be possible to acquire captive-bred specimens. The NAIB has been working with Apex Predator Investigation (API) on a research programme for cartilaginous fishes. The article describes the methods of the Cooperative Shark Tagging Program (CSTP) carried out under API, which has made enormous contributions to the understanding of shark ecology.]
Houts, L.: Folsom City Zoo pinatas. Animal Keepers' Forum Vol. 26, No. 5 (1999), pp. 177-178. [Constructing papier maché models as destructible toys for zoo animals.]
Johnstone-Scott, R.: The effects of a change in leadership in a breeding group of western lowland gorillas Gorilla g. gorilla at the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 42-65. [Following the death of the founder male in 1992, the group experienced a partial breakdown of its social structure. This was temporarily rectified under female leadership, prior to the introduction of a new male in 1993. The integration of the blackbacked male into an established breeding group, although initially problematic, influenced change within the female hierarchy and subsequently led to the siring of a male infant from the youngest female. Whilst certain social relationships with the maturing male improved, others deteriorated, to the extent that the removal by transfer of two sexually mature females became necessary. Problems incurred at that time, both behavioural and medical, are described. Despite a marked improvement in group compatibility, the level of sexual activity among higher-ranking females remained poor, and consequently a reproductive research project was initiated to investigate this problem. Details of the latter are given, along with observations on change in behavioural response to the new male, management strategies, maturation, dominance-related behaviour, female transfer, sexual behaviour and oestrous cyclicity.]
Juniper, P.: Keepers versus the animal rights - how can we get the right message across to ensure that the public perceive us well? Ratel Vol. 25, No. 6 (1998), pp. 224-226.
Kalinowski, S.T., and Hedrick, P.W.: An improved method for estimating inbreeding depression in pedigrees. Zoo Biology Vol. 17, No. 6 (1998), pp. 481-497.
London, G.D., Bauman, K.L., and Asa, C.S.: Time-lapse infrared videography for animal behavior observations. Zoo Biology Vol. 17, No. 6 (1998), pp. 535-543. [Although videography has been used for many years to record episodes of animal behavior, the availability of increasingly complex equipment can make selection difficult. Most equipment developed for round-the-clock observations was designed for security surveillance, so informed purchasing, installation, and usage decisions need to be made to monitor animal behavior effectively. During seven years of using video and infrared equipment for animal behavior research and monitoring in a zoo setting (at St Louis Zoo, Missouri), the authors tested many models, evaluated options, and modified components. They now have well-integrated systems that are compatible with their video/computer review and analysis program. New equipment will continue to become available, but familiarity with basic features and applications can help to narrow the selection.]
Luttenberg, C., and Bisselink, A.: Geribbelde neushoornvogels in Burgers' Bush. (Wrinkled hornbills at Burgers' Zoo, Arnhem.) De Harpij Vol. 18, No. 2 (1999), pp. 4-7. [Aceros corrugatus; Dutch, with English summary (see pp. 313-4, above).]
Mallinson, J.J.C., and Barker, P.: A record of mammalian longevity at the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust with comparative data. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 8-17. [Lists longevity for 57 species from 25 families in 11 orders (including ten record longevities), with comparative data from other institutions.]
Margan, S.H., Nurthen, R.K., Montgomery, M.E., Woodworth, L.M., Lowe, E.H., Briscoe, D.A., and Frankham, R.: Single large or several small? Population fragmentation in the captive management of endangered species. Zoo Biology Vol. 17, No. 6 (1998), pp. 467-480. [Captive populations of endangered species are typically maintained effectively as single random-mating populations by translocating individuals between institutions. Genetic, disease, and cost considerations, however, suggest that this may not be the optimal management strategy. Genetic theory predicts that a pooled population derived from several small isolated populations will have greater genetic diversity, less inbreeding, and less genetic adaptation to captivity than a single large population of equivalent total size, provided there are no population extinctions. These predictions were tested using populations of Drosophila with effective size comparisons of 50 vs. 2 ´ 25; 100 vs. 2 ´ 50 vs. 4 ´ 25; and 500 vs. 2 ´ 250 vs. 8 ´ 25 + 6 ´ 50. Populations were maintained at the indicated sizes as separate pedigreed populations for 50 generations. The several small treatments were subsequently pooled and maintained for eight to ten generations prior to determination of fitness and evolutionary potential. Several small populations (pooled), when compared to single large populations of equivalent total size, were found to have lower average inbreeding coefficients, significantly higher reproductive fitness under competitive conditions, similar fitness under benign captive conditions, higher genetic diversity, and equivalent evolutionary potential. Trends favored the several small (pooled) populations in all comparisons at population sizes of 50 and 100. The authors recommend that, rather than routinely translocating individuals among facilities to create effectively one large interbreeding population, endangered species in captivity should be maintained as several small populations, with occasional exchange of genetic material. This has genetic benefits over current management both in captivity and especially for reintroductions, which are more likely to succeed when fragmented captive populations are crossed to provide foundation genetic material than when single captive populations of equivalent total size are used; it would also reduce translocation costs and risks of disease transfer.]
Marx, N.: On handling big cats - a personal view. Ratel Vol. 26, No. 3 (1999), pp. 93-96. [The author has for many years been Head of Carnivores at Howletts Wild Animal Park.]
McPhee, M.E., Foster, J.S., Sevenich, M., and Saunders, C.D.: Public perceptions of behavioral enrichment: assumptions gone awry. Zoo Biology Vol. 17, No. 6 (1998), pp. 525-534. [An increasing number of enrichment decisions in zoos are based on assumption. Enrichment is typically not provided on exhibit, especially for exhibits considered to be more naturalistic, because it is assumed to affect visitors' experience negatively. To test that assumption, visitors were interviewed in front of four exhibits at Brookfield Zoo - an outdoor barren grotto, an outdoor vegetated grotto, an indoor immersion exhibit, and an outdoor traditional cage - each with either natural, non-natural or no enrichment objects present - and an assessment was made of how far the visitors' perceptions of three factors - the exhibit's educational message, the animals' happiness, and enrichment, the naturalism of animals' behavior, and zoo animal well-being - changed as a function of object type. It was found that overall, the type of enrichment object had little impact on visitor perceptions.]
Moiser, C.M.: Zoo Profile: the Snake Park, Adam Stander Drive, Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe. Ratel Vol. 25, No. 6 (1998), pp. 227-228.
Musson, A.: The use of analgesics in the management of an orthopaedic disorder in a captive-bred male babirusa Babyrousa babyrussa. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 145-152. [The increasing number of captive babirusa found to be developing orthopaedic disorders has led to a greater awareness of the need to gather information related to the available therapies currently in use. One such animal was a captive-bred male at Jersey Zoo, with a history of chronic joint pain. A variety of treatments, which included topical laser therapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, corticosteroids and homoeopathy, were tried on this animal. The author discusses the efficacy of the various treatments and makes recommendations towards improving the current practices of managing orthopaedic disease in babirusa.]
Norcup, S.J.: The hand rearing, development and reintegration of a neurologically ill male Sumatran orang-utan Pongo pygmaeus abelii at the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 65-76. [The infant was removed from his mother due to neurological problems between the ages of 264 and 353 days. In order to describe how the infant interacted and behaved once recovered and reintroduced to his mother and the other orang-utans, behavioural observations were made during the first year of reintegration. These showed that the infant became more confident in initiating social interactions and behaved in a similar manner to orang-utans of a similar age both in the wild and in captivity.]
O'Sullivan, C.: The role of training in re-introduction programmes. Ratel Vol. 26, No. 3 (1999), pp. 90-92.
Pedrono, M., and Sarovy, A.: First release of captive-raised ploughshare tortoises Geochelone yniphora in Madagascar. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 173-174.
Preece, D.J.: The captive management and breeding of poison-dart frogs, family Dendrobatidae, at Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 103-114. [The Trust started work with the green-and-black poison-dart frog (Dendrobates auratus) in 1994, using it as a model species for the threatened blue poison-dart frog (D. azureus). Following considerable success and experience with the model species, the target species was added to the collection in 1995, and proved relatively straightforward to maintain and breed, building on the knowledge and skills gained during the previous year with D. auratus.]
Price, E.C.: Incest in captive marmosets and tamarins. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 25-31. [In the Callitrichidae, offspring often stay in their natal groups until well into adulthood, and this raises the possibility of incestuous matings. Several mechanisms exist by which this could be avoided: both physiological and behavioural suppression of reproduction in offspring living with their parents have been documented, as has infanticide in groups with more than one breeding female. An _incest taboo' may also be operating. However, incest does occur, and 14 cases in three species at Jersey Zoo are reviewed. In most cases, incest occurred after the normal family structure (parents plus offspring) had broken down, and may have represented the only opportunity for captive animals, unable to disperse, to breed. However, in golden-headed lion tamarins incest also occurred in intact breeding families. This suggests that incest taboos may be insufficient to prevent reproduction by offspring. The implications for captive management and for understanding callitrichid reproductive strategies are discussed.]
Rakotombololona, W.F.: Study of the distribution and density of the Madagascan flat-tailed tortoise Pyxis planicauda in the dry deciduous forest of Menabe. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 172-173.
Rakotoniaina, L.J.: The role of community-based activities in the conservation of endangered animals in Madagascar. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 174-175.
Razafindrahanta, H.V.: Study of the habitat of Anas bernieri in the wetlands of Masoarivo, Antsalova Region, Madagascar. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 168-169.
Rostal, D.C., Robeck, T.R., Grumbles, J.S., Burchfield, P.M., and Owens, D.W.: Seasonal reproductive cycle of the Galápagos tortoise (Geochelone nigra) in captivity. Zoo Biology Vol. 17, No. 6 (1998), pp. 505-517. [Breeding groups totalling nine (4.5) tortoises at Gladys Porter Zoo, Brownsville, Texas, were studied through a complete annual reproductive cycle. It was found that the animals displayed seasonal physiological changes that coincided with the observed seasonal reproductive cycle, and these changes are described in detail.]
Trollope, J.: Profile on the Avicultural Society. Ratel Vol. 25, No. 6 (1998), pp. 221-222.
van Herk, R.: _We nemen de NVD veel werk uit handen': een interview met NOD-directeur Koen Brouwer. (An interview with Koen Brouwer, director of the Dutch National Foundation for Research in Zoological Gardens.) De Harpij Vol. 18, No. 2 (1999), pp. 8-14. [Dutch, with English summary. The National Foundation for Research in Zoological Gardens (NFRZG) - in Dutch, Stichting Nationaal Onderzoek Dierentuinen (NOD) - was established in 1988 as a sister organization to the Dutch Zoo Federation (NVD). It is now one of four organizations that are run by the same office, the others being the _Zoos Help' foundation (supporting in situ conservation), the NVD and the Executive Office of the European Association of Zoological Parks and Aquaria (EAZA). The NFRZG supports Dutch zoos in solving problems that range from animal management to legislation. Support can be active and/or passive, ranging from administration to brainstorming. The joint office produces a number of publications on European (EAZA) level: the EAZA/EEP Yearbook, a quarterly _Available and Wanted' list, and the quarterly EAZA News. Furthermore, the supervision of 150 EEP coordinators is carried out by the office. There is an extensive library and literature base at the NFRZG available for use by Dutch (and other) zoos and other interested parties. The NFRZG represents the NVD in the political sphere. It has worked with the Netherlands government to develop guidelines for handling of confiscated animals, and was very involved in the Dutch animal health welfare legislation. Within its EAZA executive office function, it is involved in helping countries to meet the European Zoo Legislation guidelines that will almost certainly be accepted by the European parliament when it is soon voted on. The advantage of the European zoo legislation is that it will help to bring non-EAZA European zoos (of which there are 1,000-2,000 depending on how you count them) up to the standards of the 236 EAZA zoo members.]
Vargas, A., Lockhart, M., Marinari, P., and Gober, P.: Preparing captive-raised black-footed ferrets Mustela nigripes for survival after release. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 76-83. [In the last 12 years, more than 2,600 kits have been born in captivity. Reintroduction began in 1991, and reproduction in the wild in Montana and South Dakota has been consistently successful, with approximately 100 wild-born young by 1998. Expectations are high that a viable wild population can be established in one or both of these states, as well as in Arizona, Colorado and Utah. (Reintroduction efforts in Wyoming were abandoned due to an epizootic of sylvatic plague.) Experimental work has demonstrated that a naturalistic captive environment helps _precondition' black-footed ferrets for life in the wild and significantly increases survival after release.]
Williams, T.: Breeding biology of captive Bali starlings Leucopsar rothschildi at Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 170-171.
Young, H.G.: The captive breeding of the Madagascar teal Anas bernieri at the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. Dodo Vol. 34 (1998), pp. 84-90.
Zwartepoorte, H.: Bezoek aan Zoo Dakar, Senegal. (Visit to Dakar Zoo.) De Harpij Vol. 18, No. 2 (1999), pp. 18-21. [Dutch, with English summary. The author, a reptile keeper at Rotterdam Zoo, describes some of Dakar Zoo's problems, and outlines some ways in which Dutch zoos might help. He comments that _although it might seem that zoos as bad as Dakar Zoo should be closed, it remains true that such zoos serve as the only contact that many of the city inhabitants have with wildlife.' He also describes a conservation project for the severely threatened African spurred tortoise (Geochelone sulcata) tortoise, which is supported by Rotterdam Zoo.]
Publishers of the periodicals listed:
Animal Keepers' Forum, American Association of Zoo Keepers, 635 S.W. Gage Boulevard, Topeka, Kansas 66606-2066, U.S.A.
Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society, 2060 North Clark Street, Chicago, Illinois 60614, U.S.A.
The Dodo, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, Les Augrès Manor, Trinity, Jersey, Channel Islands, U.K.
De Harpij, Stichting De Harpij, Van Aerssenlaan 49, 3039 KE Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Ratel, Association of British Wild Animal Keepers, c/o Luke Gates, Chessington World of Adventures, Leatherhead Road, Chessington, Surrey KT9 2NE, U.K.
Zoo Biology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158, U.S.A.