International Zoo News Vol. 45/3 (No. 284) April/May 1998
The Historic Aquarium of Naples, Italy
Pier Lorenzo Florio 133
Zoos in a Changing World
Jeremy J.C. Mallinson 140
A Review of the Mating System of Captive Cotton-top Tamarins
Vincent Lamprey 146
Aspects of the Disposal of Surplus Stock from British Zoos
Ray Cimino 150
Surplus and Wanted Stock 153
Letters to the Editor 154
Book Reviews 157
Annual Report 169
International Zoo News 172
Recent Articles 184
Cover Illustration: Visitors to the Naples Aquarium, from a poster of 1902.
Disposing of surplus animals is one of the most difficult problems facing many zoos today. The fact that it is, generally speaking, a problem of success doesn't make it any easier to solve in practice. All I.Z.N. readers will be familiar with the kind of situation that may arise. A zoo with high standards of husbandry and welfare has an outstanding record in breeding some charismatic and endangered species; years pass, the species begins to breed well in other zoos; and eventually the successful zoo is forced to recognise that the rules of the game have changed whereas in the past other collections were queuing up for the offspring of their breeding group, now finding acceptable homes for the succession of babies is becoming more difficult all the time. Acceptable homes; the demand may still be there from less reputable collections, or from dealers acting for unspecified customers, or from private individuals whose facilities and qualifications are far short of ideal.
It is not really surprising that some zoos succumb to temptation. Hoping for the best, they refrain from asking any awkward questions, and send off their unwanted animals to a new owner of whom they know little or nothing. What is surprising, to judge by the findings reported by Ray Cimino in his article in this issue, is the number of zoos prepared to act in this way three-quarters of a sample of British collections, all members of the Zoo Federation and so, presumably, at the more responsible end of the spectrum. Moreover, by doing so they were ignoring the specific guidelines issued by the Federation on the disposal of surplus stock.
No doubt associations like the Federation, and EAZA, and AZA do something to raise standards in their member zoos. But anyone in the zoo community can quote examples of appallingly bad zoos which belong to a national or regional association. Self-regulation, an attractive idea in theory, seems in practice to be incapable of bringing the second- and third-rate zoos up to the level of the best. So I reacted fairly favourably to the news, just released as I write this editorial, that European Union environment ministers have agreed to support legally-binding minimum standards of zoo animal welfare. The new initiative has been negotiated by Angela Eagle, the member of the U.K. government with special responsibility for zoos, who has already announced plans for an verhaul of Britain's Zoo Licensing Act.
Surprisingly, the new EU directive is basically conservation-oriented, with animal welfare, in the words of one British official, `brought in through the back door.' This seems to be designed to circumvent arguments by some countries that animal welfare should be a national rather than European issue, since it is not specifically mentioned in the Treaty of Rome. In view of the notoriously poor animal welfare standards in the zoos of some member countries, the news of joint EU action to improve matters deserves to be welcomed by responsible European zoos.
THE HISTORIC AQUARIUM OF NAPLES, ITALY
BY PIER LORENZO FLORIO
Italy has not very much to offer, at the present time, in zoological gardens (with the exception of the `little treasure' of Francesco Rocca's `La Torbiera' Faunistic Park in Agrate Conturbia, near Novara), but it can boast two outstanding institutions in the field of aquaria: the new Genoa Aquarium, second largest in the world in terms of total volume of water (see International Zoo News 43:4, 1996, pp. 205213), and the `historic' Aquarium of the `Anton Dohrn' Zoological Station in Naples, opened in January 1874, the oldest public aquarium in the world today.
Already in 1867, the German naturalist Felix Anton Dohrn (Stettin, 1840 Munich, 1909), friend of Alfred Brehm and supporter of the new Darwin theories, had in mind the idea of realizing by the sea an institution for the study of marine biology. Being essentially interested in the biological features of animals, more than in their anatomy and morphology, Anton Dohrn, during some study-trips along the coasts of the Mediterranean, had felt the need of a structure that could enable him to keep animals alive after they had been captured. And in fact, when he went to Messina in 1868 to study the rich flora and fauna of that sea, he brought along a then unusual item of equipment, a portable aquarium.
In the second half of the 19th century, an intellectual convergence of interests between naturalists and physiological chemists had given rise to a sudden and remarkable interest in aquaria. This, thanks to the abolition of the heavy tax on glass and to the expansion of railways, had contributed to a real fashion for the aquarium. Anton Dohrn soon came to the conclusion that his old and beloved project of a marine `Zoological Station' could be realized if, next to it, were built a public aquarium, because the income of this (one of the most attractive novelties of the century) would cover the costs of running the scientific laboratories.
Thus it was that, on 12 January 1874, one of the first public aquariums in Europe was opened in Naples. At the time, elsewhere in Europe, comparably large and spectacular institutions were only beginning to be conceived. Naples was chosen not only because it was on the sea, but because, with nearly 600,000 inhabitants, it was then the largest city in Italy (Rome had 250,000), and until 1861 had been the capital of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (under a Bourbon dynasty), the largest state in Italy (which was unified, with Rome as capital, only in 1870). Naples was also a commercial and touristic centre, which ensured the popular and financial success of the initiative. At the time of the opening of the Naples Aquarium, only about ten aquariums existed in the world, and only two of these were of the semi-open type, one in Hamburg and one in London. None f them, however, is still in operation today.
A poster of 1902 advertising the Naples Aquarium. (It was reprinted in 1990 for sale to visitors as a souvenir.)
Dohrn entrusted the design of the new aquarium to W.A. Lloyd, who had taken part in the construction of two of the first public aquariums in Europe (Hamburg, 1867, and Crystal Palace, in Sydenham, South London, 1871). Lloyd, a wealthy Welsh trader, had acquired a remarkable reputation as an aquarium consultant by designing and installing in his unique premises in London's Portland Road a system of closed continuous circulation that made it possible to keep animals alive in tanks without changing the water. Lloyd's principle, obvious today but revolutionary at the time, consisted in sending a continuous flow of sea-water, by means of steam-operated pumps, from a cistern to the tanks and from there back to the cistern. The current generated by the circular motion carried tiny air bubbles to all corners of the tanks, allowing the breathing of the animals and the oxygenation of their wastes.
For the Naples Aquarium Lloyd designed a system similar to that of the other aquariums in Europe, but added some improvements. The location of the building right on the sea-front (the Municipal Villa, between the world-famous Via Caracciolo and the Riviera di Chiaia), allowed the pumping of new sea-water to the cisterns at frequent intervals, at the time without filtering and at low cost. This type of circulation (semi-open or semi-closed) met with immediate success.
The Naples Aquarium was, and still is, of the semi-closed type. From two large cisterns in the subsoil, the water is pumped to the tanks and from these goes back to the cisterns. During this process, about one-third is replaced with new water. Before going into circulation, the sea-water, drawn from the Gulf of Naples at 300 metres from the coast and at a depth of 11 metres, stops in a decantation tank.
The aquarium is an integral part of the `Anton Dohrn' Zoological Station, a renowned international research centre for scientists and students from all over the world. During its nearly 125 years of operation it has given to over ten million persons the opportunity to observe at close quarters the diversity and wealth of the fauna and flora of the Gulf of Naples, which still today, in spite of the incidence of pollution, remains one of the areas of the Mediterranean with the richest biodiversity. A large part of the species that live in the Mediterranean inhabit the Gulf, and many are exhibited in the aquarium.
Unchanged from the past, the aquarium is today a historical monument, the only testimony left in the world of a 19th century aquarium. In comparison with the large and spectacular new aquariums in Europe (including Genoa), and even more in North America, Japan and Australia, this one in Naples appears sober, almost severe. In reality, the Naples Aquarium, reflecting in its architectural structures and exhibition criteria the taste of the time when it was built, is only `different' from all others, and therefore inimitable.
Anton Dohrn remained Director of the Zoological Station and of the Aquarium until his death in 1909. He was succeeded by his son Rinaldo (Reinhard) Dohrn, who remained in charge until 1956, and from 1956 until 1967 by his grandson Pietro (Peter) Dohrn.
After having been for many years the centre of all the scientific activities of the Zoological Station, the Aquarium, during the 1960s and 1970s, was somewhat neglected and left without proper care, management and maintenance. But since then, and particularly since Dr Flegra Bentivegna (who had joined as a researcher in 1973) became Curator in 1983, there has been a resumption of interest. New funds have been allocated, a small educational musum has been added, and some structures have been renovated or modernized, although maintaining their 19th century appearance.
A detail from the poster on page 134, showing the Naples Aquarium at the beginning of the 20th century.
The exhibition hall, on the ground floor of the building, covers an area of 527 m2. The 23 tanks on display, ranging in capacity from 250 to 73,000 litres, use volcanic rocks to create a natural setting, and are chiefly illuminated by daylight from skylights on the ceiling. The organisms that live in more lighted habitats are kept on the south side, those that prefer a suffused light are on the north side. Artificial light is also used where and when needed. The aquarium presently has on exhibit about 700 fishes of 80 species, and 300 invertebrates of 70 species, a total of 150 species and about 1,000 specimens. During the last five years the aquarium has had on exhibit 195 species of fish and 120 species of invertebrates.
The species exhibited are both common ones, whose acclimatization is not particularly difficult (crustaceans, some sea anemones, many fishes), and `delicate' species that normally do not survive for long in captivity (jellyfishes, squids, some fishes). Near the commonest fishes bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilt-head bream (Sparus aurata), various wrasses (Labridae), etc. there are some that are more interesting as they are becoming rare, such as brown meagre (Sciaena umbra), dentex (Dentex dentex), dusky perch (Epinephelus guaza), mullet (Mullus sp.), and occasional ones that are not permanently kept on display, like sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), smooth hound (Mustelus mustelus), angular rough shark (Oxynotus centrina), and round sardinella (Sardinella aurita). Nearly all classes of invertebrates are well represented, predominantly by molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms.
The tanks of the Gorgonaria corals, a veritable underwater flower garden, and of the Astroides corals, where the various polyps thrive on a daily diet especially prepared in a liquidizer, are both particularly beautiful. Roman amphorae, where moray eels and crabs lurk in the gloom, and old Neapolitan water jars wreathed in the colourful polychaete worm Spirographis, add to the unique atmosphere of the aquarium. For rocky bottoms, those of the western side of the Gulf of Naples, richer in fauna and flora, have been taken as a model. These reefs are formed by lava or other volcanic material (from Vesuvius), and are covered by coralliferous calcareous seaweeds of the genera Lithophyllum and Lithothamnium. They are inhabited by scorpion fishes (Scorpaenidae), groupers (Serranidae), lobsters and spiny lobsters. In some tanks it is possible to see those organisms that live on sandy and muddy bottoms, such as sea cucumbers, scallops, slipper lobsters (Scyllaridae), soles, electric rays, weevers, mullets, and even a large shellfish, the fan mussel (Pinna nobilis), which is becoming rarer and rarer in the Mediterranean. The pelagic environment is well represented in a 73,000 litre tank, where basses, gilt-head breams and big amberjacks swim. In this tank lived until a few years ago a loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) with a carapace of over 75 cm, which was received in the 1920s and survived more than 70 years in captivity. At present a new activity of the aquarium is devoted to these fascinating and endangered creatures (see below). The acclimatization in the tanks of Posidonia oceanica a seagrass typical of the Mediterranean, where it forms immense prairies, now unfortunately decreasing at a rapid rate is very difficult, but some small plantations have been established, and among them live some wrasses, pipefishes and sea horses. An interesting new project of the aquarium concerns the two species of sea horses living in the Mediterranean, common and short-snouted (Hippocampus guttulatus and H. hippocampus), both fast disappearing, with their cptive breeding and release in the quietest and least polluted areas of the Gulfs of Naples and Salerno. For the red coral (Corallium rubrum), typical of the Mediterranean but nearly disappeared from Italian waters, a small new tank of 200 litres has been built, because the existing tanks, which have the semi-open water system and receive natural light from above, could not be temperature- or light-regulated. The coral colonies, harvested from the Gulf of Naples near the island of Procida at a depth of 45 metres, have flourished in a closed-circuit system at 15° C, fed with live diatoms and zooplankton.
A healthy growth of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, showing the fruiting bodies.
The Naples Aquarium is also deeply involved in scientific/practical activities for the safeguarding of marine turtles, within the framework of the Italian National Turtle Project, launched by WWF Italy as long ago as 1976. The aim is to increase their population in the wild and to improve our scientific knowledge of these endangered creatures, so as to be able to better protect them. In 1983 the aquarium started to take in loggerhead turtles (the most common species in the Mediterranean) that had been found wounded or had been seized by the police authorities (the Italian protection law dates from 1980). The animals, which usually come from the Gulf of Naples or nearby zones, are later tagged and released (with the help of the coastguard or fiscal police services) in areas suitable for their survival, when possible provided with a satellite transmitter fixed to the carapace. Most of the turtles recovered are affected by stress caused by maritime traffic or by pollution, or wounded by propellers, hooks or nets. They therefore require specific cures, sometimes surgical operations, and rehabilitation. The analysis of data concerning numbers, sizes and sites of recovery has helped to shed some light on the dynamics of the sea turtle population in the Naples area. The release sites are in general north or south of Sicily. In 1994 one specimen was sent to Naples by the aquarium of Antwerp Zoo in Belgium, where it had lived for ten years in captivity. The turtle was kept for two months in a 73,000 litre tank with sea water from an open circuit, so as to accustom it progressively to the physical/chemical conditions of the Mediterranean, and fed live prey to get it used to hunting. Another specimen, recovered in the Gulf of Gaeta in October 1994, was released in September 1995 near the Aeolian island of Stromboli. It had been equipped with a transmitter and was followed by radio-tracking for eight months for over 2,400 km (calculated by default on straight lines), through the Strait of Messina, to Greece (the Peloponnese nd then Crete), Libya (Cyrenaica), Crete again, and finally Turkey, where the batteries gave out and the signal was lost. Up to the present (end of January 1998), 150 turtles have been received alive by the Naples Aquarium, 125 have been rehabilitated and already successfully released, and 50 have been operated on or subjected to specific interventions. Not counting the animals still being held for treatment or rehabilitation, the percentage of releases over recoveries is 95%.
The aquarium's activity extends also to whales and dolphins, particularly cetaceans stranded or in difficulty. Dr Bentivegna is Zone Correspondent of the Cetacean Study Centre for the region of Campania, particularly for C.S.C.'s project on strandings.
I wish to thank Dr Flegra Bentivegna for kindly supplying most of the information contained in this article.
Anonymous (1927): Aquarium Neapolitanum, guidebook, 9th edition. Giannini, Naples.
Bentivegna, F. (1992): Aquarium. In Futuro Remoto: Il Mare, pp. 97107. Cuen, Naples.
Bentivegna, F, (1986): L'Acquario Mediterraneo di Napoli. Museologia Scientifica Vol. 3 (12): 4555.
Bentivegna, F. (1994): Naples Aquarium and conservation. Presentation, European Union of Aquarium Curators conference, Leipzig.
Bentivegna, F. (1992): The Aquarium. older, Azienda Auton. Soggiorno, Cura e Turismo, Naples.
Heuss, T. (1959): L'Acquario di Napoli e il suo Fondatore Anton Dohrn. Casini, Rome.
Pier Lorenzo Florio, 40 Via Crescenziano, 00199 Rome, Italy.
Sketch plan of the Aquarium of the `Anton Dohrn' Zoological Station, Naples, Italy.
ZOOS IN A CHANGING WORLD
BY JEREMY J.C. MALLINSON
[This article was prepared for presentation at the International Conference `City and Zoo', Moscow, Russian Federation, 1519 September, 1997.]
Menageries to Zoological Parks
Zoos first appeared in Egypt and China several thousand years ago. In China, they were rightly known as `Gardens of intelligence'. Hoage et al. (1996) record, in their excellent outline of the history of menageries and zoos to 1900, that one of the earliest wild animal menageries on record appears in Egypt. Beginning about 2500 B.C., hieroglyphics record Egyptians keeping such species as cranes, pigeons, ibis, falcons, baboons, addax, oryx, gazelles, and other species of antelope. In the 15th century B.C. the first recorded wild animal collecting expedition visited the `Land of Punt' (presumably Somalia), to bring back monkeys, leopards, exotic birds, wild cattle and even a giraffe. Many exotic animals reached the Egyptian kings in the form of tribute. A wall painting from about 1330 B.C shows antelope, cheetah, a giraffe, and monkeys being delivered to the pharaohs.
Ptolemy I of Egypt (323285 B.C.), who had a particular interest in natural history, founded a great zoo in Alexandria. By the second century B.C., wealthy and influential Romans were keeping aviaries, fish ponds and menageries to show their power and prestige. At the dawn of the Christian era the Emperor Augustus (29 B.C. A.D. 14) is recorded to have had over 3,500 wild and tamed animals from his menagerie killed in 26 celebrations, including 420 tigers, 260 lions, 36 crocodiles, and a number of elephants and rhinoceroses. With the demise of the Roman Empire, such carnage also declined, except in Constantinople, where such slaughter continued up to the 12th century (Hoage et al., 1996).
In 1135, the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II established at his court in southern Italy the `first great menagerie' in western Europe. An elephant, a white bear, a giraffe, a leopard, hyenas, lions, cheetahs, camels and monkeys were all exhibited; but the emperor was particularly interested in birds, and studied them sufficiently to write a number of authoritative books on them.
In the 13th century, Marco Polo described the royal menagerie of Kublai Khan in Shang-tu, which maintained leopards, tigers, lynxes and elephants. In 1417, Yung-lo, a Chinese Ming Dynasty emperor, organised an expedition to Africa to collect a giraffe; apparently the emperor had a menagerie that included a zebra and other African animals (Hoage et al., 1996).
In the early 12th century Henry I of England deeloped a menagerie at Woodstock. Later Henry III donated three leopards presented to him by Frederick II, and an elephant sent by King Louis IX of France. This collection was transferred to the Tower of London, where it remained for nearly 600 years, its size and interest varying with the enthusiasm of the reigning monarch. In the 18th century the public were admitted to the Tower menagerie to help pay for the meat fed to the lions. It was finally closed by William IV and the remaining animals were transferred in 1832 to Regent's Park, London, where the first zoo in Great Britain was founded in 1826 and opened in 1828 (Warin and Warin, 1985).
Trade and exploration during the Renaissance brought Europe into contact with new and wondrous worlds: Africa, the Americas, and Asia. Improved trading connections supplied many new zoos and menageries with rare and exotic animals. Louis XIV established a magnificent menagerie in 1665 at Versailles, France, which had some 222 species at its zenith. This is considered to have been the first zoological garden that combined animals and plants in its exhibits (Hoage et al., 1996).
Up to the beginning of the 19th century, little had changed in Western menageries; nearly all were still the province of the nobility and the wealthy. Animals were caged for human amusement and as symbols of status and power. With few exceptions, they were displayed throughout the menagerie or zoo for `the gratification of curiosity and the underlining of the magnificence and power of their owners' (Hoage and Deiss, 1996).
As Kohlstedt (1996) records, historians have identified this era as the `century of science' because of the persuasive support for and major advances in science. Within the study of natural history, this was the `golden age' of museum development and, by extension, zoo development as well. Table I presents dates for the establishment and opening of selected zoos in the late 18th and 19th centuries (after Hoage et al., 1996).
Zoological Parks to Conservation Centres
Since the first public zoos were created some 200 years ago, a large number of zoos have been established in all parts of the world, and a great diversity has arisen among these institutions, which now vary from zoos with general collections to specialised establishments such as aquaria, bird parks, primate zoos and safari parks (IUDZG/CBSG (IUCN/SSC), 1993).
In 1950, Heini Hediger highlighted how a modern zoo is not only a place of popular entertainment, but also represents an institution which has always been indebted throughout its development to scientific enquiry, and thereby stressed the importance of zoos being active in all aspects of potential research. He also recorded how the biology of zoological gardens opens up a complex field of study, ranging from zoology to human psychology, from ecology to pathology; concluding how the various links between zoo biology and animal psychology should be an on-going investigatory process (Hediger, 1950).
In 1964, Lee S. Crandall recorded how the zoological garden of today had progressed far beyond the scope and status of the mere menagerie. He noted that within the present century great strides had been made in the development of maintenance methods that increasingly satisfied the physical and psychological needs of the animals and, at the same time, allowed them to be so shown that at least some segments of natural habitats and life cycles were illustrated. He recognised that changing world conditions that endangered the wild life of many areas had brought the zoological garden into new prominence in the field of propagation of threatened species (Crandall, 1964). Kleiman et al. (1996) have since recorded the considerable progress that has been made, during the last three decades or so, in developing the principles and techniques relating to the maintenance of ex situ populations of mammals, as well as promoting the science of zoo biology.
At the first World Conference on Breeding Endangered Species, held in Jersey in May 1972, the founder and honorary director of the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Gerald Drrell, highlighted how an ever increasing number of species of animal life were in danger of extinction, and that numerically, many of these had reached such a low level that they urgently required every form of assistance, if they were to survive at all. He resolved that it was of the utmost importance for zoos all over the world to now assess their contribution to conservation, and make clear the part that they were going to play in the conservation movement in the future. In this context, he concluded that to a very large extent most zoos would have to rethink their future policies (Durrell, 1975).
The World Conservation Strategy emphasizes that there are three major initiatives by which the zoo community can help to achieve the goals of its strategy Caring for the Earth (IUCN, 1990), as well as the Convention on Biological Diversity:
1. By actively supporting the conservation of endangered species, populations and their natural ecosystems.
2. By offering support and facilities to increase scientific knowledge that will benefit conservation.
3. By promoting an increase in public and political awareness of the necessity for conservation, natural resource sustainability, and the creation of a new equilibrium between humans and nature.
These objectives provide the basis for the mission statements of all zoos that will play a role in reaching the goals of the World Zoo Conservation Strategy (IUDZG/CBSG (IUCN/SSC), 1993).
Modern zoological parks are no longer `stamp collection' menageries, but are important centres of conservation, education and research. The conservation potential of zoos has been highlighted in the World Zoo Conservation Strategy document, which represents a blueprint for the conservation development of zoological institutions. The strategy emphasizes how the role of captive breeding should be complementary to, and not a substitute for, other areas of conservation activity (Mallinson, 1996). In fact, in many cases, conservation projects involve both in situ and ex situ aspects, and interactive management of wild and captive populations is increasingly becoming a feature of endangered species conservation programmes. The ideal is still to conserve species and habitats in their areas of origin (Mallinson and Feistner, 1995).
The recent reassessment by `zoos in a changing world' of their philosophies, conservation goals and management strategies, has resulted in significant strides being made by the development of collaborative efforts with countries whose endemic species are threatened
By the adoption of an interdisciplinary approach in promoting national, regional and international cooperation and coordination, by developing ex situ conservation breeding programmes and assisting conservation education and training of selected personnel, and by instigating field research and reintroduction projects, the international zoo community can continue in its valuable contribution to the conservation of the earth's fast-disappearing wildlife, and what remains of its shrinking biological diversity.
Crandall, L.S. (1964): Management of Wild Mammals in Captivity. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
Durrell, G. (1975): Foreword. In Breeding Endangered Species in Captivity (ed. R.D. Martin), pp. viixii. Academic Press, London.
Hediger, H. (1950): Wild Animals in Captivity. Butterworth Scientific Publcations, London.
Hoage, R.J., and Deiss, W.A. (eds.) (1996): New Worlds, New Animals From Menagerie to Zoological Park in the Nineteenth Century. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London.
Hoage, R.J., Roskell, A., and Mansour, J. (1996): Menageries and zoos to 1900. In New Worlds, New Animals From Menagerie to Zoological Park in the Nineteenth Century (eds. R.J. Hoage and W.A. Deiss), pp. 818. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London.
IUCN (1990): Caring for the Earth. Gland, Switzerland.
IUDZG/CBSG (IUCN/SSC) (1993): The World Zoo Conservation Strategy: the Role of the Zoos and Aquaria of the World in Global Conservation. IUDZG, The World Zoo Organisation.
Kleiman, D.G., Allen, M.E., Thompson, K.V., Lumpkin, S., and Harris, H. (eds.) (1996): Wild Mammals in Captivity, Principles and Techniques. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
Kohlstedt, S.G. (1996): Reflections on zoo history. In New Worlds, New Animals From Menagerie to Zoological Park in the Nineteenth Century (eds. R.J. Hoage and W.A. Deiss), pp. 37. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London.
Mallinson, J.J.C. (1996): The development of cooperative partnerships in support of in situ conservation programmes. Int. Zoo News 43 (5): 389399.
Mallinson, J.J.C., and Feistner, A.T.C. (1995): Guest editorial Captive propagation and effective conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 4: 535.
Warin, R., and Warin, A. (1985): Portrait of a Zoo. Redcliffe Press, Bristol.
Jeremy J.C. Mallinson, O.B.E., Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Trinity, Jersey JE3 5BP, Channel Islands, U.K.
Table 1. Dates for the establishment and opening of selected zoos in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (after Hoage et al., 1996).
1752 Tiergarten Schönbrunn, Vienna.
1793 Jardin des Plantes Zoological Gardens, Paris, incorporated the surviving animals from the Versailles menagerie.
1828 London Zoological Gardens opened to the public. The Zoological Society of London had been formed in 1826.
1833 Dublin Zoological Gardens opened in Phoenix Park. The Royal Zoological Society of Ireland had been founded in 1830.
1839 Amsterdam Royal Zoological Gardens became a public zoo.
1843 Antwerp Zoo opened to the public with the founding of the Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp. A site and some animals had been acquired a year or two earlier.
1844 Berlin Zoological Gardens opened on part of the royal hunting grounds of the Prussian king.
1857 Rotterdam Zoological Gardens officially opened. A Zoological Society had been established in 1855.
1858 Frankfurt Zoological Gardens opened to the public.
1860 Jardin Zoologique d'Acclimatation opened in Paris.
1860 Cologne Zoological Garden opened.
1861 Dresden Zoological Gardens opened in an area of royal garden which the king had presented.
1863 Hamburg Zoological Garden opened, and Germany's first aquarium was added the following year. A Zoological Society had been established in 1860.
1864 Moscow Zoo opened.
1865 St Petersburg Zoological Garden opened.
1865 Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland) Zoological Garden opened. The garden was plnned and construction began in 1863.
1866 Budapest Zoological Garden opened.
1871 Stuttgart Zoological Garden opened. The garden's first design was created in 1866.
1872 The Royal Melbourne Zoological Gardens became a reality. The Victoria government first approved the establishment of a zoological garden in 1857.
1873 New York Central Park Zoo was officially recognised. Beginning in 1861, a menagerie in Central Park served as a dumping ground for unwanted pets and carnival animals.
1874 Basel Zoological Garden opened.
1874 Philadelphia Zoological Garden opened. In 1859 the Zoological Society of Philadelphia made first plans for a zoo, but the American Civil War intervened.
1875 Cincinnati Zoo opened. The Zoological Society of Cincinnati was founded in 1873.
1876 Calcutta Zoological Gardens opened.
1882 Ueno Zoological Gardens, Tokyo, opened.
1888 Cleveland Metroparks Zoological Park opened.
1889 Atlanta Zoological Park opened.
1891 The National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C., opened. An act of Congress in 1889 created the National Zoo as a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution.
1895 Baltimore Zoo became an operating public facility. The Maryland state legislature had authorised the Baltimore Park Commission to establish a zoological collection in 1876.
1896 Düsseldorf Zoological Garden opened.
1898 Pittsburgh Zoo opened. Plans for the zoo were first made in 1895.
1899 New York (Bronx) Zoological Park opened. The New York Zoological Society was founded in 1895.
1899 Pretoria Zoo opened when the live animal collection of the State Museum of the South African Republic was moved.
Ninth International Zoo Collectors' Meeting
The 9th International Meeting of Collectors of Zoo Literature and Paraphernalia will be held in Hamburg, Germany, on 1213 September 1998. Hamburg was chosen as the venue for the 1998 meeting because the local zoo celebrates its sesquicentennial this year! Actually, Carl Hagenbeck's Zoological Park, as we know it today, only first opened its gates in 1907. But the Hagenbeck `animal enterprise', still family-owned, goes back to the establishment of a wild-animal dealership in 1848. The Hagenbecks' first menagerie was opened in 1863, their first albeit tiny `zoological park' (Thierpark) in 1874. The Hagenbecks have offered us a hall in which to stage our `trade fair' on Saturday morning. A guided tour of the zoo in the afternoon will be followed by the traditional Saturday-evening auction, with draught beer and wine in a zoo restaurant after a dinner buffet. (The proceeds of the auction may go to a conservation project for the Chinese snub-nosed monkey, the largest, perhaps most beautiful and certainly most endangered of all tailed primates.) On Sunday at 10 a.m. the Museum for the History of Hamburg will open its doors to a special exhibition on 150 years of Hagenbeckian zoos, circuses and the animal trade. After lunch, to top things off, we can visit Carl Hagenbeck's birthplace and the sites of the original animal trade and menagerie in St Pauli.
The fee for the meeting is DM50, to cover zoo and museum entrance; attendance at the fair, slide show, auction and guided tours; group photograph; and dinner on Saturday (excluding drinks).
For further information, please contact: Herman Reichenbach, Zoohistorica Hamburg'98, Paul-Sorge-Strasse 74, 22459 Hamburg, Germany.
A REVIEW OF THE MATING SYSTEM OF CAPTIVE COTTON-TOP TAMARINS
BY VINCENT LAMPREY
The Callitrichidae (marmosets and tamarins) display a range of courtship and reproductive traits that are unique for their relatively primitive taxonomic position within the Platyrrhini. The cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) is a relatively familiar and easily-bred specimen in captivity, to the extent that contraceptive methods are regularly employed to reduce birth rates. However, despite this abundance in zoological collections, the mating strategies of cotton-tops are far from well understood by many collection staff. For a species which is still endangered in its native Colombia and with a production rate that is less than desirable (infant mortality rates ran at approximately 40% in 1994; Int. Zoo Yearbook 35, pp. 429430), if a captive-breeding programme is to succeed in the long term, knowledge about the basic reproductive parameters relevant to the species is essential. For this reason I present here a brief review of what is known of the S. oedipus mating system from captive colonies, before moving on to discuss this in relation to current captive husbandry methods.
In both wild and captive settings, colonies of cotton-top tamarins are typically founded by a monogamous pair around which a family group of up to 1113 members is gradually formed. It is normally the case that only the founding pair copulate and share mating exclusivity with one another.1 Any other matings in the group are physiologically and behaviourally suppressed by the production of urine laced with gonadotrophic hormones used in scent-marking (Dixson and Lunn, 1987). This breeding pair typically produce pairs of dizygotic (fraternal) twins for which juvenile troop members of both sexes remain in their natal group and share some of the parental duties, carrying and even feeding the semi-independent infants. Indeed, the drive for this input from family members is such that the role of the female is often reduced to simple lactation, and she may only handle the infants for a few moments following birth. Thus the wild group typically exhibits a male-resident, female-transfer social system, with post-pubescent female members often being ousted by the breeding female in order that she may remain the sole focus of the juveniles' attention. In essence, juvenile members are `allowed' to remain in the troop and to continue to draw on its resources `in return' for sharing some of the parental responsibility. Animals in such a group are described as `communal breeders', since parental responsibility is dissipated amongst several group members, few of whom have any genetic investment in the infants (though there is obviously the influence of kinship in such closely-related colonies). The importance of such `helpers at the nest' can be appreciated when one considers the energetic demands of a single animal (or even a sole breeding pair) attempting to raise twin infants which, at sixteen weeks, weigh approximately the same as a single adult animal. It is conceivable that the restritions carrying places upon the normal feeding and maintenance routines of the carrier is appreciable, and this may play some role in the high rates of infant mortality, at least in smaller colonies.
1Note that although monogamy is typically the commonest mating arrangement seen in both wild and captive S. oedipus, it is by no means the most stable and productive in terms of numbers and quality of infants produced. See Price and McGrew (1991) and Lamprey (1997) for more information.
In larger groups, male helping behaviour may not be essential to the survival of the young and a male's primary interest may be to increase his chances of becoming the father of the female's next set of infants (Price, 1992). It appears that there is a definite hierarchy of carrying frequencies in such groups, with one male investing more in parental activity than others (Tardif et al., 1992), and this male appears to enjoy more mating access to the female than others. Indeed, there appears to be subtle competition to carry infants amongst the male members of the group, and this varies across the oestrous cycle of the female. Such evidence has led researchers to describe the reproductive dynamics that exist within the typical monogamous pair.
For the first month after giving birth the female is able to conceive by virtue of the post-partum oestrus (Ziegler et al., 1987), and for this reason is the object of attention from the breeding male, who increases his affiliative behaviour towards the female and also tends to carry the infants substantially more frequently than non-breeding or subordinate animals, despite the necessary energy investment. The latter activity is believed to be a method used by the male to gain the female's favour: the particular pattern of male care in callitrichids suggests that males may be using infants as part of courtship2, and females might be expected to use infant-care skills as one basis for assessing which male to mate with (Price, 1990). Many authors have suggested that ovulation in female callitrichids is concealed, hence the apparent lack of a correlation between sexual behaviour and ovarian cycles (Stribley et al., 1987; Brand, 1984). Brand confirms this, stating that male mounts do not appear to have a clear relationship with the pattern of female urinary oestrogen production. If true, this would benefit the female by reducing the male's tendency to leave, since he needs to stay nearby to ensure successful impregnation solely by him, thereby increasing the chance that he will care for the infants. Similarly, if non-resident or subordinate males cannot detect ovulation they may not mate with the female, and the resident male's chances of paternity are increased (Price, 1992). However, it is possible that this would cause reduced paternity, especially in a polyandrous group where mating males would not know whether their copulatory attempts would coincide with the female being able to conceive. Thus we can summarise the cotton-top reproductive system as follows: the female is receptive after birth and is then most attractive to the male, who will carry infants as part of courtship during this period, thereby illustrating his competence as a carer and prospective mate. However, following this she becomes less attractive but more proceptive and receptive to the male who, because the female conceals oestrus, remains and copulates with her, inadvertently continuing to carry and tend the offspring as part of courtship. It is unsure as yet upon what criteria the female chooses her preferred male; I would tentatively suggest it is upon the bases of age, virility (fitness) and paternal competence (vigour whilst carrying infants).
2It has recently been suggested that infant carrying by male cotton-top tamarins does not represent a courtship strategy, but the evidence is scant as yet and the subject, as with many fields, remains unclear and fails to explain the differing patterns of male care in a situation of confused paternity.
Clearly, this relatively specialised mating system has implications for the captive care of the cotton-top tamarin. Initially, one should mention the energetic problems of raising infants presented to a primiparous monogamous pair upon which many captive colonies are founded. The weight considerations and behavioural implications of producing a pair of semi-independent twins may well playa large part in the high levels of infant mortality in captive S. oedipus colonies; both problems may be alleviated by the introduction of an older and experienced male. Such an individual is likely to monopolise paternity in a satellite colony, so careful consideration should be given to his genetic origins via studbooks. One should also pay careful attention to the inter-male agonistic implications of such a move, and it may be wiser to introduce a trio of previously strange animals than to introduce a second male to an established pair.
The zoo environment, with its increased resource availability, often results in large colonies being produced, but with little opportunity for subordinate juvenile females to leave the group either of their own accord or as a result of aggression from the breeding female. This may well be the cause of many a collapse of `established' cotton-top groups, and the true implications are unclear at present. Contraceptive implants, favoured to reduce birth rates, may have a large part to play, though the behavioural implications of their use in colonies of smaller primates have yet to be truly evaluated.
To conclude, one can only say that for such a relatively common and easily-bred species, the absence of a clear understanding of the mating system and the high juvenile mortality rates would appear to be linked. Such an area requires fuller investigation to clarify the true correlation between the two factors. Many of the patterns described here for the cotton-top tamarin may also be applicable to other species of communally-breeding callitrichids, including Callithrix jacchus, Leontopithecus rosalia and many scarcer captive species. I hope that this brief review of S. oedipus reproductive dynamics will be of benefit to interested small primate keepers anxious to understand and improve the welfare and husbandry of specimens in their charge. In such a contentious area I have tried to clarify matters, but I would welcome details of any omissions or inaccuracies, and also any general comments interested readers may wish to make.
Brand, H.M. (1984): Reproductive behaviour and endocrinology of the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus oedipus (Callitrichidae, Primates). Ph.D. thesis, University of London.
Dixson, A.F., and Lunn, S.F. (1987): Post-partum changes in hormones and sexual behaviour in captive groups of marmosets, Callithrix jacchus. Physiology and Behavior 41: 577583.
Lamprey, V. (1997): Polyandry as an alternative husbandry strategy for the cotton-top tamarin. International Zoo News 44 (8): 452456.
Price, E.C. (1990): Infant carrying as a courtship strategy of breeding male cotton-top tamarins. Animal Behaviour 40: 784786.
Price, E.C. (1992). Sex and helping: reproductive strategies of breeding male and female cotton-top tamarins, Saguinus oedipus. Animal Behaviour 43; 717728.
Price, E.C., and McGrew, W.C. (1991): Departures from monogamy in colonies of captive cotton-top tamarins. Folia Primatologica 57: 1627.
Tardif, S.D., Carson, R.L., and Gangaware, B.L. (1992): Infant-care behaviour of non-reproductive helpers in a communal-care primate, the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus). Ethology 92: 155167.
Ziegler, T.E., Bridson, W.E., Snowdon, C.T., and Eman, S. (1987): Urinary gonadotrophins and estrogen excretion during the postpartum estrus, conception and pregnancy in the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus oedipus). American Journal of Primatology 12: 127140.
Vincent Lamprey, 6 Coltsfoot Close, Allt-yr-yn, Newport NP9 5DT, U.K.
Lion-tailed Macaque Symposium
The Fifth International Symposium on the Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus) is being organised by the University of Mysore, Mysore, India. The symposium will take place on 1113 January 1999. Papers may e prepared on any aspect of lion-tailed macaque biology, ecology, behaviour and conservation.
A special emphasis during this symposium will be on problem-oriented collaborative research between scientists working on captive and wild lion-tailed macaques.
Interested persons may write for details of the paper submission dates, registration etc. to:
Dr Mewa Singh, Professor of Psychology, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006, India. Telephone/Fax: (Residence) 91 (821) 514 239; (Office) 91 (821) 518 772. E-mail: email@example.com.
ASPECTS OF THE DISPOSAL OF SURPLUS STOCK FROM BRITISH ZOOS
BY RAY CIMINO
Late last year the British television programme The Big Story investigated aspects of the disposal of surplus animals among members of the Federation of Zoological Gardens of Britain and Ireland. This article looks at some of the findings and suggests that a debate on the subject of the disposal of surplus animals is overdue in the zoo community.
A bogus animal-dealing company was set up by the programme as a `front' for approaching zoos and trying to discover which, if any, of them were prepared to offer to sell surplus stock without running any checks on the company or its non-existent customers. Federation guidelines on the disposal of unwanted or surplus stock require such checks to be made, so in effect the programme was setting out to test whether these guidelines were being observed.
There are 57 zoos in the Federation, although for various reasons not all were contacted by the bogus company. Of the 39 which were contacted, 30 appeared willing to deal with the company that is, three-quarters of zoos contacted.
There is, of course, nothing intrinsically wrong about a zoo being willing to dispose of surplus stock to an animal-dealing company, but certainly in the case of a bogus company of which a zoo could have no prior knowledge, one might reasonably expect some checks to be made about the company. The programme devised a graded list of potential checks which a zoo could make in order to conform with the existing Federation guidelines on the disposal of surplus stock. At one extreme, zoos could carry out no checks whatsoever, and at the other extreme they could actually visit a final destination in order to satisfy themselves as to its suitability. In the mid-range, zoos could easily seek details of the enclosures, photos or video of enclosures, and details of the experience of final purchasers, etc.
This programme explored some of the areas surrounding the disposal of surplus stock to animal dealers and private keepers. The issue of the disposal of animals from quality zoos to sub-standard zoos was also touched upon, and this is also a relevant aspect of any review of guidelines on disposal of surplus stock. It seems fair to conclude that a significant number of Federation zoos in Britain do not always follow the existing guidelines laid down by the Federation, and so the onus must be on the Federation to look closely at existing procedures and review these in the light of some of the poor animal welfare practices which have been exposed. A failure to implement improved practices will undoubtedly, in time, result in further examples being made public by the various media. Such adverse publicity also affects the efforts of the good and responsible zoos by thratening a general reduction in zoo visitor numbers as a consequence.
I would suggest that revised guidelines should contain detailed and specific suggestions for ascertaining the suitability of unknown end destinations of animals. As mentioned above, these could include recommendations that photographic or video material be sought, as well as information about the experience and possibly the financial resources of end destinations (especially in the case of private keepers), to support a final decision. Other issues which require clarity of thinking in the formulation of revised guidelines include:
(1) In the case of the disposal of surplus animals of common species, should the disposing zoo have a responsibility to ensure the neutering of the animals?
(2) Should the disposing zoo have a role in the event of a private keeper being unable or unwilling to retain the animals at a future time?
(3) When animals are sent out on long-term breeding loans to private keepers, should the zoo conduct an annual inspection of facilities to ensure they are maintained to a suitably high standard?
(4) Can humane and coherent guidelines on the role of euthanasia in the disposal of surplus stock be formulated?
Perhaps it would be useful for the Federation to request annual details of disposals to dealers and private keepers, or even to request such details in advance of any movement of surplus stock, for the approval or otherwise of the Federation. Essentially, if the Federation wants to be seen to have good animal welfare practices as a priority, it needs to adopt at least some of the common practices which good animal welfare bodies utilise when making decisions about the rehoming of animals. The more open and thorough the debate within the zoo community about the moral and ethical issues raised by breeding surplus stock, the better the guidelines they may devise.
Such debate also requires greater input from the scientific community associated with zoos. In a search for science-based papers on these issues, I could find very few, and there was generally a strong tendency to discriminate against private keepers as a vector for disposal of surplus stock. Sainsbury (1997) says: `There is a need for advances in [birth] control techniques suitable for use in zoos. In the meantime, a policy of selective euthanasia or [my italics] the use of vasectomy are recommended as control methods. . . Selling these animals privately is not recommended, except in exceptional circumstances.'
I would agree that selling to private keepers is not a satisfactory method, as the disposing zoo is relinquishing all control and leaves itself open to criticism if and when things go wrong. An alternative would be to place such animals with private keepers on a loan basis, with a contractual obligation on the part of the private keeper to meet the cost of an annual inspection by a vet to ensure continuing high standards of animal welfare.
Interestingly, Bostock (1993) does not address the issue of disposal at all, beyond a short treatment of the necessity for occasional culling. Tudge (1991) lists the options as being contraception, reintroduction, transfer to a non-breeding situation in another zoo and, finally, culling. Since he finds these options `odd' and `perverse' when practised on rare species, one might surely expect him to exercise a greater imagination in confronting the issue of surplus stock? These examples from prominent pro-zoo publications indicate that there has not generally been the degree or level of debate which is required to adequately address these issues. I would urge all associatd with zoos to begin a full and frank exchange, and I am sure the editor of this publication would play a part and facilitate this through its letters page.
Bostock, Stephen St C. (1993): Zoos and Animal Rights. Routledge, London and New York.
Sainsbury, A.W. (1997): The humane control of captive marmoset and tamarin populations. Animal Welfare 6: 231242. (Published by the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare.)
Tudge, Colin (1991): Last Animals at the Zoo. Hutchinson Radius, London.
Ray Cimino, Wildlife Consultancy Services, P.O. Box 4827, Dublin 1, Ireland.
HANDBOOK OF THE BIRDS OF THE WORLD: Volume 4 SANDGROUSE TO CUCKOOS edited by Josep del Hoyo, Andrew Elliott and Jordi Sargatal. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, 1997. 679 pp., 70 colour plates, about 250 colour photos, hardback. ISBN 8487334229. £110.00 from specialist bookshops or directly from the publishers, Lynx Edicions, Passeig de Gràcia 12, 08007 Barcelona, Spain (Tel: +343301 07 77; Fax: +343302 14 75; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Internet: http://www.hbw.com), postage and packing £6.00 extra. (For prices in other currencies please check with the publishers.)
For thousands of ornithologists around the world, the appearance of the latest volume of the Handbook must be the most eagerly-awaited event since well, since the appearance of the previous volume of the Handbook! It is an immensely satisfying experience to see this magnificent set being built up, with the perfectionist standards that have marked the project from the start being carefully maintained. Back in 1992, like many other reviewers, I greeted the first volume enthusiastically, and kept to myself the secret doubts Is this project too ambitious to succeed? Can it possibly be financially viable? Will they be able to go on producing volumes as good as this one? Six years on, I can answer my own questions with absolute confidence It wasn't; it could; they would.
I have always been a keen advocate of the valuable work done by amateurs in natural history. The Handbook of the Birds of the World, though there is nothing in the least amateurish about it, was in origin an amateur project. It was the brainchild of a country doctor in atalonia, Josep del Hoyo, who with quiet persistence won others over to his `crazy' scheme. Financial backing was found, a company set up, writers and artists recruited, the support of the International Council for Bird Preservation (now BirdLife International) enlisted, and what has been described (by me) as `the most ambitious natural history publishing project of the 20th century' got under way.
The Handbook will not, of course, be finished in the 20th century Vol. 12 is currently scheduled for 2008. But that will not be the end of the story. The publishers describe HBW as `a living work'; that is, they intend to avoid the built-in obsolescence of most works of reference by issuing an `indefinite' series of supplements, complementing the main volumes in the light of subsequently published ornithological work. Any new species discovered will be illustrated and described, and the bibliographies already a valuable feature will be regularly up-dated. This further confirms the comment I made some years ago that HBW is `the best bird book that is ever likely to be published.'
This fourth volume covers only six families sandgrouse, pigeons and doves, cockatoos, parrots, turacos and cuckoos but these are a varied selection, including some of the most familiar and popular species in aviculture, and some which nobody but a specialist could even name. (I confess that sandgrouse were until now a completely blank spot in my own ornithological knowledge, and so were cuckoos, with a few exceptions such as the common cuckoo and the roadrunner.) Sandgrouse, I now know, are good-looking birds, easy to keep in captivity, and become very tame and friendly, so perhaps more zoos ought to consider them they sound like naturals for a children's zoo. But none is threatened in the wild, so I can't claim that they are a conservation priority.
As usual, the introductory essays give a thorough general account of each family, running to 52 and 60 big pages respectively for the larger families, Columbidae and Psittacidae. The photographs have always been one of the Handbook's most valuable features, a perfect blend of beauty and behavioural information, and this volume is no exception. (To pick one example is not easy, but I was especially struck by a shot of a featherless cuckoo chick caught in the act of humping the last egg out of the reed warbler nest it has usurped.) The 70 plates, the work of a team of 18 artists, illustrate 837 species, as well as numerous sex and subspecies variants. A bonus in this volume is the foreword, a 12-page essay by J.H. Haffer on `species concepts and species limits in ornithology'; Dr Haffer summarises the arguments on a complex and controversial subject with wide implications for conservation, and his thoughts on the subject could usefully be read even by zoologists with no specific interest in birds. But with this book in front of me, I find it hard to believe that anyone could have no interest in birds!
DER BEUTELWOLF (THYLACINUS CYNOCEPHALUS) by Heinz F. Moeller (Neue Brehm-Bücherei, Band 642). Westarp, Magdeburg, 1997. 196 pp., 127 illus., 11 tables, paperback. ISBN 389432869X. DM44.00.
DER BEUTELWOLF (THYLACINUS CYNOCEPHALUS HARRIS, 1808) LEBEN UND STERBEN EINER TIERART by Cäsar Claude. Zoologisches Museum der Universität Zürich, 1996. 79 pp., illus., paperback. ISBN 3952104302. SFr10.00.
The thylacine of Tasmania may be the most popular animal made extinct in recent times. It certainly wasn't popular while still in existence: as late as 1915 a cadaver brought a hunter the equivalent of a thousand pounds sterling in today's money, just to keep it away from sheep flocks. The last wild Tasmanian tiger or hyaena, as the locals liked to call it was shot dead near the town of Mawbanna in north-western Tasmania on 13 May 1930. The species disappeared off the face of the earth with the death of Benjamin inthe Beaumaris Zoo, Hobart, Tasmania, on 7 September 1936. Or did it? As Heinz Moeller, professor of zoology at Heidelberg University, points out in his fascinating new monograph, one of the reasons for the species' post mortem popularity is the number of sightings supposedly made of the marsupial in the decades since its presumed extinction, `putting it on a par with the Loch Ness plesiosaur.' Moeller does not share the optimism that cryptozoologists have for the survival of their favourite candidate. Along with the passenger pigeon and dodo, quagga and aurochs, he fears it can only serve as a vital reminder of the urgency of species conservation.
In the 86 years during which `pouched wolves', to use the German term, were kept in zoological gardens, the species was not popular among most zoo visitors. Tasmanian sheep breeders may have claimed they were fierce, but the only reliable report of anyone ever having been bitten or attacked by a thylacine was that of David Fleay, later director of the Sir Colin Mackenzie Wildlife Sanctuary in Healesville, Victoria, whose thigh was apparently mistaken for horse-meat once by Benjamin in the Beaumaris Zoo. Zoo directors liked to have them to show their visitors that not all big marsupials were kangaroos, but few apparently appreciated that a thylacine was much different from a coyote. Although diurnal, zoo thylacines just didn't have much to do. Readers of I.Z.N. will presumably especially appreciate Moeller's Chapter 9: Thylacines in Captivity. Forty-five pages long, it's the most comprehensive history of the subject I've ever come across, with a wealth of illustrations not only of zoo thylacines but also of the ways the animals were kept.
Other chapters are devoted to the history of the species' discovery and nomenclature, anatomy, behaviour, habitat and distribution, diseases, conflict with dingos, aborigines and European settlers, recent tracks and search expeditions, and the marketing of the thylacine legend. Moeller's book is a scientific monograph, but free of technical lingo. The illustrations are, with the exception of a couple of photographs reprinted from other books, very well reproduced. A two-and-a-half-page English summary and nine-and-a-half-page bibliography (and the index) round out what I found to be one of the best monographs ever published on any species tragically shot to extinction.
Moeller's English summary may be too brief for those who read no German. Cäsar Claude's short Swiss book on the thylacine has no English in it at all, but beautifully reproduced illustrations, many in colour, making it a handsome item for any `thylacinologist'. At a price equivalent to less than five pounds or seven dollars, it's excellent value for money. Those who do read German will find the text by Claude, curator of Zürich University's Zoological Museum, although of course not nearly as exhaustive as Moeller's, well-written and well-researched. The book, published by the museum, was originally intended to accompany a special exhibition on the thylacine that the museum staged back in 1996. It's not a catalogue or souvenir, however, and doesn't even include a reference to the exhibition, so it can be enjoyed just as well independently of it. Claude and Moeller have both done a beautiful job of ensuring that the thylacine, if (probably) gone, is not forgotten.
FOUNDATIONS OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR: CLASSIC PAPERS WITH COMMENTARIES edited by Lynne D. Houck and Lee C. Drickamer. University of Chicago Press, 1996. xvi + 843 pp., hardback or paperback. ISBN 0226354563 (hb), 0226354571 (pb). $95.00 or £75.95 (hb), $34.95 or £27.95 (pb).
ANIMAL EVOLUTION: INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF THE LIVING PHYLA by Claus Nielsen. Oxford University Press, 1995. ix + 467 pp., paperback (also available in hardback). ISBN 0198548672. £25.00.
Here are two weighty volumes aimed at the serious zoological student. Foundations of Animal ehavior assembles under one cover facsimile reproductions of 44 of the most important and influential pieces of writing on animal behaviour, with introductory commentaries by the editors and their colleagues. The papers' original publication dates extend over a century, starting with Darwin's chapter on instinct from the 6th (1872) edition of the Origin of Species. (In retrospect, this hundred-year period may be seen as the pioneering age of the science of ethology, culminating in its formal recognition in the form of the Nobel Prize awarded to Konrad Lorenz, Niko Tinbergen and Karl von Frisch in 1973.) However, the distribution of the papers over this period is very uneven, with five from 1872 to 1924 and 39 from 1941 to 1974. (This is not because of a lack of suitable material from the 1920s and 1930s, simply because many of the more important papers from those decades were collected and reprinted as recently as 1985.)
It is generally recognised today that the historical approach forms a valuable part in the study of many scientific disciplines. There is an excitement and immediacy in the experience of learning about the important, ground-breaking developments in any field by reading the actual words in which their discoverers first made them known to the scientific community. It is seldom reasonable, however, to expect students to seek out papers in a diverse assortment of learned journals. So volumes of reprinted articles such as this one meet a real need. (And what is true of `students' in a formal sense applies equally to any intelligent and interested general reader.)
Foundations of Animal Behavior is divided into six sections, each beginning with a commentary introducing the papers it contains. Sections one and two cover the origins and history of ethology and the emergence of basic methods of studying animal behaviour. The inclusion here of a chapter from Origin of Species lacks the justification that it would otherwise be inaccessible to students, but it does provide a good starting-point. In contrast with the anecdotal and anthropomorphic approach characteristic of most 19th century zoological writings, Darwin appears as the first of the moderns, testing by practical experiments how bees build their cells. Ironically, the next extract, from Darwin's chosen successor Romanes, seems largely to revert to the earlier style; but thereafter the scientific method reigns supreme. Sections three to six focus on specific topics development and learning; neural and hormonal mechanisms; sensory processes, orientation, and communication; and the evolution of behaviour.
It is a little alarming to learn that the editors' original `short list' of indispensable candidates for inclusion comprised more than 200 papers, each of which was considered to be a pivotal contribution in its time. Whittling them down to 44 must have been a painful and contentious task. One factor in the final choice was a desire to represent a number of different research approaches. Ensuring a wide spread in the types of animal represented was probably not a deliberate aim; but it was achieved anyway. Among the topics covered are vocal patterns in sparrows, mimicry in butterflies, affectional responses in infant monkeys (the famous notorious? experiments of Harlow and Zimmermann), migration in fish, adaptations to cliff-nesting in kittiwakes, the use of sonar by bats and the counter-measures employed by moths to avoid them, and the language and orientation of the honey-bee. Part of the interest of the book comes from seeing the original presentation of ideas which were revolutionary in their time, but are now part of the everyday mental furniture of anyone with an interest in natural history.
Claus Nielsen's aim in Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla is to show the underlying unity of the animal kingdom by tracing the evolution of all the living phyla of multicellular animals from their unicellular ancestors. He discusses all the morphological characteristics which are relevant to the construction of a `family tree' of animal evolution. Of course, morphology tells only half the story of evoluion and systematics; in the future, the new molecular methods will play an increasingly important part in evolutionary biology. But Dr Nielsen feels strongly that the new techniques need to be used in conjunction with the morphological data. He admits that his book may be the last to rely on morphological evidence alone, but argues that it provides a reference base against which to check the results of molecular methods.
Nielsen divides the animal kingdom into 31 phyla. (There is no consensus on this other recent schemes range from 16 to 36 but the differences are not as far-reaching as these figures might suggest.) A tree showing the relationship between the various phyla throws up some interesting and unexpected facts for example, that we vertebrates are much more closely related to starfish and sea-urchins than we are to superficially more similar-seeming creatures such as insects.
There is much talk in zoo circles these days about the need to present a broader, more representative view of the animal kingdom than is given by the traditional, strongly vertebrate-biased collection. Looking at a book like Animal Evolution, one begins to realise just how unrepresentative most probably all zoos are. Bias is built into the very structure of our language to talk about `vertebrates' and `invertebrates' is rather like dividing the entire human race into `English' and `non-English'. After all, the Vertebrata are just one of those 31 phyla. And most of the invertebrates commonly kept in zoos belong to only a handful of other phyla Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Cnidaria. . . Admittedly, there is a sense in which not all are equally `important': eight of the 31 each contain under 100 species (one has only a single species). And some phyla would require major innovations in zoo exhibitry the members of four of them are largely or entirely parasitic, and six others contain no animals much more than a millimetre long! But does any zoo in the world try to give its visitors a really balanced view of the `interrelationships of the living phyla'? If so, I would very much like to hear about it.
ELEFANTEN IN ZOO UND CIRCUS (Teil 2 NORDAMERIKA) edited and published by the European Elephant Group, 1997. 288 pp., numerous black-and-white photographs, paperback. Price DM92 (for 5 or more copies, DM87) plus tax and postage: for details, contact Jürgen Schilfarth, Trewstrasse 6, D-90482 Nürnberg (Tel.: 00499115460693; Fax: 0049
9115460635), or John Edwards, 26a Rhondda Grove, London E3 5AP (Tel. 00441819815812).
When I reviewed the first, European, volume of Elefanten in Zoo und Circus, I commented that no special linguistic skill was needed to make use of it as a reference source. Nearly five years on, I have had the chance to verify this in practice: whenever I need data about captive elephants in Europe on both historical breeding records and existing stock that is the book I turn to. The addition of the present volume makes North American elephant records available as well; the two together make up what is presumably by far the most comprehensive study ever published on elephants in captivity outside their native regions.
The statistical data are only a small part of what the book has to offer. It includes a wealth of photographs, most of them large (the book measures 212 by 298 mm) and many of great historical interest. All zoo historians will enjoy the full-page reproductions of posters advertising the first elephant in the New World (in 1796!) and a travelling menagerie of 1835. And of course, for those who can read German, the main text has essays on elephants in numerous circuses and about 35 zoos.
Like its predecessor, Volume 2 has been issued in a limited edition of 1,000 copies. Inevitably, this affects the price; but anyone who sees the book will approve of the publishers' decision not to cut costs by skimping on production standars the paper is thick and glossy, and the quality of the photographs is admirable. The European Elephant Group an informal association of mainly German, but also Dutch, Swedish and British enthusiasts would very much like to publish an English-language edition. Eventually, no doubt, they will succeed in doing so; but in the mean time, serious `ele-freaks' in the English-speaking world should support the Group's efforts, and enhance their own elephant reference libraries, by buying the German version.
Other books received
Comfortable Quarters for Laboratory Animals (8th edition, completely revised), edited by Viktor Reinhardt. Animal Welfare Institute, 1997. 115 pp., paperback.
Environmental Enhancement for Caged Rhesus Macaques: a Photographic Documentation by Viktor Reinhardt and David Seelig. Animal Welfare Institute, 1998. 47 pp., paperback.
These two books show how far the zoo-based ideas about environmental enrichment can have a beneficial effect even in the less congenial world of animal laboratories and research institutes. Comfortable Quarters for Laboratory Animals, in particular, gives authoritative information on every aspect of animal care: enclosure size, configuration and furniture, ambient conditions, diet, exercise, handling and husbandry procedures, pair and group compatibility, and much more. In addition to the animals most commonly used in research rodents, dogs, cats, primates and rabbits it gives practical information on how to house and care for pigs, reptiles and amphibians, cattle, sheep and goats, and chickens.
The Animal Welfare Institute is a non-profit charitable organization founded in 1951 `to reduce the sum total of pain and fear inflicted on animals by humans.' Its goals include humane treatment of laboratory animals and the development of non-animal testing methods, a ban on steeljaw traps and reform of other cruel methods for controlling wildlife populations, prevention of trade in wild-caught exotic birds, regulation of transport conditions for all animals, preservation of species threatened by extinction, reform of cruel treatment of food animals, and encouragement of humane science teaching. For further information, contact: The Animal Welfare Institute, P.O. Box 3650, Washington, DC 20007, U.S.A. (Phone: 0012023372332; Fax: 0012023389478; E-mail: email@example.com; Website: http://www.animalwelfare-com)
Saved the Mauritius kestrel
The population of the Mauritius kestrel (Falco punctatus), a small falcon endemic to the island, decreased due to habitat destruction in the first centuries of the island's colonisation. More recently the species became endangered as a consequence of pesticides, such as DDT, used in the 1950s and 1960s to control malaria-carrying mosquitoes and agricultural pests. When I first started work on the kestrel in 1979, I only hoped to establish a captive population. Some scientific colleagues suggested that the kestrel could not be saved, even in captivity, and the species should be allowed to become extinct.
The kestrel has been saved by intensive management of the wild population, plus the release of both captive-bred birds and ones hatched and reared in the aviaries from eggs `harvested' from wild nests. Some released pairs were alo supplementally fed to bring them into peak breeding condition. The birds nest in hollow trees or cliff cavities, but where there were not enough suitable natural sites to support a breeding population, nest boxes were provided.
The progress of the population has been far more spectacular than anyone could have imagined, thanks to Prof. Tom Cade, an American pioneer of falcon biology and management. Tom's organisation, the Peregrine Fund, provided hands-on help in Mauritius for a decade, sending Willard Heck out to join the project in 1984. Eggs were harvested from the wild annually, stimulating `double-clutching', since the pairs invariably laid replacement clutches. The eggs were hatched in incubators and the young were hand-reared for later release.
The kestrels were returned to the wild using two techniques. Fostering required young kestrels, 10 to 14 days old, to be placed in the wild nest of an established breeding pair. The birds reared the new babies as if they were their own. But the most favoured technique was `hacking', which enabled us to reintroduce kestrels into new areas of habitat. The birds were placed in a nest box at 30 days old, with a field assistant in constant attendance to feed and monitor them. The young began to fledge, but until the kestrels learned to fly competently, at about 50 days, they spent much of their time on the ground. There they were vulnerable to predators such as mongooses and feral cats, so we set dozens of traps. The kestrels became capable of catching all their own food and fending for themselves at between 75 and 100 days old. At last, the field assistant assigned to each hack site could break camp and head for a hot shower! About 75% of released kestrels survived and became fully independent.
When we first started the releases, our objective was to boost the remnant wild population in and around the Black River Gorges. We believed that the kestrel was an obligate forest dweller and could not survive in secondary forest or in degraded habitats. However, the young birds quickly proved us wrong, visiting river valleys, open fields and market gardens. We tested the habitat tolerance of the species by releasing
Juvenile Mauritius kestrels ready for release. (Photo: Thomas Stephan)
kestrels in open exotic savanna, fragmented native forest and on an offshore island. Most of the birds did well in these alien habitats, and kestrels now live in areas where the species has never before been recorded. The released birds also take a wider range of prey than the wild-bred ones, routinely hunting for small birds, agamid lizards, shrews and insects.
The last released kestrel number 333 was hacked out in 1994, the same year we said a final farewell to our stalwart hatcher and hand-rearer, Willard Heck. The job was done. The kestrels were left to recover on their own. We continued to monitor them to ensure that all was going well, and for Christmas 1997 I received the most wonderful news. Our researchers confirmed that the population had surpassed 500. The number of monitored breeding pairs broke through the 100-pair barrier to reach 101. The rate of reproduction in the wild greatly exceeded mortality. The species needs no more management or assistance from us. The Mauritius kestrel has been saved from extinction.
Carl Jones in On the Edge No. 81 (February 1998)
An endangered crane subspecies on the road to recovery
A managed population of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) was started in 1965 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland. A recovery plan was developed, and releases began in 1981. Three years ago, the managed flock was transferred to the Audubon Institute, New Orleans, Louisiana, and White Oak Conservation Center, Yulee, Florida. The Audubon Species Survival Center produced 14 release chicks for the 1997 season (from 30 adult birds). All but one of the release hicks were produced from a rigorous artificial insemination schedule (199 individual inseminations) and labor-intensive isolation hand-raising procedures. One chick was hatched from an egg transferred from White Oak. The 14 release chicks were divided into two cohort groups in November 1997 and transferred to refuge release pens in January 1998. Two weeks later, they were set free. The current wild population is around 112 birds and exists only at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Gautier, Mississippi.
S. Baynes in AZA Communiqué (March 1998)
Conserving the Jamaican boa
The Jamaican Boa Project, an effort sanctioned by the AZA Snake TAG and funded by several North American zoos, is focused on three areas: captive management, conservation of existing wild populations, and education. Significant progress has been made in the first two. The project enabled Dave Blody, curator of reptiles at Fort Worth Zoo, Texas, and me to visit Jamaica several times for completion of field work. Our initial trips were made to assist Hope Zoo in Kingston, Jamaica. If a reintroduction program for the Jamaican boa (Epicrates subflavus) becomes necessary, TAG members consider Hope Zoo a logical site as a breeding center; and the success of such a venture would be dependent on sound management practices.
Dave and I evaluated the zoo's existing husbandry practices, helped the staff there implement improvements in day-to-day care including diet and housing, and introduced the staff to a permanent specimen identification system. Since the majority of adult boas at Hope Zoo were from known localities, a permanent identity for each was very important. This was accomplished by injecting a microchip identifier under the skin of each boa in the collection. A hand-held electronic scanner is used to read the chip.
Hope Zoo had a minimum of eight breeding groups of boas; and although births occurred regularly, the zoo's limited facilities and an inexperienced staff resulted in a high mortality rate among young boas. Benefiting from husbandry techniques considered routine in U.S. zoos, we helped Hope Zoo personnel design and equip a boa-rearing facility. We were also able to guide them in the care of neonate and juvenile reptiles. This, in turn, led to the establishment of the zoo's first rodent colony to provide a constant and consistent food source for the snakes. Hope Zoo is now successfully raising boas!
Addressing our second concern, conservation of existing populations, our most recent trips have involved interviewing local people as part of a survey to update information on the identification of areas in which the species still survives. A major threat, particularly between Montego Bay and Negril, is habitat destruction to make way for hotels and highways. Dave Blody is at present collating the survey data for publication under a grant awarded him in 1996.
Our current efforts are in the area of conservation-focused educational materials for use by Hope Zoo to enhance local knowledge and interest in the Jamaican boa and other endemic wildlife. The future survival of Jamaica's wildlife will depend upon decisions made by the next generation of Jamaicans. As always, education is the key.
Jeff Ettling, Curator of Herps/
Aquatics, St Louis Zoo, in Zudus Vol. 12, No. 2 (March/April 1998)
Pygmy loris reproduction
Poorly protected in the wild, ygmy lorises have been given a high priority status for captive breeding. There are currently only 58 of these animals in North America, and 30% of these are housed at the CRES primate facility in San Diego. Over the last three years, CRES behaviorists have worked with endocrinologists to document the reproductive cycle of female pygmy lorises by hormonal monitoring of estrus and pregnancy. Analysis of male testosterone levels is now under way to provide a complete picture of the reproductive patterns for this species. Peak fertility periods in males, and the time of sexual maturity in juveniles, will be determined by non-invasive monitoring of testosterone levels extracted from feces. In addition, social behavioral data are being collected at night, when these animals are active. The information is being collected during the late-summer breeding season and throughout their non-breeding periods. Changes in behavioral patterns will be analyzed and compared with both male and female hormone levels. Results from this project will help us to better manage this species. Our goal is to maximize the reproductive potential of each individual. This is the first study of its kind undertaken with this family of primates.
CRES Report (Fall 1997)
Letting parrots choose their own mates
Male red-vented cockatoos (Cacatua haematuropygia) are notoriously aggressive in captivity. At an EEP Parrot TAG meeting, Mark Boussekey reported on a recent, fairly successful attempt to pair birds in a group situation, with the hope that self-selected pairs would fare better than those placed together for other reasons. Fourteen (10.4) birds were placed in a large enclosure subdivided into smaller cages allowing communication between cages. Three of the males had previously killed one or more females, but two pairs were formed within a few weeks. Hubert Lücker reported similar experiences in pairing hyacinth macaws, with as many as 18 birds in one enclosure. One male was placed in three different groups and exposed to some 30 females before he finally selected a mate.
EAZA News No. 20 (OctoberDecember 1997)
Research into growth of giant tortoises
Despite the high popularity of the animals, few zoos in the world have been able to breed Galapagos giant tortoises. The only European zoo where this happy event has occurred is that of Zürich in Switzerland, where a good number have hatched in recent years. The zoo is also researching diverse aspects of the biology of these animals. Recently a small group of tortoises bred in Zürich has been transferred to Loro Parque in the Canary Islands, to conduct a study on the growth of these animals. This study will compare the growth of the tortoises in the installations at Loro Parque, where they are in the open air all year in climatic conditions similar to those of the Galapagos Islands, with their growth in Zürich Zoo, where they have limited access to the outside and to direct sunlight. Each month data are collected on the tortoises' weight and carapace measurements. To be able to compare the results, the food provided is exactly the same as that given in Zürich to the other small tortoises. The group which arrived at Loro Parque comprises an animal hatched in 1993 that currently weighs 16 kg, and eight animals born in 1995 that weigh between 1 and 3 kg. All the tortoises are in a restricted access zone under close supervision, although consideration will shortly be given to the possibility of introducing the largest of the group to the exhibition enclosure together with the park's adult tortoise, Tom.
Miguel Casares in Cyanopsitta No. 46 (September 1997)
Doves collected in Marianas
From 12 to 29 January 1998, following the recommendation of the AZA Pigeon and Dove TAG, the Mariana Archipelago Research and Survey (MARS) program returned to Rota, Mariana Islands, and collected 20 Mariana ruit doves (Ptilinopus roseicapilla). Previously, 19 were maintained in U.S. zoos. Although the Mariana fruit dove is not considered endangered at this time, it was selected as a key species for the MARS program due to its limited distribution (four Mariana Islands and extinct on Guam) and the current threat of predation by the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) in the Mariana and other Pacific islands. This snake was accidentally introduced onto Guam in the late 1940s and has spread throughout, causing the extinction of the entire native forest avifauna of the island. In recent years, it has also been reported on Saipan, Tinian, Rota and in the Hawaiian Islands. This snake gets from one island to another in shipping materials on aircraft and ships leaving Guam. (One snake was found in a shipping crate in Corpus Christi, Texas, six months after leaving Guam in a washing machine.) The MARS program has conducted three bird collecting trips to Rota and one historical avifaunal investigation on Saipan, Tinian and Rota. The focus of the program is to develop husbandry protocols for the Rota bridled white-eye (Zosterops rotensis) and the Mariana fruit dove. (The Mariana crow (Corvus kubaryi) has been removed from the managed program, and crows that were collected on Rota in 1994 and 1995 have been sent to Guam for a relocation project to bolster their dwindling population.)
The newly-acquired doves are being held at Memphis, St Louis and Philadelphia Zoos during their initial quarantine period.
John Groves, MARS Coordinator, North Carolina Zoo, in AZA Communiqué (March 1998)
Managing the South China tiger in captivity
The South China tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis) is the most endangered tiger subspecies, with perhaps 70 known to exist approximately 20 in the wild and 50 in Chinese zoos. It is believed by some to be the closest living relative of the progenitor species from which all modern tigers descended. In the light of this, the South China tiger has become after the giant panda the second most important flagship species for conservation by the Chinese Association of Zoological Gardens (CAZG) and the government.
In 1995, Dr Ron Tilson of Minnesota Zoo responded to a request by CAZG for assistance with managing the captive South China tiger population. He organized a team which visited China. In November 1997, the team returned to follow up on the work completed during their first visit, as well as to evaluate new tigers. Both trips, funded by Exxon's `Save the Tiger Fund' and administered by the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, were truly team efforts. Each involved a total of seven professionals from as many U.S. institutions (two animal managers, two veterinarians, a population biologist, a reproductive biologist and a nutritionist).
A unique aspect of the project was our goal of assisting the Chinese in managing the captive population of South China tigers within China. Our team worked at four zoos in southern China those in Shanghai, Suzhou, Chongqing (formerly Chungking) and Guangzhou (formerly Canton). We studied 24 of the 50 captive animals to determine the health status of each. We collected blood samples and performed full physical examinations. Semen was collected for reproductive evaluation, and skin and hair samples for genetic study. Family histories were evaluated to determine inbreeding.
We found that most of the tigers were in basically good health, but among those examined there was a high incidence of broken teeth in need of root-canal repairs. We recommended vaccination of all animals against viral diseases that they share with house cats and other feline relatives. In Shanghai, we viewed several tigers who may have been infected with canine distemper virus, an emerging disease of large cat species. An intriguing finding was the possible existence of diaphragmatic hernias (a hole between the abdomen and the chest) in two tigers, an issue that we hope to investigate further. Nutritional studies are ongoing, but forthcoming recommendations for dietay changes should offer the animals a more balanced diet. A recommendation was made to add logs and other `furniture' to the tigers' enclosures to assist in the maintenance of their claws and to enrich their environments.
Genetically, the 50 captive tigers appear to be descendants of six unrelated founders, though in reality the founders may be a single pair. Such would be a serious source of inbreeding, so breeding recommendations will also be made. Semen quality was generally quite poor, but the reason was not immediately obvious.
In the end, we felt that we had been able to provide assistance in the struggle to save the South China tiger. Perhaps the mutual benefits of the trip to us and the Chinese could be summed up in the words of the Chongqing Zoo director. At an after-dinner toast (following the requisite `Gan bei', Chinese for `Bottoms up'), he noted that `From our history, we know that there is no future in closed doors.' Clearly, for the South China tiger, we must keep our doors open, for it will take all of our efforts to save this magnificent animal.
Eric Miller, Director of Animal Health and Research, St Louis Zoo, in Zudus Vol. 12, No. 2 (March/April 1998)
North American elephant studbooks
Updated North American studbooks on both African and Asian elephants are now available. Price $25 each, including shipping in the U.S. and Canada. Please add $10 for shipping outside North America. All funds must be in U.S. dollars.
Order the Asian elephant studbook from Mike Keele, Metro Washington Park Zoo, 4001 SW Canyon Road, Portland, OR 972212799, U.S.A. (Cheques payable to Metro Washington Park Zoo.) Order the African elephant studbook from Debbie Olson, Indianapolis Zoo, 1200 West Washington Street, Indianapolis, IN 46222. (Cheques payable to Indianapolis Zoo.)
RHEINE ZOO, GERMANY
Excerpts from the Annual Report 1997
`Continuity' was the leading theme for our animal collection in 1997. However, this does not mean that `nothing happened', or even that there was `nothing to do'. Managing even a fairly small animal collection to meet the different needs such as breeding programmes, educational aims and also attractiveness is a serious task and a challenge, and certainly not a job `just for (our own) fun'. Collection planning is a task for the zoo community as well as for the individual institutions to ensure diverse animal collections for the future. Whereas it was much easier in the past to send surplus animals to other (perhaps neighbouring) zoos or sell them to dealers to avoid the work involved, transferring animals according to the recommendations of the different EEPs or on the basis of studbook data consumes much more effort, and the different veterinary and other regulations make things more difficult still.
The exchange of male ring-tailed lemurs last year between Rheine, Apenheul and Gettorf proved to be a success, at least for Rheine. One female gave birth to twins of which one grew up, one raised twins, and the last one delivered a stillbirth. Another birth occurred from our oldest female, who did not accept the new males and therefore was kept separate with her daughter born in 1996; so one of the males who left us for the Netherlands had sired this young one, another female. These three females departed to Copenhagen Zoo later in the year. Some quarrels and fighting took place between the two males in themating season, and it was most interesting to see how the different females preferred one male or the other. There are obviously much closer bondings between certain individuals within a larger ring-tailed lemur group, independently of the hierarchy within each sex.
The all-male group of ruffed lemurs (three red and two black-and-white) turned out to be even more of an attraction for visitors than we had expected. No problems arose from keeping these five males together throughout the year.
In the group of common squirrel monkeys one young was born and raised. After exchanging the males in 1996 we had hoped for more babies, but this was unrealistic as most of the females are obviously beyond reproductive age. We revised the diet and vitamin supplements for this species again, and hope at least to stabilize the group.
As we had also revised the general husbandry of our lion-tailed macaques in the last few years, we had great expectations for the next births; but again the two females delivered only stillbirths. We still have no idea of the reason for these continuing failures, and it is no consolation that most keepers of this species experience the same problems.
Things did much better in the gelada baboons, and we believe that we now understand the basic husbandry requirements for this species (for which Rheine coordinates the EEP and keeps the international studbook). However, general group management will always be difficult because of the very complicated social structure in geladas. This year saw the opening of the second outdoor enclosure and new house. Four offspring were welcome additions to the group, though one of them subsequently died from an unknown cause. One four-year-old male left for Zürich Zoo to add a new bloodline to their group.
All the Cuban hutias in Europe derive from our group. In the past our numerous breeding successes led to a problem in finding good places for surplus animals. So we were not too worried when there were fewer births, and even when no young were raised this year. But we now know that, for reasons unknown, breeding has stopped in all the colonies except that at Rotterdam Zoo. So we plan to put more effort into husbandry research before the population becomes too old to reproduce.
Two male harbour seals were born, and the keepers spent some time including them both from the beginning in the training programme for this species. Both seals learned eagerly and are already taking part in the training performances, for example fetching rings and swimming through rings. In spite of this we have to find a place for one of them soon, as the old pool is too small for five seals.
According to EEP recommendations we should produce fewer Humboldt penguins, as offspring from our colony are spread widely in European zoos. Reducing the number was done simply by less intensive management, i.e. not taking away infertile eggs and leaving chicks longer with their parents so that second clutches were prevented. However, it proved to be much more difficult to habituate the three young penguins to taking fish from keepers at three months old, compared to previous years when we took them from the nest sites at an age of about five weeks. Two adult penguins died; one was an animal which arrived in adult plumage when it was imported in 1977, and so was at least 21 years old. In our colony there are still three penguins living which arrived at the zoo in 1972 and are thought to be wild-caught birds.
An elevated lookout point has been added to the Wetland Aviary to offer visitors a view into the nests of egrets, ibises and spoonbills. Whereas the cattle egrets, little egrets and roseate spoonbills adapted fairly quickly to this new structure and started nest-building at the usual site, the scarlet ibises obviously felt more upset and formed a new brooding colony at the adjacent corner of the aviary. They produced the best breeding result for many years, with 14 raised chicks; so it seems likely that it was competition within the mixed colony which prevented such a result in the past. The egrets raised sufficient numbers, with five chicks of each species, and four spoonbills of one clutch grew up healthy.
Young ringed plover at Rheine Zoo.
We were happy with numerous young from the white storks (22), Hawaiian geese (18) and Chilean flamingos (nine young reared out of 16 hatched). The sarus cranes parent-reared one chick and the demoiselle cranes two. The age of our female sarus crane is remarkable, as she has been kept at Rheine for exactly 30 years (in 1997). She might be considerably older as she arrived fully adult from another keeper, but it is not possible to trace her back any further.
There was continuity also in our satisfying breeding results with waders 18 avocets, two common stilts, two lapwings, 19 redshanks and eight ruffs. A first for Rheine was a ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula), which was hand-reared.
Only two new species were added to the collection, namely Abyssinian blue-winged geese (Cyanochen cyanopterus) as an addition to the new gelada exhibit and Senegal doves (Streptopelia senegalensis), which will be combined with our colony of weaverbirds next year.
In order to restructure the collection with regard to breeding programmes and for educational purposes, we loaned out a number of parrots (African grey, Senegal, and a pair of scarlet macaws) to Birdpark Marlow. So some new `faces' will be arriving in 1998.
There were 298,450 visitors in 1997, a new all-time attendance record for us.
Achim Johann, Curator
199798 C.A.U.Z. Directory available
The 9th Consortium of Aquariums, Universities and Zoos Directory was published on 31 January. This 163-page document contains valuable information for all zoo and aquarium professionals. Five hundred network members from 45 countries have submitted information about their current projects, including fieldwork taking place in 84 countries. One-third of the network members now have addresses outside of the U.S. and Canada. The Directory includes postal addresses as well as phone/fax numbers and Web site URLs, plus e-mail addresses for 290 network members. The directory is available for $20 ($30 to addresses outside the U.S. and Canada) from the C.A.U.Z. Network Coordinator: Donna Hardy, Department of Psychology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, CA 913308255. C.A.U.Z. can be found on the World Wide Web at: www.selu/com/~bio/cauz.
The Orangutan Foundation International is holding its Third International Conference on Great Apes of the World in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia on 36 July 1998. For further information, contact OFI at 0013102071655 or website http://ofi.net.
The Third International Symposium on Aquatic Animal Health will be held in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A., from 30 August to 3 September 1998. See website: http://www.som1.ab.umd.edu/AquaticPath/isaahweb. For paper presentation or registration information, contact Sarah Poynton or Andrew Kane at ISAAH, Division of Comparative Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 720 Rutland Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21205, U.S.A. (Tel.: ++4109553273; Fax: ++4105025068; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
INTERNATIONAL ZOO NEWS
Aalborg Zoo, Denmark
The zoo has embarked on a large-scale building project, in which the main entrance will be completely renovated and enlarged. The entire administration will be included in this new building, plus a souvenir shop and a small theatre. Following this, the polar bear enclosure will be totally renovated and enlarged to three times its present size. Finally, the old administration building will be redesigned to house an exhibition centre, with exhibitions of animals, `windows to the world', and many other things. The entire project is planned to make use of the latest environmental techniques, and will thus further highlight the zoo as a `green role model' for the surrounding community.
Charlie, the leading male among the zoo's Bornean orang-utans, will this year celebrate his 40th birthday. He is at present the oldest living orang-utan in Europe, and apparently among the two or three oldest in the world. A Danish pop group has composed an `Ode for Charlie', which will be premiered on his birthday. The zoo will celebrate by having a `wild monkey party', and focus on the problems for wildlife, especially in Borneo.
Henning Julin, Director
Bristol Zoo, U.K.
A two-toed sloth was born in the zoo's nocturnal house, `Twilight World', on 10 January 1998. She was discovered off the mother and hanging onto a branch of the enclosure, calling loudly. The mother was taking little interest in her, but it was possible for staff to place her on the mother's stomach, where she stayed for several hours. Just when it was beginning to look as though the baby would stay put, on a final late-night check she was again found off the mother and being chewed on the arm by an owl monkey. Efforts to replace the baby this time failed, and she was removed for hand-rearing. A formula using a lamb milk replacer was used initially, but this was not successful, so a mixture using evaporated milk and boiled water was used instead. Another major problem to overcome was the wounds on the baby's back, which were deep and infected. Intensive work by staff and veterinarians overcame this and other difficulties, and the baby gradually began to develop. She is now 12 weeks old and has been eating some solid food for several weeks.
The zoo is one of 28 institutions in Europe keeping this species, and several births have taken place here, but this is the first time that one has been hand-reared at Bristol. The first edition of the European studbook for two-toed and Hoffmann's sloths has just been published by Jutta Heuer at Halle Zoo, Germany.
A group of seven (2.5) Livingstone's fruit bats arrived on 1 April from Jersey Zoo. Bristol becomes only the second zoo in the world to keep this species of bat.
In early April a three-day meeting for the European Small Mammal, Small Carnivore and arsupial TAGs and the U.K. Rodent and Lagomorph TAG was held at the zoo. About 30 delegates attended from places which included England, The Netherlands, Germany, Estonia and Poland. Several productive working sessions took place.
Brookfield Zoo, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.
A team of scientists and students, headed by Brookfield's Research Curator Jeanne Altmann, has been studying baboon behavior and ecology for over 30 years as part of the Amboseli Baboon Research Project in Amboseli National Park, Kenya. This long-term research project has contributed to our basic understanding of primate behavior and social organisation, and helped to define and strengthen the role that behavioral research can and does play in conservation efforts. The project has received the support of the Chicago Zoological Society since 1985.
In 1963, behavioral ecologist Stuart Altmann, accompanied by his wife Jeanne and their young son, set off for Amboseli to study yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus). As Stuart began his studies of baboons, Jeanne, whose background was in mathematics, occupied her time by examining the methodology behind naturalistic behavioral research. At that time, this depended on the astute observations of field researchers, who simply observed the animals and noted any behavior that seemed important. In the case of baboons, the males tend to be bigger, louder, and attract more attention than the females. Not surprisingly, most early research tended to focus on males as the core of the group.
To truly understand an animal's behavior, a scientist would have to follow it all the time, an unrealistic technique. Instead, Jeanne developed a set of techniques which she called `observational sampling'. By conducting a series of short, but systematic and structured, observations, researchers could draw conclusions about what animals do the rest of the time. Jeanne formalized her methods in a landmark paper published in 1974 that refocused behavioral research. [This paper, originally published in Behaviour Vol. 48, is reprinted in Foundations of Animal Behavior, reviewed on pp. 15960 of this issue Ed.]
Based on these now formally defined methods, a very interesting picture of baboon behavior and social interaction began to emerge. It soon became apparent that females, and not males, formed the core of baboon (and many other primate) societies. Females usually stay in the groups into which they are born, and maintain long-term relationships and dominance hierarchies. Grooming reinforces these bonds. Males, who emigrate from their natal groups when they reach maturity, don't maintain such strong social relationships.
Jeanne focused her early research on the development of baboon infants and the influence of the social organization on mothers and their offspring. She observed that baboon mothers varied in their mothering styles, with some being very restrictive and protective, and others allowing their infants more freedom. Some of the protective mothers were low-ranking females whose infants were likely to be harassed, and the laid-back, or `laissez faire', mothers were high-ranking females whose infants were less likely to be harassed. In baboon societies, daughters inherit their mother's dominance rank, and position within this dominance hierarchy is very important for a female baboon: it affects her access to resources, like food. The rank of mothers matters much less for their sons, as males change rank frequently as adults within their new groups. Since high-ranking daughters benefit more from social position than sons or low-ranking daughters, Jeanne wondered if high-ranking mothers rear more daughters than sons, whereas low-ranking females rear more sons than daughters a hypothesis which proved to be correct.
Research on genetics, endocrinology, growth and development have become a part of the project, with the help of a neat little package left behind by the baboons: feces. The amount of information about genetics, hormones, nutrition and health that cn be gained from fecal analysis is both surprising and worth the humbling effort of collection. This developing field of `scatology' (the study of scat) allows scientists to gather detailed information on baboons without disturbing them. Scats contain DNA that enables scientists to determine paternity and hormones that allows them to evaluate stress levels. This exciting new addition to the field of behavioral research has become possible through Brookfield and the Amboseli research group cultivating many collaborative relationships with scientists around the world.
However, here at home, we need to educate our visitors about their role in worldwide conservation efforts. In the summer of 1996, Jeanne and I joined with other colleagues to revamp the interpretive program at the zoo's Guinea baboon (P. papio) exhibit, Baboon Island. The plan focuses on three main areas. First, it conveys the results of Jeanne's unique research to zoo visitors. Second, it makes visitors aware of Brookfield's substantial role in research and conservation efforts worldwide. Finally, it seeks to have visitors come away with a new appreciation of the importance of behavioral observation for conservation actions. Five permanent displays are being installed at Baboon Island.
`Can Studying Baboon Behavior Help Conservation?' establishes the crucial link between behavioral observation and conservation action. It explains that we must understand more about how animals live in the wild before we can take meaningful steps to conserve them, and shows how observational sampling techniques helped to revolutionize our understanding of animal societies.
`Looking for Clues' introduces the field of scatology and describes how researchers acquire useful information about baboons by studying their feces. This station also conveys the sense that animal studies are collaborative exercises more than a dozen researchers worldwide contribute to our understanding about baboons through this emerging scientific field.
`So Much to Do, So Little Time' compares the time budgets of baboons, valuable tools that break down how much time animals spend engaged in various activities, like feeding, resting, and socializing. It has been found that baboons who have settled around the tourist lodges in Amboseli, exploiting the rich pickings from the garbage dumps, are more likely to become obese, and are more aggressive and less active than their wild counterparts. In terms of how they spend their time, `Lodge Group' baboons, in fact, are very similar to the zoo's baboons: they have created for themselves a voluntarily human-dependent environment.
`Baboons in Two Worlds' is a unique informational station. The planning team interviewed 200 visitors to Baboon Island to assess general levels of interest and knowledge about baboons, conservation and behavior, and asked them to suggest some things visitors might want to know about baboons. This panel answers at least a few of these questions.
Finally, `Coping with a Changing Environment' focuses most directly on environmental change and how it influences behavior. Because behavior is often the first thing to change when an animal's environment changes, it may serve as an `early warning' that signals the need to address an environmental problem before it seriously impacts animals.
To accompany this new signage, innovative docent programs, touch-carts, and self-guides have been developed. In one activity, visitors undertake genuine behavioral research at Baboon Island. The zoo is undertaking a study to re-evaluate the time budgets of the zoo's baboons. Under the supervision of docents, visitors are collecting some of the data in this research project. Docents offer minimal instruction and lead visitors through a brief observation session. Visitors should come away with a new-found appreciation for the work of behavioral biologists.
While it is true that baboons are not endangered, their way of life certainly is, as are many of the other animal species with whom they share their habitat. The long-term data that we gather on baboons allow us to evaluate the relationship between behavior an changes in habitat. Because baboons have been so well-studied by scientists like Jeanne Altmann and colleagues here at Brookfield and elsewhere, Baboon Island can illustrate the importance of behavioral research and conservation.
Abridged and adapted from Sue Margulis, Ph.D., Associate in Research, Brookfield Zoo, in Bison Vol. 11, No. 1 (1997)
Chester Zoo, U.K.
Cheshire has the highest density of ponds in Britain, and perhaps in Western Europe, so it is entirely appropriate that the planned National Pond Life Centre should come to the county. The project team, led by Dr Andrew Hull at Liverpool John Moores University, also feel that it should be built at Chester Zoo. The proposed centre will complement the work of the zoo, and have the same ethos of conservation, research and education, including a stimulating public exhibition area and main feature for zoo visitors. The application for almost £2 million from the National Lottery Millennium Fund was approved in November 1997; this has given the project an enormous boost, and increased the confidence of the team that the remaining funding will be found. If all goes to plan, the centre will open in time for the new millennium.
Ponds were once a common feature in our rural landscape. Sadly, following the increase and intensity of farming activities and methods, they are now a rapidly disappearing feature. It follows that a rich diversity of plants and wildlife is also disappearing. The concept of the National Pond Life Centre is to establish a programme to conserve, protect and manage existing ponds, to stimulate awareness and understanding of this important resource, and to create new, sustainable pond landscapes. It will be the first institute of its kind to be established anywhere in the world. The centre will operate as an independent organisation, but there will be close liaison and synergy with the zoo.
The proposed site is the currently unused former car park at the old zoo entrance. This area will be used for the centre buildings, together with demonstration ponds and associated landscaping. Other zoo ponds may be available for the purposes of research, nature conservation and education.
The building designed by award-winning architect Richard Cass is conceived as an integral part of the landscape, and is intended to be a leading example of ecologically-based architecture. Its basic form is of a graceful shallow arch, which rises from the ground at either end, and is covered with grass and wild flowers. Beneath the arch, the walls are simply glazed, allowing light, space and landscape to flow through the building. Its façades are curved and angled, on the south side to maximise solar gain and to shield the building from the road, and on the north side to maximise the view over the open countryside. Inside as presently conceived, but subject to modification there will be three main areas: education facilities and an exhibition area on the ground floor, and a centre for research and administration on the first floor.
Important elements of the design are the north and south ponds. The south pond will provide the visual setting for the building, with a footpath descending below water level as it approaches the building. Zoo visitors will have separate access from the west. The north pond forms an integral part of the exhibits, with decks and boardwalk access from within the building. New woodland planting will screen the site.
This world-class centre will be an exciting and stimulating experience for the zoo's visitors, and we wish the team every success as they continue to raise matching funds for its completion.
Pat Cade in Chester Zoo Life (Spring 1998)
Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden, Ohio, U.S.A.
On 15 March 1998 an Asian elephant calf was born at the zoo. Jati, a 12-year-old female, is the mother, and the sire is Sabu, a ten-year-old male. This calf is the first elephant to be conceived and born in Ohio since the woolly mammoths, a close reltive of the Asian elephant, over 10,000 years ago. The parents were a gift to Cincinnati Zoo from the Malaysian Wildlife Department in 1991, given to us specifically for captive-breeding purposes. They arrived here when they were just four and two years old respectively and subsequently formed a unique bond.
Unfortunately, the North American captive population is decreasing in fact, without a 7% increase in the annual birth rate, Asian elephants will disappear from U.S. zoos in the not-so-distant future. There are only 135 Asian elephants in AZA-accredited zoos in North America, and because of their critically endangered status, none have been exported from Asia since Cincinnati's Jati and Sabu, in 1991. Of these captive North American elephants, only 2% are reproducing annually, leading to only 65 living calves born in captivity. If the lack of captive breeding and the ban on importation continues, in 40 years only 22 female Asian elephants will remain in the United States, and all of them will be past breeding age. Therefore, it is very important for zoos who have the capabilities to try and breed these animals. The lack of captive births is largely due to the fact that there are only about a dozen zoos with bull elephants, four of which are not breeding. Cincinnati Zoo's bull, Sabu, the calf's sire, is currently residing at Louisville Zoo in Kentucky. It is hoped that he will mate with Louisville's female, Punch, to create a new lineage that will contribute to building a young captive population in North America.
Abridged from a Cincinnati Zoo press release
Colchester Zoo, U.K.
On 4 April 1998, TV celebrity Rolf Harris opened the zoo's new Elephant Kingdom, `Spirit of Africa'. The million-pound new enclosure is at the forefront of modern enclosure design and has been under construction for the last two years. It now houses five (1.4) African elephants and will allow for breeding. The new complex measures over 1,750 m2, with separate, interconnected quarters for each elephant and shared day quarters with an indoor heated pool. The accommodation also includes quarters for staff, so that the elephants can be cared for round the clock. Outside, paddocks are interconnected so that the cows can be mixed with the bull. There are massive pools and waterfalls for all the elephants to bathe in. There's an education centre and large public viewing gallery, as well as closed circuit TV for close-up viewing. Visitors will also have the opportunity to feed the elephants.
Colchester Zoo press release
Columbus Zoo, Ohio, U.S.A.
The zoo has 13 juvenile Banggai cardinalfish (Pterapogon kauderni). Ten juveniles were stripped from a brooding male on 9 October 1997, nine of which still survive. Four additional juveniles that were not captured and remained in the adult tank appeared to develop at a faster rate than the isolated ones. All 13 surviving juveniles are now together in the 5-foot by 4-foot by 6-foot high (1.5 ´ 1.2 ´ 1.8 m) lagoon display tank with sixteen adult P. kauderni, other assorted fish, seagrass, and invertebrates.
The zoo has also raised northern pipefish (Syngnathus fuscus), striped blenny (Chasmodes bosquianus), and skittlefish (Gobiesox strumosus). A surplus of F2 generation G. strumosus is available to interested institutions.
D. Liggett in AZA Communiqué (March 1998)
Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark
The zoo has not had many flamingo chicks since 1987, but in 1997 we had no fewer than four chicks the highest number in the zoo's history. Flamingo chicks are also rare in other zoos. In the beginning it was simply because they were not offered proper nesting facilities. Flamingos need wet mud to be able to build the high, conical nests that are typical of a colony in the wild. Mud, however, was not well-reputed in zoos at that time: th flamingos were kept in a traditional way on well-trimmed lawns a nice background for the beautiful pink birds. But there were no chicks. Without mud, no nests and without nests, no chicks. Not until the beginning of the 1950s, when the relationship between big muddy areas and breeding success was noted, was there a change. The first chicks were seen in San Antonio Zoo and Basle Zoo in 1956. And two years later the flamingos in Copenhagen began to make their nests. But that was as far as it got. The annual movement between winter and summer quarters disturbed the process so much that the flamingos did not get further than making their nests. But in 1959 the flamingo house was built and the birds found sufficient peace and quiet to breed. The first chicks came in 1967, almost a hundred years after the first flamingos' arrival at the zoo. After that the flock grew with a chick or two every year.
But one night in 1987 a fox forced the fence around the zoo. Normally the birds are beyond reach of predators, as they prefer the little lake in the exhibit when night falls. But that night the drain leaked and the water ran out. This made it easy for the fox, and by the end of the night it had killed 18 flamingos. It was not only a moment of tragedy. The killing had consequences for many years to come. Some of the established breeding pairs were gone. Also, the group was now so small that the birds no longer felt safe enough to want to breed. Flamingos are social birds, and experience has shown that a group should number at least 20 before you can even hope for chicks and with only 16 Caribbean flamingos there were not many chances. So later that year we exchanged our greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) for more Caribbean flamingos (P. r. ruber), and
Part of Copenhagen Zoo's breeding colony of Caribbean flamingos. (Photo: Carl Lund)
in 1993 we added eight more, bringing the group up to 29 birds. Good results soon followed. In 1995 we had the first two chicks in ten years, and last year we had another two.
But this year has beaten all records. During the spring the keeper had created optimal conditions for the flamingos by digging a new mud hole right where the birds preferred to be. He also made a special, durable blend of mud, peat moss and straw. This blend made the nests very stable, and immediately the flamingos started to use the new area. Eight eggs were laid in eight nests. Four of the eggs turned out to be unfertilised, but the other four hatched in June and July.
From the English translation of an article by Bengt Holst in Zoo-nyt (Autumn 1997)
Denver Zoo, Colorado, U.S.A.
The zoo currently holds 0.3 Asian elephants ranging in age from 28 years to nearly 50. The oldest member of our herd, Candy, is currently undergoing infra-red therapy sessions daily in an attempt to improve the arthritis in her carpal joints. This therapy was begun in March 1997 on the left carpus and has now been expanded to include the right carpus. Treatments take place for 40 minutes daily; previously the left leg was treated daily, and now each leg is treated every other day, still for 40 minutes.
Candy has been receiving ibuprofen for some time in an effort to ease her discomfort from the arthritis. With the addition of the infra-red treatment Candy's ibuprofen dosage has been reduced to one-third of the previous dose, and her behavior, mood, and attention span have improved. In order to more scientifically monitor Candy's progress, regular measurements of the angle of flexion at the carpus and elbow are taken from both front legs. She is also videotaped for computer analysis of stride length at a later date.
Since the treatment was begun in the spring, it is as yet unknown how much of her improvement is due to the treatment and how much should be attributed to the elephants having access to the outside at night in the warmer weather, instead of being inside the building on concrete. We will be watching closely to see how her condition changes with the coming of coldweather.
Vickie Kunter in Journal of the Elephant Managers Association Vol. 8, No. 3 (Winter 1997)
Dresden Zoo, Germany
Since 1994 the zoo has held the rarely-kept Mishmi takin (Budorcas t. taxicolor). In December 1994 the male Wim, born at Tierpark Berlin, arrived and settled well in the newly-constructed enclosure. Exactly one year later Sissi, a female also born at Tierpark Berlin, arrived in Dresden.
The two animals lived together without any problems. The keepers could enter the enclosure with both animals until summer 1995. Then the male became more and more dominant, so that it was necessary to separate him during normal cleaning procedures. In 1996 the first sexual activities were observed, but Sissi was obviously still too young to breed. In 1996 we again saw an intense rut with several copulations. The behaviour of the female was different this time. By the turn of the year we were certain that Sissi was pregnant. On the evening of 9 March 1998 she gave birth to a young female, unfortunately outside the stable in a cold and wet enclosure. Therefore the newborn animal was taken away through the fence of the enclosure, rubbed dry, sexed, weighed, and brought into the stable. Sissi followed suit and accepted the young in the stable. The birth weight was 5.1 kg, which means that the youngster is the lightest takin ever born in captivity. According to information we received from Tierpark Berlin, birth weights have ranged from 5.3 to 9.8 kg. Despite her low weight, Mimi behaves properly, is very playful and is putting on weight. After four weeks she weighed approximately 10 kg. According to the records from Berlin, every young takin shows some white hairs on the forehead; but Mimi has a completely dark forehead.
Dresden is the third zoo in the world to breed this rare mammal.
Dr H. Lücker, Director
Gdansk Zoo, Poland
After an interruption of three years, the zoo continued its success in breeding Andean condors (Vultur gryphus). No less than three (3.0) hatched in 1997 after 58 days of artificial incubation at a temperature of 36.5° C and a humidity of 55.0%. The birth-weight of the chicks varied from 181 to 195 g. All three were successfully hand-reared. The zoo currently houses two breeding pairs of this species which were wild-born in Argentina. These birds were between eight and ten years old when they arrived at the zoo in 1966 (2.1) and 1978 (0.1) respectively. Breeding started in 1982 and since then 11 Andean condors have hatched at Gdansk. Eight females hatched between 1982 and 1994, two of them after natural incubation. All eggs hatched since 1990 were artificially incubated.
Maria Sarnecka-Wozniak in EAZA News No. 21 (JanuaryMarch 1998)
Hamerton Wildlife Park, Huntingdon, U.K.
The death of our breeding male jaguarundi in 1997 was a bitter blow and the loss of one of the most genetically important individuals in the tiny European population of this rare cat. With no warning whatsoever he vomited back a feed late one afternoon in July. The next day the cat was listless and anorexic, but with no other symptoms, and the vet was called in. His diagnosis (later confirmed as a mis-diagnosis) was cat flu. We were unconvinced of this, as there were other much more susceptible cats on site, including the young unvaccinated jaguarundi kittens in the enclosure next door. Additionally, the symptoms did not seem to fit.
The next two days showed worsening anorexia and dehydration, but nothing else, and he was injected daily with a cocktail of steroid, stimulant and antibiotic. It was obvious by the third day that another 24 hours would see us with a post-mortem to do, so we insisted on an X-ray just to confirm that it was not something stupidly simple like a bone fragment lodged somewhere. The X-ray was inconclusive and the cat did not recover from the anaesthetic.
ost-mortem results for once were 100% certain and conclusive. The jaguarundi had died of acute renal failure caused by ethylene-glycol poisoning car anti-freeze! It was midsummer; and as all the park's vehicles are dealer-serviced, there has never been any anti-freeze on site. Someone must have brought in the chemical. We were dealing with a case of malicious poisoning. Once the police realised that we were not joking, they took the whole matter as seriously as it deserved but of course, it was always impossible to imagine a motive or a suspect, or indeed a way of preventing repetition, so nothing was ever discovered. It is disconcerting to think that just five ml of a product so freely available should be so lethal.
Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Channel Islands
The Madagascan tree boa (Sanzinia madagascariensis) has been maintained in the zoo's collection since 1991, when two pairs were collected by Quentin Bloxam. Soon after arriving in Jersey, one female gave birth to a litter of eight babies. However, Madagascan tree boas are difficult charges in captivity and since that birth there has been only one breeding in a British zoo.
In 1996 the zoo received a new pair of young adult boas which were part of an illegal shipment of Madagascan reptiles detained at Paris Customs. There were about 20 boas in all, and they were distributed among zoos in the U.K. who participate in a regional programme for the species. In November 1997 their rescue from the `trade' was made all the more worthwhile with the arrival of a litter of five babies, captive-bred in Jersey. About a month previously we had suspected that the female was gravid, and confirmed her condition with an ultra-sound scan.
The babies, unusually for snakes, are completely different in appearance from their parents. Both mother and father are essentially green and white, while the new babies are orange and brick-red. This strange arrangement mirrors the related tree boas of South and Central America and even their very distant cousin, the green tree python from Indonesia. Between about six and 18 months of age their colour will gradually become the same as that of their parents.
In three or four years' time, when the new boas are sexually mature, we will be able to distribute them to other collections in order to support the captive programme and maintain maximum genetic diversity.
Richard Gibson, Head of Herpetology, in On the Edge No. 81 (February 1998)
Loro Parque, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
With such a large number of breeding birds in the collection, it is unavoidable that each year some chicks or eggs have to be removed from the care of their natural parents for a variety of different reasons. The most common approach to rearing such chicks in aviculture is to hand-feed the chicks, but an alternative method which can be very successful and advantageous is to consider fostering the eggs from unreliable pairs to other pairs of the same or similar species which have shown themselves to be much more reliable in the art of parenthood.
At Loro Parque in recent years there have been a number of interesting examples of successful foster-rearing. It is now common practice for us to use green-winged macaws as foster-parents to chicks from an unreliable pair of hyacinth macaws. Many rarer species of amazon parrots, such as the red-browed amazon (Amazona rhodocorytha) are often fostered to commoner species such as blue-fronted amazon (A. aestiva). Further interesting examples include the foster-rearing of golden conure (Guaruba guarouba) chicks by sun conures (Aratinga solstitialis), and the New Caledonian horned parakeets (Eunymphicus cornutus) which have been foster-reared by golden-mantled rosellas (Platycercus eximius) and also by moustached parakeets (Psittacula alexandri).
Some of the most important considerations when selecting pairs of birds as potential foster-parents are as follows:
(1) Past history of parenthood. Obviously only pairs which have already proved their ability should be trusted as foster-parents, particularly if the eggs being fostered are of an endangered species.
(2) Health status of the foster-parents. Any birds being considered should have a good health status with no previous record of fungal or bacterial infections which might affect their ability to rear chicks. Obviously pairs which have any suspicion of viral conditions should be excluded.
(3) Comparative size of species. Where cross-fostering is concerned, obviously the comparative size of the species has to be considered. At Loro Parque a pair of sun conures were successful in rearing a brood of golden conures, when the chicks being reared were significantly larger than their foster-parents. However, such cases need extra care, and it is always better to try to foster chicks to a similar-sized species to increase the chances of success.
(4) Comparative appearance and behaviour. In my experience, the physical appearance of newly-hatched chicks is not a critical factor, as most good parent birds will rear fostered chicks in the absence of their own even if the appearance is slightly different. More important to consider is the comparative behaviour of the chick, particularly the feeding response. Food-soliciting behaviour of the chicks is fairly uniform for most psittacines, but what can vary is the force with which the feeding action is undertaken. Some species with a very forceful feeding action (such as those in the genus Aratinga) may injure young chicks of more delicate species which they have been given to rear.
Roger Sweeney in Cyanopsitta No. 46 (September 1997)
Tennessee Aquarium, Chattanooga, Tennessee, U.S.A.
In May 1997 the aquarium opened `Turtles: Nature's Living Sculptures', a 700-square-foot (65 m2) gallery presenting the diversity of forms and functions of turtles and tortoises throughout the world. The gallery includes an exhibit entitled `Architecture of the Turtle Shell', which draws parallels between the turtle shell and Gothic architecture particularly focusing on shared features such as buttresses, pillars, and keystones. Thirteen live exhibits, displaying approximately 25 species of turtles and tortoises, explore themes such as flattened shells, cryptic coloration, sidenecks versus `hidden-necks', and the diversity of turtles from Asia, Central America and Africa. The gallery also highlights international conservation efforts through continuous-run slide vignettes, and includes an interactive focus station manned by docents.
D. Collins in AZA Communiqué (March 1998)
Wissel Zoo, The Netherlands
[A visitors' report by Robert van Herk and Ben Westerveld]
This small (400 ´ 50 m) zoo was established in the 1960s, and initially consisted primarily of pheasants and primates received from a Dutch primate rescue centre. The zoo began to take on a new form when ownership changed for the third time in 1994. Old enclosures were replaced, and plans are being made to expand the park. In 1997 the zoo applied for Dutch Zoo Federation membership, and the application was approved after a surprise inspection of the zoo was made. The changes in the zoo have been well received: annual visitation has increased from around 30,000 to 100,000. Visitors are primarily summer tourists vacationing in the area. There are five permanent keepers, and some 20 personnel in total are employed during the summer high season. One of the five keepers also funcions as the biologist and educational department.
The wooded zoo grounds are quite picturesque, and a clear brook running through the zoo is a well utilized element in many of the animal enclosures. Most of the enclosures offer naturalistic enrichment opportunities for the animals, but in general tend to be on the small side. Some interesting combinations of animals, for example kookaburras and cotton-topped tamarins, appear to work well. In some cases it appears that too little attention has been put to providing adequate winter accommodation for the tropical animals held, particularly the pygmy hippos, but there are plans for improvement in the future. The design of some enclosures and off-exhibit areas does not facilitate keeper work.
The park gives an overall positive impression. Creative use is made of the potential offered by the grounds, and there is enthusiastic participation in zoo breeding programmes and regional environmental conservation activities.
Reprinted from the English summary of an article in De Harpij Vol. 17, No. 1 (1998)
News in Brief
A grey-winged trumpeter (Psophia crepitans) hatched recently at Gladys Porter Zoo, Brownsville, Texas, U.S.A., a first for the zoo. Only a handful of zoos have ever successfully bred this species. The chick is being cared for in the zoo's brooder room, while six additional eggs are being incubated. Trumpeters, found in the rainforest areas of South America, are best known for their bugle-like call.
L. Hettler in AZA Communiqué (March 1998)
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Sultan, a 28-year-old male gorilla at Kyoto Zoo, Japan, died a few minutes after being put in a cage with three females. He appears to have suffered a heart attack brought on by over-excitement.
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Captive Hawaiian crows (Corvus hawaiiensis), or `alala, had a good breeding season in 1997, with nine chicks hatched and raised a major potential boost for the 15-strong critically endangered wild population. The `Alala Management Programme run by the Peregrine Fund began in 1993. Since then, 16 young have been released, ten of which still survive. One released female who has formed a pair bond with a wild male could be the first captive-bred bird to breed successfully in the wild.
World Birdwatch Vol. 20, No. 1 (March 1998)
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Santa Barbara Zoo, California, opened its newly-renovated sloth exhibit on 10 January 1998. It features three two-toed sloths; all are founder stock and have produced seven offspring while at the zoo. The exhibit also houses Coahuilan box turtles, mata mata turtles, side-neck turtles and iguanas. The exhibit offers up-close viewing of the sloths and includes a misting system and sounds from the rainforest.
K. Rogers in AZA Communiqué (March 1998)
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A 16-page book due to be published in June sounds like a natural choice for zoo shops to stock. Aimed at four- to seven-year-old children, Pooey Zoo by Lynne Gibbs must be one of the smelliest books ever. Thanks to a new technical process, rubbing the illustrations will release four smells, including an elephant house and feeding time at a seal pool and unlike earlier `scratch and sniff' books, this one is long-lasting, so children will be able to sniff the odours again and again. Pooey Zoo will be published by World International Publishing Ltd, Deanway Technology Centre, Wilmslow Road, Handforth, Cheshire SK9 3FB, U.K.
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Two pied tamarin (Saguinus bicolor) babies were born on 18 November 1997 at Clevland Metroparks Zoo, Ohio, U.S.A. The parents are on loan from Philadelphia Zoo. Only 20 individuals of this species are currently held in North American zoos. In typical tamarin style, the mother is feeding the twins, while the father is responsible for all other care and carries them around on his back.
E. Newman in AZA Communiqué (March 1998)
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Gabon vipers (Bitis gabonica) recently arrived at Jersey Zoo. This is not an endangered species, but they have been brought in to enable staff to learn safety techniques for handling venomous reptiles, after which the Trust hopes to set up a recovery programme for a critically endangered venomous snake species, the Milos viper (Macrovipera schweizeri) from Greece.
Adapted from Lee Durrell in On the Edge No. 81 (February 1998)
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The Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland has announced the appointment of Mary Talbot-Rosevear as its new Director. Ms Talbot-Rosevear has worked for 11 years in the U.K. zoo world; she has been the Federation's Public Relations Consultant since 1993, and previously worked at Paignton Zoo from 1987 to 1991 and for the World Parrot Trust from 1991 to 1993.
Adams, G., and Bubucis, P.M.: Calculating an artificial sea water formulation using spreadsheet matrices. Aquarium Sciences and Conservation Vol. 2, No. 1 (1998), pp. 3541.
Allsopp, N.B.: Behavioural enrichment for Asian elephants at Auckland Zoo. Thylacinus Vol. 22, No. 1 (1998), pp. 4446.
Allsopp, N.B.: Canine enrichment program. Thylacinus Vol. 22, No. 1 (1998), pp. 3943. [Auckland Zoo.]
Barlow, S.C.: Notes on the assisted rearing of three juvenile Myrmecobius fasciatus at Perth Zoo. Thylacinus Vol. 22, No. 1 (1998), pp. 4752. [Numbat.]
Barnes, T., Copland, T., and Norman, G.: Birds of prey display, Territory Wildlife Park. Thylacinus Vol. 22, No. 1 (1998), pp. 46. [A captive-bred black-breasted buzzard (Hamirostra melanosternon) in this display demonstrates the innate behaviour of breaking an egg with a stone and eating the contents.]
Cambray, J.A.: Captive breeding and sanctuaries for the endangered African anabantid Sandelia bainsii, the Eastern Cape rocky. Aquarium Sciences and Conservation Vol. 1, No. 3 (1997), pp. 159168. [This species is in danger of extinction in the near future if urgent steps are not taken to prevent further degradation of its habitat. A combination of environmental education programmes, environmental journalism, captive-breeding programmes, provision of sanctuaries, survey work and new research are being used to prevent its extinction. A recent study using video recordings has for the first time clarified the reproductive behaviour of this anabantid; this new information will aid in the planning of the captive-breeding strategy.]
Chauhan, R.S., Sharma, S.C., and Gupta, P.K.: Hematuria in a wolf (Canis lupus) associated with Neisseria canis infection. Zoos' Print Vol. 12, No. 12 (1997), p. 6.
Colorni, A., and Burgess, P.: Cryptocaryon irritans Brown 1951, the cause of `white spot disease' in marine fish: an update. Aquarium Sciences and Conservation Vol. 1, o. 4 (1997), pp. 217238. [In aquaria, C. irritans, a holotrichous ciliate parasite, can cause acute damage and heavy mortalities to marine teleosts. Although first described 60 years ago, only within the last decade has detailed information emerged concerning its life cycle, transmission and pathogenesis. The article presents an update of our knowledge of this important aquarium fish parasite.]
Elangovan, A., and Shim, K.F.: Dietary phosphorus requirement of juvenile tiger barb, Barbus tetrazona (Bleeker, 1855). Aquarium Sciences and Conservation Vol. 2, No. 1 (1998), pp. 919.
Evans, K.L.: Aquaria and marine environmental education. Aquarium Sciences and Conservation Vol. 1, No. 4 (1997), pp. 239250. [Marine aquaria claim that they help to elevate the current low profile of marine conservation through public education. The effectiveness of aquaria as centres for marine conservation education was assessed using social survey techniques, at three large commercial aquaria in the south-west of England. The aquaria managers did not believe that most visitors were interested in receiving educational information, in particular on conservation topics. Textual analysis revealed that aquaria's interpretative material contained very few references to conservation and portrayed a distorted image of the marine environment. The feedback from the questionnaires revealed no evidence for an increase in visitors' sympathy towards and understanding of marine conservation following a visit to an aquarium. The majority of visitors wanted public aquaria to increase their levels of interpretation. In particular, visitors wanted more information on conservation and how they, as individuals, could contribute to preserving the marine environment. As well as benefiting conservation, increasing the educational impact of aquaria could have significant commercial advantages, e.g. increased visitor satisfaction and numbers. Suggestions on how these mutual benefits could be achieved are briefly outlined. Their success will depend on the degree of cooperation which can be forged between commercial aquaria and conservationists.]
Garner, R.: Preliminary report regarding captive breeding observations of the brown-banded bamboo shark Chiloscyllium punctatum Muller & Henle, 1838. Thylacinus Vol. 22, No. 1 (1998), pp. 3132. [Underwater World, Mooloolaba.]
Glatston, A.: Wat is een TAG? (What is a Taxon Advisory Group?) De Harpij Vol. 17, No. 1 (1998), pp. 1721. [Dutch, with English summary.]
Grellmann, T., Fenske, R., and Helmdag, A.: Beobachtungen der Kubaleguane Cyclura nubila auf der Insel Cayo Largo del Sur vor Kuba. (Observations of Cuban iguana.) Arbeitsplatz Zoo Vol. 8, No. 2/3 (1997), pp. 8082. [German, no English summary.]
Hanawa, M., Harris, L., Graham, M., Farrell, A.P., and Bendell-Young, L.I.: Effects of cyanide exposure on Dascyllus aruanus, a tropical marine fish species: lethality, anaesthesia and physiological effects. Aquarium Sciences and Conservation Vol. 2, No. 1 (1998), pp. 2134.
Holtkötter, M.: `Nachruf' auf unseren letzten Bergtapir (Tapirus pinchaque). (`Obituary' of our last mountain tapir.) Der Zoologische Garten Vol. 68, No. 1 (1998), pp. 6364. [German, no English summary. Anja, who died in January 1997 at Wilhelma, Stuttgart, was the last mountain tapir in a European zoo. Only five survive in captivity, 1.1 in Los Angeles Zoo and 2.1 in Cheyenne Mountain Zoo.]
Husband, G.: Captive breeding of the dainty tree frog Litoria gracilenta at the Australian Reptile Park. Thylacinus Vol. 22, No. 1 (1998), pp. 3334.
Johnson, M.: Red-fronted macaw project. Thylacinus Vol. 22, No. 1 (1998), pp. 3538. [A study of a feather-plucked Ara rubrogenys at Edinburgh Zoo. No clear cause was discovered; the bird, a female, was dominant in a group of 2.2. Observation did not suggest that the bare patch on the back of the head resulted from mating.]
Kaiser, H., and Vine, N.: The effect of -phenoxyethanol and transport packing density on the post-transport survival rate and metabolic activity in the goldfish, Carassius auratus. Aquarium Sciences and Conservation Vol. 2, No. 1 (1998), pp. 17.
Kaumanns, W., Zinner, D., and Hindahl, J.: Experimentelle Gruppenbegegnungen als Mittel zursozialen Stimulans bei in Menschenhand gehaltenen Bartaffen (Macaca silenus). (Experimental group encounters as a means of social stimulation in lion-tailed macaques.) Der Zoologische Garten Vol. 68, No. 1 (1998), pp. 4555. [German, with English summary. Two groups at the German Primate Centre met for half-hour periods in a large outdoor enclosure. There was an increase in general arousal and group cohesion, but no indications of extreme stress. The authors consider that the animals benefited from the encounters, and recommend similar experiments with other primate species.]
Klaver, P.: Stoffel naar Curaçao Seaquarium. (Stoffel goes to the Curaçao Sea Aquarium.) De Harpij Vol. 17, No. 1 (1998), pp. 2426. [Dutch, with English summary. Stoffel is a loggerhead turtle who was caught in a fishing net off the Dutch coast three years ago. The turtle, wounded in the neck, was temporarily housed in an aquarium, but the enclosure was not suitable for long-term occupancy, and no adequate accommodation could be found elsewhere in the Netherlands. The Dutch government refused an application to return the animal to the Mediterranean, where loggerheads occur, so the best solution was to take it to Curaçao, where it could be housed with conspecifics in a semi-naturalistic aquarium enclosure. The author (the veterinarian at Amsterdam Zoo) accompanied the animal and gives details of the transport procedure. He also brought some animals from two Dutch zoos to the St Martin Zoo, where he performed some operations, including the vasectomy of a green monkey. The St Martin Zoo was hard hit by hurricane Louis two years ago, and is still recovering.]
Mirlach, H.: Das Gibbon-Rehabilitations-Projekt von Thailands. (Gibbon rehabilitation project, Thailand.) Arbeitsplatz Zoo Vol. 8, No. 2/3 (1997), pp. 610. [German, no English summary.]
Mohan, R.S.L.: Marine sanctuaries and parks and conserving endangered fauna. Zoos' Print Vol. 13, No. 1 (1998), pp. 1725.
Mühl, S., and Brandstätter, F.: Der Pavianfelsen im Neunkircher Zoo. (Neunkircher Zoo's baboon rock.) Arbeitsplatz Zoo Vol. 8, No. 2/3 (1997), pp. 5557. [German, no English summary.]
Murray, A.J.: The aesthetics of the environmentally enriched enclosure. Thylacinus Vol. 22, No. 1 (1998), pp. 5364.
Naisbitt, R.: Rehabilitating raptors surviving after release. Thylacinus Vol. 22, No. 1 (1998), pp. 716. [Healesville Sanctuary.]
Ng, N.K., and Munro, A.D.: Experimental effects of salinity on gonad growth and maintenance in small tropical freshwater ostariophysans. Aquarium Sciences and Conservation Vol. 1, No. 3 (1997), pp. 139158.
Ng, N.K., Tsi, D., and Munro, A.D.: Induced final maturation and ovulation in a small anabantoid teleost, the dwarf gourami, Colisa lalia. I. The effects of gonadotrophic preparations, LHRHa, steroids and thyroid hormones. Aquarium Sciences and Conservation Vol. 1, No. 3 (1997), pp. 169187.
Ng, N.K., Tsi, D., and Munro, A.D.: Induced final maturation and ovulation in a small anabantoid teleost, the dwarf gourami (Colisa lalia). II. The modulatory effects of monoaminergic and opioid drugs on the responsiveness to LHRHa. Aquarium Sciences and Conservation Vol. 1, No. 4 (1997), pp. 199215.
Noonan, B.: Black spot detection and treatment in a colony of New Zealand green tree geckos, Naultinus elegans and N. e. grayi at the Auckland Zoo. Thylacinus Vol. 22, No. 1 (1998), pp. 7274.
Odening, K., Wolf, P., Kellermann, F., Stolte, M., and Bockhardt, I.: Sarcocystis phoeniconaii (Sporozoa) beim Zwergflamingo eine Art mit Einkapselung der Wirtszelle. (S. poeniconaii infection in a lesser flamingo a species with encapsulation of the host cell.) Der Zoologische Garten Vol. 68, No. 1 (1998), pp. 5662. [German, with brief English summary.]
Plummer, M.: Training crocodiles at Koorana. Thylacinus Vol. 22, No. 1 (1998), p. 65. [Koorana Crocodile Farm, Queensland.]
Pritchard, D.: The evolving role of specialist veterinary nurses/keepers. Thylacinus Vol. 22, No. 1 (1998), pp. 2025.
Reinhard, R., and Strehlow, H.: Die Haltung und Zucht von Nashornvögeln (Bucerotidae) im Zoologischen Garten Berlin. (Management and breeding of hornbills at Berlin Zoo.) Der Zoologische Garten Vol. 68, No. 1 (1998), pp. 116. [German, with very brief English summary. Six species have bred at the zoo, Tockus erythrorhynchus, Ceratogymna subcylindricus, C. bucinator, C. brevis, Anthracocerus albirostris and Penelopides manillae.]
Scarborough, G.: The effect of diet on the growth rate of the Australian plague locust (Chortoicetes terminifera). Thylacinus Vol. 22, No. 1 (1998), pp. 2830. [Taronga Zoo.]
Schwammer, H., and Pechlaner, H.: Adaptierungsbeispiel alter, denkmalgeschützter Architektur für moderne Tierhaltung. (An example of the adaptation of an old, protected building for modern animal husbandry.) Der Zoologische Garten Vol. 68, No. 1 (1998), pp. 3944. [German, no English summary. Conversion of Schönbrunn Zoo's historic elephant house and enclosure for use by mandrills.]
Scott, G.W., Gibbs, K., and Holding, J.: Group `resting' behaviour in a population of captive bull huss (Scyliorhinus stellaris). Aquarium Sciences and Conservation Vol. 1, No. 4 (1997), pp. 251254. [Sea Life Centre, Scarborough, U.K. Captive bull huss, a small shark common in aquariums, rest in groups more often than alone. These groups are of fluid composition, suggesting that there is no special welfare need to maintain group membership when translocating animals.]
Seitz, S.: Tapire im Zoo Bemerkungen zu Aktivitäten, Sozialverhalten und interspezifischen Kontakten. (Tapirs in zoos observations on activity, social behaviour and interspecific contacts.) Der Zoologische Garten Vol. 68, No. 1 (1998), pp. 1738. [German, with very brief English summary. Observations of Tapirus terrestris and T. indicus were made at Dortmund, Munich, Nuremberg and Wuppertal Zoos. In a mixed exhibit at Dortmund, South American tapirs and giant anteaters interacted well.]
Sharma, S.P., Chauhan, R.S., and Gupta, G.C.: Dropsy in an Indian elephant (Elephas maximus). Zoos' Print Vol. 12, No. 12 (1997), p. 2.
Singh, L.A.K., and Rout, S.D.: Environment enrichment conditions and their preference by hatchling mugger (Crocodylus palustris). Zoos' Print Vol. 13, No. 1 (1998), pp. 68.
Steele, C., Skinner, C., Alberstadt, P., and Antonelli, J.: Importance of adequate shelters for crayfishes maintained in aquaria. Aquarium Sciences and Conservation Vol. 1, No. 3 (1997), pp. 189192. [In short-term experiments with different combinations of shelter types and sizes, shadow is the primary factor influencing shelter-seeking behaviour of both juvenile and non-breeding adult Orconectes rusticus and Procambarus clarkii.]
van Herk, R., and Westerveld, B.: Klein park met ambitie: een bezoek aan Dierenpark Wissel. (A small park with ambition: a visit to Wissel Zoo.) De Harpij Vol. 17, No. 1 (1998), pp. 1014. [Dutch, with English summary (see p. 182 of this issue of I.Z.N.).]
van Soest, H.: `Vriesland', het Antwerpse pinguïnpaleis. (`Freezeland', Antwerp Zoo's penguin palace.) De Harpij Vol. 17, No. 1 (1998), pp. 26. [Dutch, with English summary. Antwerp's new penguin exhibit opened in April 1997. It houses 24 king penguins, four of which were already at the zoo, while the other 20, now about four years of age, were hand-reared in Japan. Ther are also five macaroni penguins and five rockhoppers. The article includes brief technical notes on the exhibit.]
Veltman, K.: De ongewervelden-TAG. (The Terrestrial Invertebrate EEP TAG.) De Harpij Vol. 17, No. 1 (1998), pp. 2122. [Dutch, with English summary.]
Veltman, K.: EEP's gaan ook de dierverzorger aan. (EEP programmes also involve keepers.) De Harpij Vol. 17, No. 1 (1998), pp. 2223. [Dutch, with English summary.]
Vogelnest, L.: Zoonoses. Thylacinus Vol. 22, No. 1 (1998), pp. 7576.
Vogelnest, L.: Use of transponder identification implants in koalas Phascolarctos cinereus. Thylacinus Vol. 22, No. 1 (1998), pp. 7778.
Walker, B.: Observations of tiger quoll birthing. Thylacinus Vol. 22, No. 1 (1998), p. 66. [Dasyurus maculatus; Featherdale Wildlife Park.]
Weigel, J.: The new Australian Reptile Park. Thylacinus Vol. 22, No. 1 (1998), pp. 1719. [Describes how this zoo successfully moved to a new site.]
Wilson, D.: Territory Wildlife Park aquarium and its message. Thylacinus Vol. 22, No. 1 (1998), pp. 2627. [Exhibits illustrate the environmental effects of an introduced waterweed, pollution in a mangrove swamp, and the introduced cane toad.]
Zwanzger, P.: Przewalskipferde in der Mongolei ein Überblick. (Przewalski horses in Mongolia an overview.) Arbeitsplatz Zoo Vol. 8, No. 2/3 (1997), pp. 1115. [German, no English summary.]
Publishers of the periodicals listed:
Aquarium Sciences and Conservation, Chapman and Hall, 26 Boundary Row, London SE1 8HN, U.K.
Arbeitsplatz Zoo, c/o Peter Zwanzger, Boltenstern Straße 25, D-50735 Köln, Germany.
De Harpij, Stichting De Harpij, Van Aerssenlaan 49, 3039 KE Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Thylacinus, Australasian Society of Zoo Keeping, P.O. Box 248, Healesville, Victoria 3777, Australia.
Der Zoologische Garten, Gustav Fischer Verlag Jena GmbH, Villengang 2, D-07745 Jena, Germany.
Zoos' Print, Zoo Outreach Organisation, Box 1683, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 004, India.
Books wanted and for sale
Wanted (at reasonable prices, condition not important):
The Best of Friends by John Aspinall (Macmillan, London, 1976).
Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine ed. by M.E. Fowler (W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1986).
Wild Animals in Captivity: an Outline of the Biology of Zoological Gardens by H. Hediger (Butterworths, London, 1950).
International Zoo Yearbook Vol. 17 (paperback) £5.
Contact: Paul M. Irven, 3 Hurst Common Cottages, Marwell Zoological Park, Colden Common, Winchester, Hants. SO21 1JH.